Design and Evaluation of Poly Herbal Mosquito Repellent Incense Sticks

 

G. Neelamma*, Adepu Ramesh, Kishore More, Nimmala Shanthi, Natesh Gunturu

Vikas College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suryapet - 508376, Telangana, India.

*Corresponding Author Email: nanisony2012@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The current study's goal was to create multi-herb mosquito-repellent incense sticks. Two formulations were made F1 and F2. The F1 formulation contains less quantity of poly herbal ingredients than the F2 formulation. The developed formulation's effectiveness as a mosquito repellent was assessed. The Incense mosquito sticks were prepared by hand rolling method in research laboratory. The herbal ingredients used are the Holy basil, Neem, Rosemary, Camphor, Cinnamon bark, lemongrass oil. The Acacia used as a binder to roll the sticks and lemon grass oil used as flavoring agent. The prepared formulation F1 and F2 was evaluated its efficacy. The F2 formulation containing increased quantity of poly herbs so it shows better repellent activity than F1 formulation. So the uses of natural herbs in the formulation of mosquito repellent sticks are free from carcinogenic chemicals, cheaper, and easy to formulate.

 

KEY WORDS: Repellent, Sticks, Poly herbs, Essential oil.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

There are over 3600 species, which belongs to the family of culicidae. Several diseases like malaria, dengue, and yellow fever caused by mosquitoes1,2 Mosquito repellents Mosquito repellents will repellents. The mosquitoes from biting humans. Many synthetic mosquito repellents available in the market are causing more side effects like respiratory problems, coughing andirritation.3,4 The herbals are used in the preparation of mosquito repellent formulations in order to reduce the marketed product harmful effects. Herbals with mosquito repellent activity are camphor, Benzoin, lemon balm, garlic powder, lavender, holy basil and cinnamon oil. Neem was the herbal have multiple uses like antifungal, antidiabetic, antibacterial and antiviral agent. Neem also gives protection against biting of the mosquitoes.5,6

 

Neem oil was the herbal used as a bio pesticide and has more mosquito repelling action. It’s also preferably used in the cosmetic formulations. Lemon balm was the herbal used in the mosquito repellent stick preparation for the flavoring action. It also aid in the metabolism and removes the nervous tension7,8. Garlicreleases allicin, this allicin causes mosquito repellent action. Garlic also used to reduce the blood pressure. Vitexnegundo is a medicinal herb with mosquito repellent action. Benzoin9 its gum resins. Its odour will repel the mosquito.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

All the ingredients were of analytical grade. Neem, holy basil, camphor, rosemary oil, lemon grass oil etc. are purchased from the Ayurveda shop in Suryapet.

 

Method of Preparation of Incense Sticks11,12

All of the dried herbs were ground into a powder in a mixer before being sieved (no. 80). There will be issues with binding and burning if the powder is not very fine. To manufacture 20 incense sticks, a total of 100g of powder premix was used. Tables 1 and 2 detail the amount of plant material harvested. The fine powder was progressively hydrated with water until it had the consistency of dough. It must be thoroughly blended and not very watery to avoid complications while producing sticks. On basic bamboo sticks, the dough was manually rolled in small sections after being divided into portions. In large-scale production, a machine can carry out this task. The sticks were shaded for a whole day to dry. The sticks can be dried more quickly using a tray dryer. Lemongrass essential oil was used to scent the dry incense sticks. Finally, sticks were stored after being properly packaged, ideally in plastic.

 

Table 1: Formulation Table (F1)

S.no.

Ingredients

Quantity

 

 

(F1) Formulation Formula

Eucalyptus oil

Lemon grass oil

Rosemary

Holy basil

Camphor

Cinnamon bark

Neem bark

Acacia gum

Water

14.5ml

12.5ml

9gm

8gm

8gm

9gm

8.5gm

9gm

Q.S

 

Table: 2: Formulation Table (F2)

S.no.

