Black Pepper an Ideal Choice against Corona Virus:

A Systemic study against Pandemic Covid-19


Deepesh Lall1*, Shruti Rathore2, Bhagyashree Agrawal3, Neeraj Sharma4

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India.

2Department of Pharmaceutics, LCIT School of Pharmacy, Bilaspur 495001, Chhattisgarh, India.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, LCIT School of Pharmacy, Bilaspur 495001, Chhattisgarh, India.

4Department of Pharmaceutics, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:



A severe acute respiratory syndrome is an unidentified and unusual type of contagious pneumonia and lung disease caused by SARS Covid-19. At present, whole world is witness and trying to combat against Covid-19 and scientist community is rigorously putting efforts to develop suitable and effective medicines. Apart from the other public health measures and therapeutic efforts against Covid-19, we can boost our immunity with natural products. In this review article, we have selected and highlighted the potential of commonly known spice and herb as antiviral and immunity booster called as Black pepper. According to Various surveys has conducted on home remedies during Covid-19, among a wide range of group of peoples in different age group from various country, found taking Kadha of Black pepper for combating infection and boosting immunity. We have put effort to highlight WHO proposed guidelines against Covid-19 and explained extraction method of API, processing steps of Black pepper and preventive measure of Covid-19 according to Ayurveda system. Therefore, we conclude from survey and available literature that spice Black pepper plays an important role against viral infections and boosting immunity more significantly.


KEYWORDS: Black pepper, Immunity booster, Kadha, SARS Covid-19, Literature survey.





As the pandemic crises arising day by day, unavailability of therapeutically effective medicines Covid-19 deemed to be a stronger but as like cures like one of the kings of the ayurvedic medicines and spices Black Pepper would be the hero against Covid-19. The guidelines from the Government of India have been releasing with appropriate easiest way to save ourself from getting infected by the deadly infection is by keeping your immunity up and tight, as Black Pepper has all the required constituents. As per the ayurvedic practitioner, there are many more ways to boost immunity and keep infection risk aside and Black Pepper becomes the ideal choice of the scenario1,2.


Figure 1: Ayurveda system in preventive measure against Covid-19


As the Ministry of Health has confirmed with very first case of the COVID-19 that it has no effective medicine the country goes on the panic mood. The World Health Organization has already declared the situation as a public health emergency with the global death toll crossing lakhs of live cases. Only choice remain was to adopt quarantine for the people with mild symptoms. On an average it takes 5–7 days to show the symptoms when someone is infected, however it can also take up to 14 days3,4,5,6. And it is more common with the people suffering from cardio pulmonary diseases, weak immune system, infants and old age6,7. Corona virus would attack the people who have less immunity to fight against the respiratory infections. Common symptoms shown are:


I. Other common symptoms include: COVID-19

1.     Fatigue

2.     Headache

3.     Fever


II. Less common symptoms: COVID-19

1.     Aches and pains

2.     Sore throat

3.     Diarrhoea

4.     Cconjunctivitis

5.     Loss of taste or smell

6.     A rash on skin or discoloration of fingers or toes8,9,10


COVID-19 mainly attacks the respiratory system, blocking of the lungs and disturbing its functions. Hence according to the Ayurveda, the king of the medicine, Black Pepper is an important candidate consists of the dried, unripe fruit of Piper nigrum L. belongs to Piperaceae. Black pepper is the oldest and most important spice and commonly known as the ‘King of Spices.’ There are about a hundred cultivator of Black Pepper continue their work. There are considerable several accessions with regard to various morphological and floral characters of Black Pepper like their leaf shape, size, spike, length, density, composition of male, female and bisexual flowers in the spike, fruit set, shape, weight and volume of the fruit and time taken for maturity of proper medicine11,12. The fruit of the Black Pepper though known as a berry, it is a sessile globes drupe with a pulpy pericarp. The berry is globular6 mm or less in diameter, brownish black in color and with a coarsely reticulate surface and single seed medicine. The seed is almost hollow, white color and adheres to the pericarp and turns black after cultivation12.


