Phytochemical and Pharmacological Activities of Launaea sarmentosa: A Review

 

Kamble Shubhangi*, R.S. Jadhav, S.R. Vikhe

Pravara Rural College of Pharmacy, Pravaranagar, Maharashtra, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: shubhangikamble484@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Launaea sarmentosa (Asteraceae) has been extensively used as a nutrient herb in traditional remedies for the treatment of varied diseases. The aim of this study was to produce comprehensive scientific information on photochemistry, ancient uses and medical specialty activities of Launaea sarmentosa. It’s been showed that totally different a part of Launaea sarmentosa species as well as leaves, flowers, seed, root, and aerial half possess ethno botanic values. Launaea sarmentosa for its pharmacognostical and phytochemical characteristics as per Ayurvedic collection of India (API) parameters. Launaea sarmentosa methanolic extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicited inflammation mistreatment RAW 264.7 macrophages. Launaea sarmentosa (wild) could be an extremely valuable medicinal plant. The leaf explants made micro shoots on MS basal medium once fortified with cytokinins and auxins. Launaea sarmentosa could be a crawl herb, native to coastal areas in India, Africa (east coast, Mauritius, and South Asia etc.

 

KEYWORDS: Launaea sarmentosa (Asteraceae), Antipyretic, Antibacterial, Analgesic, Methanolic extract.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The genus Launaea sarmentosa (Willd), domestically called Pathari. It is a prostate, creeping, fleshy, perennial herb that is found on sandy beaches and is distributed across Mozambique, South Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles, Reunion, Mauritius, and India  at an altitude vary of zero to fifteen m.1 L. sarmentosa is additionally according  to possess tonic, soporific, diuretic, and aperient properties andis employed  as a substitute for genus Taraxacum (Taraxacum officinale).2 Latex from L. sarmentosa is additionally normally employed by fishermen to heal skin injuries caused by fish spines whereas fishing.3 different uses in dry land India embrace the utilization of the total  plant in gouty arthritis and also the leaf in rheumatism.

 

Among the islanders of the ocean, the total plant is employed as a a shower stewing to treat skin diseases and fish stings.4 Nature continually acts as an excellent supply rescue for creature by providing totally different remedies from its plants, animals, and different sources to cure all ailments of mankind. The Several species of plants containing substances of healthful price area unit comprised from the kingdom Plantae, that area unit however   to be explored. Healthful plants area unit moving from brink to thought use with bigger range of individuals seeking remedies and health approaches free from aspect effects caused by artificial Chemicals.5 The leaves, stems, barks, flowers and underground elements of healthful plants are most often used for traditional medicines. Disease-treating formulations and treatment were supported healthful plants from ancient time, that practiced by the the normal physicians.6 Within the genus Launaea, Launaea sarmentosa has received some scientific studies with the whole of eight publications. These studies enclosed of pharmacognostical analysis7, fast   in vitro plant regeneration from leaf,8 biological assay for pain, pyrexia, and inflammation,9 for thrombolytic agent,10 inhibitor,11 medicinal drug,12 cytotoxic, anthelmintic,13 and antifungal.14

 

Plant Profile:

Description:

The leaflets of Launaea sarmentosa area unit easy toothed kind with a mean size of 12-15cm long. Leaves area unit slightly bitter in style and have characteristic odor. The roots of Launaea sarmentosa showed the presence of lactiferous cells, pitted vessels, easy fibers, atomic number 20 salt crystals, innocent of pith and contains alkaloids, amino acids, glycosides, tannin, carbohydrates and steroids. Whole plant is employed in autoimmune disorder, arthritis and {also the} leaf in rheumatism and also to heal skin injuries caused by fish spines  whereas fishing.15,11

 

Habitat:

Geographical distribution: Launaea sarmentosa are coastal plants. It is locally known as Pathari which are available in India, Bangladesh, South Africa, coastal Madagascar, Seychelles, Mauritius, India, Srilanka, Indo-China and Java.16 Launaea sarmentosa is a prostrate, creeping, fleshy, perennial herb which is found on sandy beaches and is distributed across Mozambique, Madagascar, Reunion, Mauritius, and India.1

 

Taxonomical classification:17

       Common name – Pathari

       Botanical name – Launaea sarmentosa

       Kingdom –Plantae

       Order – Asterales

       Division – Magnoliophyta

       Family Asteraceae

       Genus - Launaea          

       Species – Launaea sarmentosa

 

