A Review on Calendula officinalis

 

Rahul Jodh*, Mukund Tawar, Sudarshan Behere, Nandini Randhave, Prathamesh Jirapure, Samruddhi Ingle

Department of Pharmaceutical Science, P. R. Pote Patil College of Pharmacy,

Pote estate, Gajanan Twp Rd, Amravati, Maharashtra 444602.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: jodhrahul@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

This review assesses the use of Calendula officinalis extract in antihyperlipidemic activities, cardiovascular activities, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective activities; anthelmintic activities; antioxidant activities; anti-inflammatory activities; wound healing activities; anticancer activities; hepatoprotective activities, antibacterial activities; and anti-HIV activities. C. officinalis extract has been shown to have some remedial effects and has been used in herbal remedies, according to this review. To examine the effect of calendula officinalis, larger as well as well-designed random control trials are needed. Calendula officinalis is a flowering plant that comes under the Asteraceae family. This herb is used as curative in Europe, China, and India. It's been the subject of a number of chemical and pharmacological research, and it's also known as "African marigold." It's commonly utilized in indigenous medicine to treat jaundice, wound recovery, plasma cleansing, and spasmolytic treatment. A vast range of chemicals, including amino acids, triterpenoids, coumarines, quinones, flavonoids, volatile oils, and carotenoids, have been found through chemical analysis.

 

KEYWORDS: Calendula officinalis, African marigold, pharmacological research, homoeopathy, Pot marigold.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

In homoeopathy, Calendula officinalis is frequently used to treat a range of diseases. Numerous pharmacological characteristics, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral, have been described. Additionally, it possesses cytotoxic as well as tumor-suppressing effects. It functions as a rejoinder(increased immune response),  analgesic, anthelmintic, antifungal, antinflammatory, antipyretic, antibacterial, disinfectant, spasmolytic, antiviral, emetrol, costringent, bitter, cardiotonic, dermageni diaphoretic, flatus relieving, diuretic, lymphatic, stimulant for contraction of gall bladder, uterotonic, and vasodilator.

 

 

It is frequently used to treat open wounds, exterior skin inflammations, and lacerated wounds. Mucous membrane inflammations, GI spasms, dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), peptic and duodenal ulcers, in nervous or anaemic women, duodenal and intestinal mucosa, as well as splenic and hepatic inflammations, are all treated internally. It is often used as a rinse following tooth extraction 1.

 

Calendula officinalis:

Biological source:

It's made from Calendula officinalis flowers that have been steam distilled.

Family: Asteraceae

 

Taxonomic Profile: Calendula Officinalis

Kingdom: Plantae

Subkindom: Tracheobionta

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: magnoliopsida

Subclass: Asteridae

Order: Asterales

Family: Asteraceae

Tribe: Calendulea

Genus: Calendula

Species: Officinalis 2,3.

 

Figure 1:- Calendula officinalis4                                                 

Synonyms: English marigold, bull flower, Pot marigold.

 

Description:

Calendula officinalis is a momentary herb like eternal with loose or straight stems that grows to a height of 80cm (31 in). The lance-shaped leaves are elongated. The disc florets are hermaphrodite and tubular, with a brighter orange colour, and are 5–17cm long with "whole or slightly toothed borders. It features a simple ring of florets around the centre of the flower enclosing the centre disc florets, which are more yellow in colour than that of the females. In the nature, tridentate ray flowers can be seen. May produce flowers throughout the entire year if the right circumstances are present. correct. A sharped, spiky, spiny achene is the fruit5

 

Organoleptic properties:

Calendula officinalis has a mild, fragrant odour.

Bitter is flavour of Calendula officinalis.

 

Cultivation of Calendula Officinalis:

Western Asia, the United States, and central and southern Europe are all home to this plant. Calendula officinalis is a typical crop that thrives in a variety of soil types and sunny locations. Even though it lives for more than a year, it is frequently thought of as once in year, especially in areas where it cannot survive. Calendulas are often regarded as one of the adaptable and most resourceful flowers to cultivate in the field, owing to their ability to thrive in a variety of soil conditions. Seeds are planted in the spring in temperate regions so that flowers bloom all summer and into the fall. At some places where it does not get too cold in  winter, In order to have colourful winter scenes, seeds are planted in the fall. In the subtropics, plants die in the summer. When it is sunny or partly sunny, kernel shoot up well. However, plants thrive in bright, well-drained soil. Marigold flowers bloom in more yellows, golds, and oranges in less than two months after the seeds are put in pots6.

 

 

Calendula officinalis:

Phytochemistry:

Phytochemical research has revealed that the plant contains a wide range of chemical components. The most common compounds include flavonoids, quinines, amino acids, Terpenoids, volatile oil, coumarin, and carotenoids7.

