A Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Properties of plant Tridax procumbeans

 

Adesh S. Musale, Sakshi S. Bhandwakar, Dhananjay Ghodke, Devidas B. Nikam

Delonix Society Baramati College of Pharmacy, Bharanpur, Baramati Dist Pune 413102.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: adeshmusale21@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Tridax procumbeans Linn., a member of the Asteraceae family, is an Ayurvedic herb that has been traditionally used in Asia. Throughout ancient times, Tridax procumbeans has been employed for the treatment of wounds, skin diseases, and as a remedy for preventing blood clotting in traditional medicine. It exhibits a range of beneficial properties including anticoagulant, antiseptic, insecticidal, antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant effects. This herb is widely recognized for its therapeutic potential. Native to tropical America, Tridax procumbeans is found in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, including various parts of India. Referred to as "coat button" in English and locally known as "Ghamara," it is also commonly referred to as "bhringraj" and used in Ayurvedic medicine for liver diseases and hair problems. The plant's different components contain a variety of phytochemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carotenoids, saponins, fumaric acid, and tannins. These compounds make it a valuable source for novel drug development. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties of T. procumbeans. Scientific research on Tridax procumbeans has been gathered from reputable sources such as ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and PubMed.

 

KEYWORDS: Tridax procumbeans, Ayurvedic herb, Pharmacological properties, Phytochemical compounds, Traditional medicine.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

From the beginning times, humans have been inspired by a nature. Variety of pharmaceuticals have been derived from these huge natural resources, especially from the plant origin which gives us a vast information about therapeutic herb for thousand of years.1 According to WHO (World Health Organisation), all over worldwide about 65% of peoples use herbal remedies as their main source of healthcare.2

 

Tridax procumbeans is a folk medicine commonly known as cotton button or Tridax daisy, from the family Asteraceae.3 It is small, annual, herbaceous plant with short, hairy blade like leaves. Flowers are yellow tabular with hairs.4 It has two types of flowers ray florets and disc florets. Stem are elongated, tall, branched, hairy, with height of 20-60cm.5 Leaves are simple and have a toothed margin, base wedge- shaped, hairy on both surface with 4-8 cm long.6 T. procumbrans screened for various treatments such as wound healing7, dysentery8, malaria9, diarrhea, hypertension, diabetes,10 haemorrhage11. It have various biological activities such as Anticoagulant, Antiseptic, Insecticidal, Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Anticancer, Antioxidant.12,13,14

 

Coagulation:

The process of becoming viscous or thickened into a consistent mass, the forming of clots.15

Ex: Turmeric impact the coagulation including local blood clotting and stopping blood flow.16

 

Anticoagulant:

A substance that is used to prevent and treat blood clots in blood vessels and the heart is known as anticoagulant.17

Ex: Ginger, cinnamon18

 

Wound Healing:

Wound healing is a complex biological process that consist of haemostasis inflammation, propagation and alteration.19

Ex: Aloe (Aloe barbadensis miller) 

Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia)20

 

A dermal wound is any break in the probity of skin. Because of blood loss, discomfort, oedema, inflammation and functional loss herbal medicines usually act softly to bear or boost the body system and its process. Herbal drug having less side effects than synthetic medicine to cure disease. 21

 

Figure 1: Wound

 

Figure 2: Wound on shoulder22

 

Scientific Information:

Table 1: Scientific Information about T. Procumbeans 23

Kingdom

Plantea

Clade

Tracheophytes

Clade

Angiosperms

Clade

Eudicots

Clade

Asterids

Order

Asterales

Family

Asteraceae

Genus

Tridax

Species

T. procumbeans

Common Name

Coat Button

Chemical Constituents:

The main chemical compound were found in T.procumbeans is flavonoids procumbenetin. Other chemical compounds are alkyl esters, sterols (24), pentacyclic titerpenes24, fatty acids (25) and polysaccharides26

 

Description:

The plants bear yellow coloured centered and white petals flower. The flower is tabulate bisexual. Tube is 6mm long. Capitulum have a3-8 ligulate daisy like female flower. Plant have a two types of flowers i.e Ray florets and Disc florets.27

 

 

Figure 3: Flower of T. Procumbeans (28)

 

The leaves are intended and point tip shaped. They are simple, opposite, 1-2 cm long. The lamina is oval 2-6 cm long and 2-4 cm wide. The leaves are shortly and petiole and hairy on both sides.29

 

 

Figure 4: Leaves of T. Procumbeans (30)

 

Its fruit is hard kernel covered with stiff hairs and having feathery, plume like white pappus at one end. They are conical achene 3.5 mm high and brown to black maturity.31

 

Figure 5: Fruit of T. Procumbeans 32

Vernacular Names of T. procumbeans Linn

Table 2: Vernacular Names of T. Procumbeans 33

Sr. No.

