Prajwali Bhalerao, Dattaprasad N. Vikhe, Ravindra S. Jadhav
Prajwali Bhalerao*, Dattaprasad N. Vikhe, Ravindra S. Jadhav
Department of Pharmacognosy, Pravara Rural College of Pharmacy, Pravaranagar, Maharashtra, India 413736.
Volume - 14,
Issue - 2,
Year - 2022
Now a days during the pandemic condition such as Covid-19 Many fungal infections are happening to the peoples. Mucormycosis is one of the fungal infections which occurs in the patient who suffers from Corona virus infection. Mucormycosis is also called as black fungus as well as Zygomycosis and is rare but serious infection. There are different types of Mucormycosis which attack on different region of the body such as sinus, brain, skin, lung etc. Doctors confirms that Mucormycosis, which has as overall capture rate of about 50-60%, mainly increase due to the consumption of steroids during the treatment of covid-19. Steroids decreases inflammation in the lungs of covid patient which results in the weakened of immune system. Between the month of December 2020 and February 2021, 58 cases are found who suffers from Mucormycosis infection. Most of them lose eye, most of them died. Some symptoms are unique in the Mucormycosis fungal infection from which one can detect the patient suffering from Mucormycosis Infection. In this article all the initial information about Mucormycosis, its types such as Rhinocerebral, Pulmonary, Gastrointestinal, Cutaneous etc., sign and symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Risk and Prevention, Treatment such as Amphotericin B, Posaconazole, Isavuconazole all are given in detailed.
Cite this article:
Prajwali Bhalerao, Dattaprasad N. Vikhe, Ravindra S. Jadhav. Mucormycosis. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2022; 14(2):73-6. doi: 10.52711/0975-4385.2022.00015
Prajwali Bhalerao, Dattaprasad N. Vikhe, Ravindra S. Jadhav. Mucormycosis. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2022; 14(2):73-6. doi: 10.52711/0975-4385.2022.00015 Available on: https://rjpponline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-14-2-3
1. Medically reviewed by Alana Biggers, M.D., MPH — Written by Kristeen Cherney — Updated on October 18, 2017
2. Richardson M. The ecology of the Zygomycetes and its impact on environmental exposureexternal icon. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009 Oct; 15 Suppl 5:2-9.
3. Mucormycosis and Eyes by Blue Eyes, Lupin.
4. Song Y, Qiao J, Giovanni G, Liu G, Yang H, Wu J, Chen J. Mucormycosis in renal transplant recipients: review of 174 reported casesexternal icon. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Apr; 17(1): 283.
5. Abdalla A, Adelmann D, Fahal A, Verbrugh H, Van Belkum A, De Hoog S. Environmental occurrence of Madurella mycetomatis, the major agent of human eumycetoma in Sudanexternal icon. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Mar; 40(3): 1031–1036
6. Mucormycosispresented by -Dr. Santosh M Narayankar
7. Vallabhaneni S, Mody RK. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis in neonates: a reviewexternal icon. Current Fungal Infect Rep. 2015.
8. Francis JR, Villanueva P, Bryant P, Blyth CC. Mucormycosis in children: review and recommendations for managementexternal icon. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018 May 15; 7(2):159-164.
9. Ribes JA, Vanover-Sams CL, Baker DJ. Zygomycetes in human disease external icon. Clin Microbiol Rev 2000; 13:236-301.
10. Petrikkos G, Skiada A, Lortholary O, Roilides E, Walsh TJ, Kontoyiannis DP. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of mucormycosis external icon. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb; 54 Suppl 1:S23-34.
11. Chamilos G, Lewis RE, Kontoyiannis DP. Delaying amphotericin B-based front-line therapy significantly increases mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with zygomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 47:503–9.
12. Frater JL, Hall GS, Procop GW. Histologic features of zygomycosis: emphasis on perineural invasion and fungal morphology. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2001; 125: 375–378.
13. Lass-Flörl C. Zygomycosis: conventional laboratory diagnosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009; 5: 60–65.