Figure 2: Black Pepper seeds



The corona virus occurs as spike which contains three segments:

1.     A large ectodomain

2.     A single-pass transmembrane anchor and

3.     A short intracellular tail.


The ecto-domain of Covid-19 consists of a receptor-binding subunit S1 and a membrane-fusion subunit S2. Electron microscopic studies revealed that the spike is a clove-shaped trimmer with three S1 heads and a trimetric S2. When virus enters in the human body it’s S1 spikes domain binds to a receptor on the host cell surface for viral attachment and S2 fuses the host and viral membranes allowing viral genomes to enter host cells predominately. Receptor binding and membrane fusion are the initial and critical steps in the corona virus infection cycle, as they also serve as primary targets for human13,14,15. In this article the Covid-19 structure, its function and evolution is discussed mainly with Ayurvedic medicine Black Pepper.16,17




Figure 3: Structure of Covid-19: Its spikes and attachment site


The corona virus spike protein which is a multifunctional molecular machine that mediates corona virus entry into host cells with ease.17,18 It first binds to a receptor on the host cell surface through its S1 subunit and then fuses then gets viral via host membranes through its S2 subunit. With two domains in S1 from different corona viruses countered a variety of host receptors, this leads to viral attachment. The spike protein exists in two structurally distinct conformations pre-fusion and post fusion19,20


Figure 4: Mechanism of the attacking to Host cell Covid-19


The transition from pre fusion to post fusion conformation of the spike protein should be triggered and leads to membrane fusion.


Corona virus spikes like other class I viral membrane fusion proteins are amazing molecules. So, following are the characteristics behaviour of Covid-19:

1.     They single-handedly lead corona viruses to enter host cells by first binding to a receptor on the host cell surface and attack.

2.     Then it fuses the viral and host membranes where they exist in two distinct conformations.

3.     The pre fusion trimetric spike contains three receptor-binding S1 heads and a trimetric membrane fusion S2.

4.     The post fusion trimetric S2 is a six-helix bundle with exposed fusion peptides.


Figure 5: Coronaviruses: Structure analysis


The transition of the spikes from pre fusion to post fusion conformation that is regulated by various triggers and actions. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are critical determinants of the host range and with the tissue tropism of corona viruses itself.



Through the ancient times drugs are an essential part of the therapeutic and preventive armamentarium. Drugs shall be natural products, synthetic chemicalsand could be biological in stream. With advancement  in chemistry and in biology we have several ways for obtaining powerful and specific drugs. Moreover presentlyNDDS new drug discovery system are facing major challenges. Several drugs are failing because of the toxicity and safety reasons. Recently drug discovery is facing an innovation deficit indeedAnd the main Ayurveda and Traditional and Complementary Medicine(T&CM) has described thousands of drugs and formulations with great impact, and in this article authors are focusing on the Black Pepperthe king of the spices20,21,22



Black Pepper which is the part of the botanical herbs, which is available in two distinct types:

1.     One black Pepper (Piper-nigrum) and

2.     Another Long Pepper (Piper-longum)


They are best recognizes with species in this family and are probably among the most loved spices in the world.  Black Pepper itself has about 35% of the world’s total spice business trade.  In addition, Black Pepper and Long Pepper have been used medicinally for centuries with advantages in various terms. Currently an extensive research data on the photochemistry and unique pharmacological actions of these plants have been implimented in terms of Ayurveda from 6000 B.C. There are many references advocating the use of pepper in a variety of ailments and with various health benefits22,23.




Black Pepper were examined it contains Piperine which is the active ingredients of (Piper nigrum L.) and Long Pepper (Piper longum L.).




From  Black Pepper, piperine can be isolated from the oleoresin of  P. nigrum or P. longum.  When the powdered fruits of the plant are treated with dichloromethane at room temperature normally 35-37 degree celcius with stirring for 12-15 hours.  The extract is filtered and concentrated in vacuum filterand then the residue is purified on an alumina column.  Pure piperine can also be obtained by crystallization from ethanol solution; this piperine can be used in Ayurveda as food and medicine.