 

Activities in Pharmacology:

Antihyperlipidaemic and Antidiabetic Activities:

Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract exhibits low blood sugararian and cholesterol tapering drug properties in diabetic rats which are alloxan induced. An only intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150mg/kg) of body weight was used to produce diabetes. Diabetic rats had greater glucose in the blood and more urine sugar levels. The glucose level in the blood  and urine sugar levels of diabetic rats were significantly lower in the hydroalcoholic extract of Calendula officinalis given at doses of 25 and 50mg/kg body weight than in the control group. A hydroalcoholic decoction of calendula officinalis at the dose of 100mg/kg body weight was cought on to be highly notable in diabetic rats, restoring all variables to glucose levels in blood  that are typical, serum lipids, andrenal glucosuria, as well as increasing complete hb levels. The decoction has the look of humulin. Correspondingly, the research shows that Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic decoction is both hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering drug8. Officinoside structures were resolved using physical and chemical evidence. The structural requirements for the inhibitory activities of the main saponins from Calendula officinalis flowers on the growth of serum glucose levels in oral glucose-stuffed rats, gastric emptying in carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt test stuffed mice, and the ethanol or indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats, as well as the inhibitory activities of the main saponins from Calendula officinalis flowers on the growth of serum glucose levels in oral glucose-loaded rats were discussed9.

 

Cardiovascular Activities:

Calendula has been shown to protect the heart from ischemic heart disease. Before the rats were subjected to aplastic anemia, A 50mM calendula solution in KHB buffer was pumped into their hearts for 15 minutes (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulphate 1.2, and glucose 10), Only the buffer was pumped into the hearts of the control animals. Calendula protected the heart by increasing left ventricular created stress and aortic flow and decreasing myocardial infarction size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Akt and Bcl2 activation suggests that cardio protection is attained by regulating anti-inflammatory and antioxidant tracks to convert the ischemia-reperfusion-mediated death sign into a survival sign, as suggested by their activation. Regulating antioxidant and inflammation reducing tracks appears to be effective for cardio protection. as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl-2 and the reduction in TNF. The findings support the use of ordinary substances to treat progressive disorders such as Cardiopulmonary arrest10.

 

Hepatoprotective Activities:

In 30male albino rats, an 80percent methanolic decoction of Calendula officinalis leaflet were tested in opposition to the acetaminophen-produced liver injury. In mice, acetaminophen causes 100% death at a dosage of 1gm/kg, whereas pre-treatment with calendula officinalis (1.0gm/kg) lowered mortality to only 30 percent. Preliminary treatment of mice with the leaf decoction (500mg/kg orally and four doses at 12-hour intervals) inhibited the development of tumours (p 0.05) A surge in), bilirubin, serum transaminases (GOT, GPT and basic phosphatase caused by acetaminophen (640mg/kg). The liver damage caused by acetaminophen was reduced after 3 successive dosage of the bract decoction (500mg/kg, six hours) (p 0.05)11.

 

When exposed to CCl4, various congregations of Calendula officinalis and Morus alba decoction (1, 10, 100, and 1000g/ml) decreased the percentage of viable isolated rat hepatocytes. After treating for half an hour with CCl4, the percentage of viable isolated rat hepatocytes was drastically lowered (5mM). When compared to a control group, this decline in viability was time-dependent. CCl4 induced in extracted initial rat liver cells the potential antihepatotoxicity properties of Calendula officinalis and Morus Alba decoction in contrast to the toxic effects on cells and oxidative trauma (CCl4). Collagenase perfusion was used to isolate liver cells in two phases. Cell viability and cytosolic leakage. Cytotoxicity was measured using enzymes such as following. -aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and others. The extent of declined glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation, as evaluated along the induction of thiobarbituric acid sensitive substances (TBARS), were symptomatic of oxidative stress. In hepatocytes of rats exposed to CCl4 in isolation, oxidative damage and cytotoxicity led to cell death. ALT, AST, and LDH leakage all increased significantly. CCl4 also produced gradual damage. The intracellular GSH level is decresed and TBARS accumulation is significantly increased. Both Calendula Officinalis and Morus alba extracts were used to pre-incubate hepatocytes. As shown by substantial decreases in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress, cell viability and enzyme leakage have improved (ALT, AST, and LDH). Moreover, significant Compared to CCl4, the concentration of GSH rose while the generation of TBARS reduced considerably. When exposed to CCl4, various congregations of Morus alba and calendula officinalis decoctions (1, 10, 100, and 1000g/ml) decreased the percentage of viable isolated rat liver cells After treating for half an hour with CCl4, the percentage of viable isolated rat hepatocytes was drastically decreased (5mM). This loss in viability, relative to a control group, was time-dependent12.