14. Lass-Flörl C, Resch G, Nachbaur D et al. The value of computed tomography-guided percutaneous lung biopsy for diagnosis of invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 45: e101–104.
15. Alvarez E, Sutton DA, Cano J et al. Spectrum of zygomycete species identified in clinically significant specimens in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2009; 47: 1650–1656.
16. Sandven PER, Eduard W. Detection and quantitation of antibodies against Rhizopus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. APMIS. 1992; 100: 981–987.
17. Wysong DR, Waldorf AR. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analyses of Rhizopus arrhizus antigens. J Clin Microbiol. 1987; 25: 358–363.
18. Jones KW, Kaufman L. Development and evaluation of an immunodiffusion test for diagnosis of systemic zygomycosis (Mucormycosis): preliminary report. Clin Microbiol. 1978; 7: 97–101.
19. Potenza L, Vallerini D, Barozzi P et al. Mucorales-specific T cells emerge in the course of invasive mucormycosis and may be used as a surrogate diagnostic marker in high-risk patients. Blood. 2011; 118: 5416–5419.
20. Hsiao CR, Huang L, Bouchara J-P, Barton R, Li HC, Chang TC. Identification of medically important molds by an oligonucleotide array. J Clin Microbiol. 2005; 43: 3760–3768.
21. Nagao K, Ota T, Tanikawa A et al. Genetic identification and detection of human pathogenic Rhizopus species, a major mucormycosis agent, by multiplex PCR based on internal transcribed spacer region of rRNA gene. J Dermatol Sci. 2005; 39: 23–31.
22. Larché J, Machouart M, Burton K et al. Diagnosis of cutaneous mucormycosis due to Rhizopus microsporus by an innovative PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism method. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41: 1362–1365.
23. Machouart M, Larché J, Burton K et al. Genetic identification of the main opportunistic mucorales by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. J Clin Microbiol. 2006; 44: 805–810.
24. Kasai M, Harrington SM, Francesconi A et al. Detection of a molecular biomarker for zygomycetes by quantitative PCR assays of plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung tissue in a rabbit model of experimental pulmonary zygomycosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2008; 46: 3690–3702.
25. Avery RK, Michaels MG. Strategies for safe living after solid organ transplantationexternal icon. Am J Transplant. 2013 Mar; 13 Suppl 4:304-10.
26. CDC. Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2000 Oct; 49(RR-10):1-125, CE1-7.
27. Davies BW, Smith JM, Hink EM, Durairaj VD. Increased incidence of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis after Colorado floodingexternal icon. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017 May; 33(3S Suppl 1):S148-S151.
28. Brizendine KD, Vishin S, Baddley JW. Antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipientsexternal icon. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011 May; 9(5):571-81.
29. Rogers TR, Slavin MA, Donnelly JP. Antifungal prophylaxis during treatment for haematological malignancies: are we there yet? external iconBr J Haemato. 2011 Jun; 153(6):681-97.
30. Tissot F, Agrawal S, Pagano L, et al. : ECIL-6 guidelines for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis and mucormycosis in leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Haematologica. 2017; 102(3):433–44. 10.3324/haematol.2016.152900
31. Cornely OA, Arikan-Akdagli S, Dannaoui E, et al. : ESCMID and ECMM joint clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis 2013. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014; 20 Suppl 3:5–26. 10.1111/1469-0691.12371
32. Vironneau P, Kania R, Morizot G, et al. : Local control of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis dramatically impacts survival. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014; 20(5):O336–9. 10.1111/1469-0691.12408
33. Sabatelli F, Patel R, Mann PA, et al. : In vitro activities of posaconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B against a large collection of clinically important molds and yeasts. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006; 50(6):2009–15. 10.1128/AAC.00163-06
34. Almyroudis NG, Sutton DA, Fothergill AW, et al. : In vitro susceptibilities of 217 clinical isolates of zygomycetes to conventional and new antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007; 51(7):2587–90. 10.1128/AAC.00452-07
35. Grimaldi D, Pradier O, Hotchkiss RS, et al. : Nivolumab plus interferon-γ in the treatment of intractable mucormycosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017; 17(1):18. 10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30541-2