Language

Name

1.

Hindi

Ghamara

2.

Sanskrit

Jayanti Veda

3.

English

Coat Button

4.

Telugu

Gaddi Chemanthi

5.

Marathi

Dagadi Pala

6.

Malayalam

Chiravanak

7.

Tamil

Thata poodu

8.

French

Herbe Caille

9.

Chinese

Kotobukigiku

10.

Spanish

Cadilp Chisaca

 

Traditional uses:

1.   T.procumbeans were traditionally used as wound healing and an anticoagulant, antifungal and insect repellent in India.

2.   Tridax procumbeans is used to cure boils, blisters and cuts by local physician in parts of India. 

3.   This medicinal plant is used as traditional medicine like ulcer and hair tonic.

4.   Its leaf decoctions are used to cure skin diseases in indigenous medicines.

5.   It is well known folk medicine for liver disorders because the plant decoction acted as hepato- protective in nature.

6.   Widely used in wound healing to stop bleeding from cuts, bruise, wounds.

7.   It is used to reduce blood pressure.

8.   It is used as an anti-diabetic agent.

9.   The plant is used to cure respiratory diseases.

10. The plant has been used for hair fall and it aid growth of hair. 34,35,36,37

 

Phytochemical Constituents:

Table 3: Phytochemical Constituents of T. Procumbeans

Plant Parts

Compound

Activity

Reference

Aerial parts

Bioactive Comound

Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Immunomodulatory

 

Leaves

Tannis

Antiulcerogenic effect, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Antibacterial

38

Leaves, Stem, Root, Flower

Flavonoids, Kaempferol, Isoquercetin, Glucoluteolin

-

39

Pedicle and buds

Alkaloids

Antimicrobial, antioxidant

40

Dried plant

Flavonoids and Saponins

Antioxidant

41

Flowers

Saponins B-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoids

Antimicrobial

42

Whole dried plant

Alkaloids, Glycosides

Antidiabetic

43

Whole plant

-

Oxidative stress and bacterial infection

44

 

Pharmacological Activity:45

1.     Antioxidant Activity:

Antioxidant activity is expressed in IC50. It defines the concentrate in mg/ml of methanol extract, fraction which indicates 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) formation 50% free radical scavenging activity of T.procumbeans is measured in terms of hydrogen donating group.

 

2.     Antibacterial Activity:

T.procumbeans have antimicrobial activity on various bacteria. The whole plant is compressed between the palms of hands to obtain juice, these juice is applied on cuts and wounds twice a day for 4 to 5 days. These whole plant shows antimicrobial activity against pseudomonas Aeruginosa. These study shows the efficiency of T.procumbeans is an antipseudomonal agent.

 

3. Wound Healing Property:

There is interaction between epidermal and dermal cells which control angiogenesis     and plasma derived protein all co-ordinated by cytokinase and growth factor. The extract of leaves of leaves of these plant encourage wound healing in both healthy and immune-compromised rats.

 

4. Antifungal Activity:

These study performed against 2 strain of fungus namely Aspergillus falvus and Aspergillus niger which determines antifungal activity of plant. Flavonoids decoction which shows highest activity against aspergillus niger but decoction of alkaloids show no activity against both the strain of fungi.

 

5. Antimalerial Activity:

The ethanol and water decoction have anti-plasmodic activity against chloroquinone resistant plasmodium falciparum. These have low toxicity to human RBC.

 

6. Anticancer Activity:

Plant compound are used to observe cytotoxicity against human lungs cancer. These compound show 90% cell viability. The NMR, IR and mass spectroscopy results are resolved to that of compound. The anticancer property of leupeol against human cancer can be evaluated by clonogenic survival determination and cell based assay for inhibition of COX-2 activity and DNA fragmentation.

 

7. Blood Coagulation:

Water decoction of leaves results in blood coagulation activity. The haemostatic property of leaves of the plant in various solvent extract is determined by in-vitro.

 

8. Anti-inflammatory Activity:

It have a important anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of plant decoction may be due to corticotropic impact apparent from the increase in the weight. Ethyl acetate is active fraction of the plant and form some natural compound like alkaloids and flavonoids this bioactive compound are applied in counter acting reacting species which indicates the pathogenesis of inflammation.