Phytochemical constituents:

By investigation the chemical constituents of the roots of Launaea sarmentosa, collected at   can Gio beach, can Gio district, chemical element Minh city, nine compounds were isolated at the side of amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate, taraxasterol acetate, luteolin, 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol glucopyranoside, scorzoside, irexis aspect D, hydroxy pinoresinol all compounds were reported in different species, but this will be the first time they were known in Launaea sarmentosa. Four compounds from the n-hexane extract were noted by 4dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed benzoylation.18 Preliminary phytochemical studies of Launaea sarmentosa disclosed the presence of terpenoid, tannin, glycoside, alkaloid,steroids and flavonoids at intervals the prostaglandins, leukotriene, and different endogenous substances that square measure key players in triggering pain perception.19 The roots of L. sarmentosa showed the presence of lactiferous cells, pitted vessels simple fibers, atomic number 20 salt, innocent of pith and contains phytochemical compounds like alkaloids, glycosides,tannin, amino acids, carbohydrates and steroids etc.20

 

Traditional uses:

It has traditionally being employed as tonic, aperients, rheumatic affections, diuretic and given as a soporific. It’s additionally quality within the treatment of abdominal pain and disorders, urinary tract infections.2,7 because of the agent property this plant is given to feeding mothers once physiological state and kid birth chiefly in a very lehya preparation. This plant is especially renowned within the social group space. Whole plant is effective in rheumatoid arthritis, joints issues and gouty arthritis. Leaf preparations square measure employed by the skilled worker to cure the skin injuries caused by fish spikes. This plant is also fed to buffaloes to extend milk production because of agent property. Launaea sarmentosa stewing is employed to treat the skin connected diseases. hence Launaea sarmentosa whole plant is incredibly renowned historically and Ayurvedic purpose of read because of to numbers of advantages to human health21,22,23

 

Pharmacological activities:

Antibacterial activity:

Due to the fast emergence of resistance to antibacterial drug screening of antimicrobial agent from a natural supply has taken importance everywhere the globe. The current study was conducted by standardized single-disc diffusion methodology with no modification. This methodology was represented by salicylate et al., 1966 and become the foremost acceptable methodology of screening plant extract for antibacterial drug24.

 

Cytotoxic activity:

 In this study all crude extracts showed positive result indicating that check samples were biologically active. Every of the check samples showed totally different mortality rates at different concentrations. By exploitation the method developed by Meyer. Artemia salina unwholesomeness bioassay is wide employed in the bioassay for the bioactive compounds by the strategy Meyer. Measured quantity of every of check samples were taken and dissolved in measured quantity of pure dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to induce stock solutions. Then the answer was serial diluted to μg/mL  within the gift study vincristine sulphate was used as positive control. Measured quantity of DMSO was superimposed to every of 3 pre-marked check tubes containing 4.9 ml of simulated ocean water and ten shrimp nauplii to use as negative management teams25

 

Anthelmintic activity:

The anthelmintic assays are applied carried out as per the Vidyadhar technique with minor modifications. Adult earthworms are wont to study the anthelmintic activity. The earth worms (Pheretima posthuma) are of three –5 cm long and 0.1-0.2cm in breadth, weighing 0.8–3.04g are used for all experiment protocols. The earthworms resembled the viscus earth worm parasites of citizenry each anatomically and physiologically and thence are won’t to study the anthelmintic activity. Albendazole is employed as reference standard.26

 

Thrombolytic membrane stabilizing activity:

Thrombolytic activity of Launaea sarmentosa was allotted out by in vitro clot lysis assay technique. 5 totally different check   solutions were wont to evaluate the in vitro thrombolytic activity of the plant extract. The plant extract was dissolved in alcohol and shaken vigorously on a vortex mixer to organize two 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg/ml of the check samples severally.,. The suspension was kept overnight and decanted to get rid of   soluble supernatant that was filtered through a 0.22 metric linear unit syringe filter. 100μl of methanolic extract was value-added to the micro-centrifuge tube containing the clots to examine thrombolytic activity.27

 

Anti-inflammatory activity:

Pain and inflammation are pathophysiological connected with various clinical things like cancer, arthritis (inflammatory disease) and vascular diseases. The testing of inflammation by carrageenan-induced selected thanks to its property in distinctive orally active inflammatory agents, particularly within the severe section of inflammation28. It’s treated as a major prophetic technique for the screening of anti-inflammatory drug that acts to inhibit the mediators of acute inflammation29,30 Anti-inflammatory activity the carrageenan elicited paw oedema in rat could be a biphasic method. The aminoalkane or 5-hydroxytryptamine is free within the initial section and also the bradykinin, prostaglandin, autacoid protease, and cell organ is created in second section31. It’s finished that the methanolic extract of Launaea sarmentosa exhibited important suppression of paw edema formation in rats that was measured within the third hour of experimentation which maybe acts by inhibiting the discharge or native   actions of vasoactive substances. It’s instructed supported the facts that the late section of carrageenan-induced edema is employed within the anti-inflammatory drug activity on leaves of Launaea sarmentosa is related with the discharge prostaglandin-like mediators and is clinically sensitive internal secretion and no steroidal (NSAID) anti-inflammatory drug. On the opposite hand, chronic inflammation develops once the body response is depleted to eliminate the unhealthy agents.32,33

 

Antipyretic activity:

Pyrexia is usually induced by tissue injury, infections, inflammation, malignancy and alternative unwellness  states or condition, thereby initiates the improved  formation of pro-inflammatory mediators that boost body temperature34,35. medication  or compounds having antipyretic activity sometimes show an restrictive result on cyclooxygenase expression,  therefore inhibiting biogenesis of PGE2 and consequently decreases the elevated body temperature36 The Yeast-induced fever feverishness is additionally known as unhealthful fever and its etiology may be the assembly of prostaglandins that  set the thermoregulatory center to extend blood  heat 37. Yeast induced feverishness is employed to thought of as a helpful check for the screening of artificial medication furthermore as plant extracts for his or her antipyretic activity37,38. These agents or compounds acts to suppress the peripheral formation of pyrogenic cytokines whereas interference the COX pathways and lowering the thermoregulatory point.  Flavonoids square measure common polar compounds that have antecedently reported in our plant extract that square measure typically far-famed to own such antipyretic activity.15,11

 

Analgesic activity:

In analgesic activity performed on leaves of Launaea sarmentosa. The acetic acid elicited wriggly methodology in animals may be a terribly sensitive however not a selective pain take a look at. Therefore to corroborate that the plant has analgesic activity, tail immersion tests were additionally directed that signify the centrally acting analgesic activity. Tail immersion test is well-thought to spinal response or reflexes, however may additionally involve higher neural structures that primarily confers central analgesic action 39 and is additionally extremely related with relief of human pain perception40.  From the results of higher than 2 ways, it is inferred that Launaea sarmentosa showed central and peripheral analgesic action each tail immersion ethanoic acid wriggly methodology. That area unit typically celebrated involves within the inhibition of synthesis of prostaglandins, leukotriene, and alternative endogenous substances that area unit key players in triggering pain perception.41,42,43

 

Antioxidant activity:

The inhibitor activity of the methanol extract of L. sarmentosa (Ls-ME) was examined by evaluating its scavenging impact on DPPH radical. The free radical-scavenging activity increased linearly with increasing concentrations of Ls-ME. The SC50 price of Ls-ME, like the concentration needed to scavenge 50% of the free radicals within the sample, was ascertained to be twenty six.7μg/mL (equivalent to five. 5μg/mL vitamin C). In additionally, the full amounts of polyphenols and flavonoids were observed to be 258.2±0.78mg GAE/g of dried extract and seventy one ± 0.37mg QE/g of dried extract, severally. In addition, the full saccharide content in Ls-ME was ascertained to be 0.11% (w/w). These results incontestable that Ls-ME might scavenge free radicals effectively.44

 

CONCLUSION:

Launaea sarmentosa is a perennial, prostrate, stoloniferous herb rooting at each rosette and exudate white milky latex from its root, leaf, and stem when broken. In order to sequestrate and characterize the  active constituents responsible for the various properties, ulterior work especially bioassay guided fractionation may be confessed. On the basis of these investigations, it is concluded that plant Launaea sarmentosa showed significant activities against the several diseases like antibacterial, cytotoxic, anthelmintic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, analgesic used by tribals traditionally to treat various infections.

 

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Received on 24.08.2021         Modified on 22.12.2021

Accepted on 25.02.2022       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2022; 14(2):132-135.

DOI: 10.52711/0975-4385.2022.00025