 

Anthelmintics Activities:

Dried flowerets and the leaflets of Calendula officinalis have anthelmintic effects. These dried flowerets and leaflets of Calendula officinalis were decocted to produce an aqueous extract. The research was conducted on Pheretima posthuma, an adult Indian earthworm with morphological and physiological similarities to the human intestinal roundworm infection. Flowers and leaves of Calendula officinalis have crude extracts with antihelmintic properties. Paralysis was seen in Calendula officinalis leaf extracts after 56.5 minutes, and worms died after 111.2 minutes. The herbs are antihelminthic and contain saponins. Saponins are known to possess antibacterial and, in accord with, to prior study, antihelmintic effects13.

 

Antioxidant Activities:

Between 100 and 250 milligrams per kilogramme of body weight, oral dosing of Calendula ethanolic Women's Swiss albino rodent macrophages superoxide induction was lowered by 12.6% and 38.7% with decoction, correspondingly. The intake of Calendula officinalis to rodents for one month remarkably raised oxidative activity. Blood and the level of liver glutathione is increased dramatically as a result of the extract. After intake of Calendula extract, glutathione peroxidase was found to be reduced, whereas glutathione reductase was discovered to be elevated14. Aqueous decoction of Calendula officinalis leaves and flowers have antioxidant action. The antioxidant activity was determined using the FTC and TBA techniques. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of petals was higher than that of leaflets. According to the findings of this study, Calendula officinalis leaves and floral parts are a promising origin of required carotenoids.15 An alcoholic decoction of Calendula officinalis was tested for antioxidant activity artificially exterioir to the body. Extract of Calendula officinalis inhibited lipid peroxidation in vitro by scavenging superoxide radicals yielded by photochemical reduction of riboflavin and The Fenton reaction produces hydroxyl radicals. There were three IC50 values: 500, 480, and 2000mg/mL (concentrations blocking 50%). ABTS and DPPH radicals with IC50s of 6.50 and 100mg/mL, respectively, were found in the decoction. The LPO of 7.5mg/ml C at 20kG. With highly rised dosage, Officinalis extract vanished from 68% to 40%. At a dosage of 1kg, the LPO concentration for 3.75mg/ml reduced out of 56 percent to 28 percent. Then it progressively fell when the dosage was decreased16.

 

Anti- Inflammatory Activities:

Calendula officinalis alcoholic decoction demonstrated remarkable anti-inflammatory activity in opposition to carrageenan as well as dextran-produced paw inflammation. Calendula extract significantly reduced paw edoema caused by carrageenan (50 and 65 percent, respectively) and inflammation caused by dextran at dosages of 250 as well as 500mg/kg body wt (42.9 and 42.4%, correspondingly). In a formalin-based chronic anti-inflammatory paradigm, 250–500mg/kg of calendula decoction is used. And resulted in 32.9% and 62.3% inhibition, correspondingly, contrasted to controls. The extract significantly decreased TNF production in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophage cells (LPS Furthermore, the extract significantly reduced LPS-induced rising the extents of proinflammatory cytokines IL-10, IL-6, TNF-, and IFN-as well as severe phase protein C sensitive protein (CRP) in rodent. The extract remarkably lowered the quantity of LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 in the spleen of mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of Calendula officinalis extract is mediated via a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-217. 1.2mg/ear of a 70% ethanol decoction of the flowerets was administered topically to mice (analogue with 4.16 mg of crude drug 20% less ear pain was generated with Croton oil. Mice with earache produced by croton oil benefited from a 300 mg/cm2 extract of the flowers' carbon dioxide18.

 

In cell-free systems, Calendula officinalis, Plantago lanceolata, Hypericum perforatum and Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOactivity (AA)19. These enzymes are essential for converting arachidonic acid into proinflammatory eicosanoids. Calendula was much less likely than trolamine to induce grade 2 or higher acute dermatitis (41 percent vs. 63 percent; P.001). In addition, persons who received calendula suffered decreased irradiation interruptions and radiation-induced discomfort. Because calendula is so successful at avoiding severe dermatitis of the grade 2 or may be higher, it must be administered to breast cancer patients who will be undergoing radiation therapy following surgery in order to protect them from developing severe dermatitis of grade 2 or higher20.