 

9. Anti-diabetic Activity:

The decoction of water and alcohol shows significant reduce in blood glucose level in animal. Oral dose of 50% methanolic decoction significantally decrease in fasting blood glucose level in diabetic rat. The herbal plant extract shows activity against decreasing blood glucose level. Petroleum ether extract exhibit infirm anti-diabetic effect.

 

10. Analgesic Activity:

The decoction of lyophilized of the plant was established to be potential analgesic. 

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Varsharani V. Ingole Pravin C. Mhaske a Sushma R. Katade C, Phytomedicine Plus 2 (2022) 100199,

2.      Rohit Kumar Bijauliya, Rashant Kumar Singh, Yasmin Khatoon,  Sumit Chaudhari, Yogendra Singh, Satyendra Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Bhardwaj. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results. 2022; 13(8).

3.      International Journal of Scientific Research in Biological Sciences. 2019; 6(2): 182-191.

4.      Farnsworth NR, Akerele O, Bingel AS, Soejarto DD, Guo Z. Medicinal plants in therapy. Bull World Health Organ. 1985; 63(6): 965.

5.      A.H.M.M. Rahman, M.S. Alam, S.K. Khan, Ferdous Ahmed, A.K.M. Rafiul Islam, M.M Rahman. Taxonomic Studies on the Family Asteraceae (Compositae) of the Rajshahi Division. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 2008; 4(2): 134-140.

6.      P. Meena, K. Kaushal, R. Mishra. Tridax Procumbens: Pharmacological Activities-A Review Article. International Ayurvedic Medical Journal. 2016; 4(11): 3392-96.

7.      A. Taddei, A. J. Rosas Romero. Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens. Phytomedicine. 2000; 7(3): 235-8.

8.      S. Mundada, R. Shivhare. Pharmacology of Tridax procumbens a weed: review. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research. 2010; 2(2): 1391-94.

9.      S. Rajkumar, A.Jebanesan. Repellent activity of selected plant essential oils against the malarial fever mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. Tropical Biomedicine. 2007;24(2): 71-5.

10.   J. Pande, H. Padalia, S. Donga, S. Chanda. Pharmacognostic, physicochemical and phytochemical studies of Andrographis echioidesNees. And Tridax procumbens L. leaf and stem. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2018; 7(6): 303-15.

11.   L. Suseela, A. Sarasvathy, P.Brindha. Pharmacognostic studies on Tridax procumbens L.(Asteraceae). Journal of Phytological Research. 2002; 5(2): 141-47.

12.   OV. Njoku, C. Obi. Phytochemical constituents of some selected medicinal Plants. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2009; 3(11): 228-233.

13.   K. Hegde, AB. Joshi. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antipyretic Activity of Carissa Spinarum Root Extract. Scholars Research Library Der Pharmacia letter. 2010; 2(3): 255.

14.   HM. Salahdeeen, BA. Murtala. Vasorelaxant effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens on aortic smooth muscle isolated from the Rat.  Journal of Smooth Muscle and Research. 2012; 48(2): 37-45.

15.   https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/coagulation

16.   Amber Smith, Discover, Magazine, 18 Oct 2022.

17.   https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/anticoagulant

18.   https://www.healthline.com

19.   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

20.   https://www.mountsinai.org

21.   Yogesh Vijay Taro, Kalyani Dhavale, Sudarshan B Gangurde, Abhijit J Bargude, Harish R Lade, Ankur S Sonawane, Vaibhav R Waghchaure. International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews. 2023; 4(1): 1262-1265.

22.   https://www.google.com/search?bih=689&hl=en-IN&ram_mb=7418&dpr=3&ampcct=5563&sa=X&lns_as=1&qsubts=1681720655630&cs=1&q=wound%20images&biw=360&ved=2ahUKEwj8mMPRwbD-AhV76zgGHb9CADkQ0pQJegQIIxAB&padt=117&rdid=bb02ca6e-5fe8-4de2-9b38-c22a5de213cd&client=ms-android-oppo-rvo3&tbm=isch&source=and.gsa.launcher.icon&no_sw_cr=1&zx=1681720682167#imgrc=hicJgezXgarj2M&imgdii=_n5OfOA4icrY8M

23.   https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tridax_procumbens

24.   Gamboa-Leon, Rubi; Vera-Ku, Marina; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R.; Ku-Chulim, Carlos; Horta-Baas, Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbensand Allium sativumin mice. Parasite. 2014; 21: 15. Doi:10.1051/parasite/2014016. PMC 3980668. PMID 24717526.