Ingredients

Quantity

 

 

(F2) Formulation Formula

Eucalyptus oil

Lemon grass oil

Rosemary

Holy basil

Camphor

Cinnamon bark

Neem bark

Acacia gum

Water

12.5ml

10.5ml

7gm

6gm

7gm

8gm

6.5gm

8gm

Q.S

 

Table: 3: Excipients Table

S. No

Ingredients

Uses

1

Acacia

Binding agent

2

Camphor

Fragrance

3

Lemon grass oil

Fragrance nd mosquito repellent

 

EVALUATION:

Burning on users:13,14

Simply choosing mosquitoes during the evening and night was how the test was conducted. They were given permission to look into the effectiveness of the insect repellant before recording the public comments. The prepared incense sticks F1 and F2 were examined for potential causes, including annoyance, coughing, and tears, which were noticed and noted.

 

Toxicity smoke test:15

A test of smoke toxicity was carried out in a chamber that was 34.5x24x0.95cm in size. Adult mosquitoes were then let loose within the chamber and exposed to the incense stick smoke for 45 minutes. Every 15 minutes, the mortality data were recorded. There were 25 mosquitoes employed in all

Feedback from 20 volunteers:16

Twenty persons were asked to comment on the mosquito-repelling incense stick and to rate the formulation (F2) that contains polyherbs.

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Evaluation of burning on users:

The smoke from the herbal insect repellent sticks is both bactericidal and nontoxic to humans. Prepared incense sticks are inexpensive and convenient to carry. To gather feedback on the product based on the length of time, illness, and allergic reactions, the prepared incense sticks were distributed to the ten houses, hostel, and canteen. Peoples from houses, hostel and canteen have replied that less irritation, no allergic reactions and coughing. The mosquitoes also repelled after burning of the incense sticks.

 

Table: 4: Behavior of mosquitoes on ignition

S. No

Areas

Observations

Remarks

01

House

Mosquitoes escaped

Less irritation and mosquitoes

repelled

02

Hostels

Mosquitoes escaped

No irritation and Allergic reaction. mosquitoes

repelled

03

Canteen

Mosquitoes escaped

No itchiness or coughing. Keeping mosquitoes away

 

Smoke toxicity test:

It is observed how long it takes a stick to burn, how fragrant a stick is, and how long the repellant effect lasts. It is completely harmless and quite safe to use. Regular usage of these insect repellent sticks is permitted in both homes and workplaces. The formulation F2 containing poly herb was found to have more mosquitoes repelled in short period than F1 formulation.

 

Table 5: Smoke Toxicity Test for the Prepared Formulations

Time (min)

F1 Formulation

F2 Formulation

15

10

12

30

9

8

45

9

8

Total

25

25

 

Table 6: Feedback from 20 people

Parameters

Excellent

Good

Average

Poor

Product elegance

16

6

---

----

Mosquito repellency

18

4

-----

----

Odour of incense sticks

15

7

----

----

Allergy

------

 

----

---

Product satisfaction rating of 1 to 5 score (Average)

5

 

-----

----

 

 

 

 

Feedback from 20 people:

From the smoke toxicity test it was concluded F2 will be the best formulation than F1 formulation as it produces the smoke for a long period and kill the mosquitoes. Twenty persons were asked to comment on the mosquito-repelling incense stick and asked to rate the formulation (F2) with more polyherbal ingredients.

 

CONCLUSION:

The herbal incense sticks that were made to ward off mosquitoes work really well and have no negative side effects. The incense sticks were inexpensive, safe to use, and environmentally beneficial. It is easily transportable and suitable for usage by individuals of all ages. The formulation of mosquito repellent incense sticks is strongly advised to use herbal incense sticks because they have a nice scent and deter insects. The formulation's lemon grass oil produces a lovely aroma when the sticks are lit. The quantity of the polyherbal F2 formulation increased. As a result, F2 Formulation exhibits more effectiveness against mosquitoes than F1 Formulation, which contains less polyherbal material

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

No conflict of interest.

 

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Received on 09.07.2023         Modified on 12.10.2023

Accepted on 21.12.2023       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2024; 16(1):23-25.

DOI: 10.52711/0975-4385.2024.00005