 

Wound-Healing and Angiogenic Activities:

In order to determine the efficacy of plant various extracts, skin gash and even the chorioallantoic membrane were progressively induced in 36 and 90 embryonated eggs of chicken. In the study conducted to determine the extent of VEGF expression in rat wounds and the effect of vascular proliferation was also investigated. In morphometric assessments, CAM treated with percent (17ß-oestradiol), 1 percent ethanolic decoction, 1 percent dichloromethane fraction, and percent hexanic fraction exhibited intensified vascular area and percentage of red-noticeable areas in contrast to the solvent control. When compared to the solvent control group, the results of point counting digital planimetry performed on mice whose skin had been treated with an extract containing 1% ethanol showed an growth in the number of blood vessels. They came to know that there was a significant from a statistical perspective difference in the total wound area depletion between a experimental group and a control group (p 0.05). The experimental group reduced total gash area by 41.71 percent, whereas the control group reduced it by 14.52 percent. They discovered that using marigolds (calendula) decoction to chronic venous ulcers enhances epithelization significantly. Marigold therapy is a gentle and noninvasive treatment for plantar verruca, painful hyperkeratotic lesions, and hallux abducto valgus-induced bursitis. Calendula oil is reported to be favourable for a number of skin and tissue problems21. It is only administered later the risk of contamination has diminished. Because of the widespread belief that calendula prevents drainage by sealing wounds too rapidly, it is not recommended for use on serious  wounds 22.

 

Anticancer Activities:

No decoction had a demonstrable mitogenic impact on human lymphocytes or thymocytes, as determined by the stimulation index (SI0.07). In the vicinity of PHA, Calendula officinalis, one of the tested herbs, completely suppressed the growth of lymphocytes (SI range 0.01-0.49). An inhibitory impact on D. Kotschyi was discovered and was dose-dependent23. T47D cells were grown in the presence and absence of tamoxifen in the presence and absence of flavonoid fractions from Calendula officinalis, including quercetin and isorhamnetin. There was no effect of flavonoid extracts (0.05–50g/ml) on the expansion of the two cell lines. Aromatase and other enzymes may not be able to bind to it because of the sugar molecule connected to flavone at position 3.24 Thirteen saponins were secluded and recognized using Calendula officinalis, Calendula arvensis, and Hedera helix. These substances were tested for their mutagenic and antimutagenic properties. The microsomal experiment was modified to use a liquid incubation method. The Salmonella strain tested was the TA98 S9 mix. There is also a comparable antimutagenic action. At a concentration of 400mg/g, all saponins were confirmed to be safe and non-mutagenic25.

 

Antibacterial Activities:

Calendula officinalis alcoholic and aqueous decoctions reduced the growth of the study's microorganisms at dosages ranging from 125g/ml to 64mg/ml. At a concentration of 64mg/ml, methanolic decoction stopped the growth of S. aureus and E. coli, whereas Calendula officinalis aqueous extract was the most effective antibiotic against all other bacteria. S. aureus has been found to be more vulnerable than other bacteria to infection. Antibacterial activities of Calendula officinalis. The usage of Calendula officinalis dried leaf powder. Using petroleum ether Soxhlet, ethanol and chloroform have been extracted and squashed sequentially to produce water extracts. Antimicrobial as well as antifungal characteristics were examined for each extract. Antibacterial and antifungal microorganisms were detected using the agar well diffusion technique. Antifungal bacteria included Bacillus subtills, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. As a routine treatment for Aspergillus niger, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida albicans, 5 g/ml of gentamicin was used. Minimum inhibitory clusters were put in to the antibacterial decoction which exhibited action. Two-fold dilutions have been used in the test. Water extract, petroleum chloroform, ether, and ethanol all had antibacterial action in vitro 26. Against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Vibrio cholera, the antibacterial activity of ethanolic, methanolic, acetone, and chloroform extracts of Calendula officinalis was evaluated. Candida albicans was the fungus strain used. It was discovered that ethanolic extract is effective averse to E. coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Candida albicans. Only Candida albicans exhibited methanolic extract resistance. Chloroform was antibacterial against all microbes, but acetone was antibacterial truly in opposition to E.coli.27-28.

 

Anti-HIV Activities:

The chloroform decoction of a flowerets (IC50 = 0.4 mg/ml) suppressed HIV-1 multiplication in severe manner infected lymphocytic MOLT-4 cells outside the body. A chloroform decoction suppressed HIV-1 inverse transcriptase activity in a dose-dependent manner (ED50 = 51.0mg/ml).29-30

 

CONCLUSION:

In this article, we are describing the plant's characteristics, remedial therapeutic uses, and study of phytochemicals as well as the phytonutrients of Calendula officinalis, which is a therapeutic member of the Asteraceae flora which is indigenous to both the centre and the south of Europe, western Asia as well as the US. It has been established that this plant possesses a diverse collection of phytochemicals, including terpenoids, flavonoids, quinones, volatile oil, coumarins, and carotenoids, to name a few. It has been the wide range of the pharmacological effects including hepatoprotective, anti-HIV, spasmogenic, (dual action), anti-inflammatory, and spasmolytic properties, as well as, anti-cancer (dual action). It has the potential to become a significant human therapeutic plant.

 

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Received on 04.07.2022       Modified on 14.08.2022

Accepted on 05.09.2022     ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2023; 15(1):5-10.

DOI: 10.52711/0975-4385.2023.00002