25.   Ali, Mohammed; Ravinder, Earla; Ramachandram, Ramidi. A new flavonoid from the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens. Fitoterapia. 2001; 72 (3): 313–5. Doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00296-3. PMID 11295316.

26.   Pathak, A.K; Saraf, S; Dixit, VK. Hair growth promoting activity of Tridax procumbens. Fitoterapia. 1991; 62: 307–13.

27.   D.A. Bhagwat, S.G. Killedar, R.S. Adnaik. Anti- diabetic activity of leaf extract of Tridax procumbens. Intnl. J. Green Pharma. 2008;  2(2): 126-28.

28.   https://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/33338

29.   P. Ghosh, P. Das, C. Das, S. Mahapatra, S. Chatterjee. Morphological Characteristics and Phyto-pharmacological detailing of Hatishur (Heliotropium indicum Linn.): A Concise Review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2018; 7(5): 1900-07.

30.   https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tridax_procumbens_%28Plant%29.jpg

31.   S. Das, N.Mondal, S. Mondal, P. Ghosh, C. Ghosh, C. Das, S. Chatterjee. Botanical Features, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Overviews of Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn.: A Brief Review. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2019; 8(2): 464-68, 2019.

32.   https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/169944-Tridax-procumbens

33.   Amutha R. Tridax procumbens (Coat Button) -A Gift of Nature: An Overview. Pharmacological Benefits of Natural Products First Edition. Chapter.2019;  12: 193 – 212.

34.   S. Kumar, A. Prasad, S.V. Iyer, S. Vaidya. Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review on Tridax procumbens Linn. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives. 2012;  3(4): 747-51.

35.   G. Babu, Sanjeeva, K. L. Bairy. Effect of Tridaxprocumbens on burn wound healing. Indian Drugs. 2003; 40(8) 488-91.

36.   Gaikwadi, Vadlamudi, V.P. Waghmaee, S.P. Maral, V.J. Ranteke, V.D. Dhok. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of few medicinal Plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;2: 91-92.

37.   P. Ghosh, S. Biswas, M. Biswas, A. Dutta, S. Sil, S. Chatterjee. Morphological, Ethno biological and Phytopharmacological Attributes of Tridax procumbensLinn. (Asteraceae): A Review. International Journal of Scientific Research in Biological Sciences. 2019; 6(2): 182-191.

38.   Sawant R, Godghate A. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of leaves of Tridax procumbens Linn. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 2013; 2(3): 388 394.

39.   Kumar L, Prasad A, Iyer S, Vaidya S. Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological review on Tridax procumbens. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives. 2012; 3(4): 747 751.

40.   Jindal A, Kumar P. Antimicrobial activity of alkaloids of Tridax procumbens L. Against human pathogens. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2012; 3(9): 3481 3485.

41.   Saxena M, Mir AH, Sharma M, Malla MY, Qureshe S, Mir MI, Chaturvedy Y. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidan t activity isolated Bioactive compounds from Tridax procumbens Linn. Pak J. Biol. Sci., 2013; 16(24): 1971-1977. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2013.1971.1977

42.   Saxena V, Albert S. Β Sitosterol 3 O β D xylopyranoside from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn. Journal of Chemical Sciences. 2005; 117(3):263-266. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02709296

43.   Kamble SI, Dahake PR. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and study on antimicrobial activity of Tridax procumbens Linn. International Refereed Multidisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research, 2015; 2(3): 388 394 32.

44.   Reenaa M. Antimicrobial activity of Tridax procumbens against multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn cases.Indian Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2016; 19(1): 58-65.

45.   Kakkar M, Behl T, Cruz CVDL, Makeen HA. Tridax procumbens ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats via modulating Angiogenic, inflammatory, and oxidative pathways. Hindawi Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022, 1-12.https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/1795405

46.   P. Ghosh, S. Biswas, M. Biswas, A. Dutta, S. Sil S. Chatterjee. Morphological, Ethno biological and Phytopharmacological Attributes of Tridax procumbensLinn. (Asteraceae): A Review. International Journal of Scientific Research in Biological Sciences. 2019; 6(2): 182-191.

 

 

 

 

Received on 27.05.2023         Modified on 10.07.2023

Accepted on 16.08.2023       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2023; 15(4):288-292.

DOI: 10.52711/0975-4385.2023.00045