It enhances the antiasthmatic effect according to Ayurvedic formula containing vasaka (Adhatoda vasica) when administered with long pepper. When in combination of juice from the vasaka leaves boiled with sugar, long pepper and clarified butter, then this mixture added to honey and used for treatment for asthma21,22,23.



Black Pepper mainly consist of alkaloid piperine. This Piperine is an alkaloid with the molecular formulaC17Hl9O3N, this is on hydrolysis with alkali gives piperic acid and piperidine and this piperidine and piperic acid on process of activation/deactivation of certain metabolic pathways, slowing down the metabolism and biodegradation of drugs and results in higher plasma levels of drugs rendering them more available for pharmacological action thus increasing bioavailability24,25.



Black Pepper should be harvested at the maturity periodwhen the adequate herbs grown and berriers starts turning to red and harden. Followig are the cultivation parameters:


Figure 6: Processing of the Black Pepper with proper indicating sequence


Following steps includes in the processing of the Black pepper:

1.     Fermentation: After harvesting the Black Pepper their berries shall be fermented by laying them out directly underthe sun. This will allow an enzymatic reaction to proceed in which phenol compounds are oxidized which ensures the final product has an intense black color.


Figure 7: Fermentation processing of Black Pepper


2.     Fermentation: After harvesting the Black Pepper their berries shall be fermented by laying them out directly underthe sun. This will allow an enzymatic reaction to proceed in which phenol compounds are oxidized which ensures the final product has an intense black color.


3.     Threshing: After separation processberries shall be detached from the spike by handor by trampling the spikes underfoot or by beating them with sticks. Then the larger pieces of the spike stem then picked out and smaller pieces removed using a winnowing basket.


4.     Washing: The berries should next be washed with cleanand cold water to remove any dirt.


Figure 8: Washing of the Black Pepper adequately in steps in tray


5.     Blanching: Blanching is adopted to increase the rate at which berries dry and it speed up the enzymatic reaction that produces the final desired black color.


6.     Drying: Black Pepper is advisable that it should dried as quickly as possible because in the hot and humid climate.


7.     Grading or Winowing: To remove any dust, dirt and grading the dried pepper berries can be carried out with winnowing baskets and sieves properly.24


8.     Gringing: An optional and important process which gives themeans of adding value to the product.


9.     Packaging and Storage: Black Pepper needs to be stored in a air-tight containers which helps to prevent moisture uptake or volatile flavor component loss which is important24



In contrast of the study the preventive measures and to cure Covid-19 ayurvedic herbal medicines areimportant. With its easy availability,use,administration and least adverse reaction makes it more potent. According to the knowledge of the ayurveda any condition affecting pranavaha srotas that means respiratory channels one should apply the treatment protocols recommended for shvasaroga chikitsa that means breathlessness, cough and related disorders indeed and Black Pepper plays important role in this. In current article authors focused on the Black Pepper usage, structure analysis and management offollowing terms in Ayurveda:

1.     To reduce the aggravated and accumulated Vata and Kapha doshas.

2.     To purify rasavaha srotas thoroughly in Ayurveda.

3.     To purify and unblock pranavaha srotas and secondarily to optimize Agni in Ayurveda to maintain the body heat and its characteristics.



Following symptoms and persisting health issuescan be resolved by easiest and cheapest way with Ayurveda and to the point with optimum practices:


·       DRY COUGH:

This is one of the most common symptoms of Covid-19. It will effectively manage through the administration of various Smetana measures in Ayurveda (administering oleaginous substances). 

Solutions: Oral intake of the Dashmoola Rasna ghrita, vasa ghrita, kantakari ela ghrita, yastimadhu pippaladi ghrita.


·       ENEMA (Bastis):

Oily substances also given from rectum in the form of anuvasana bastis in Ayurveda (oil-based herbalenemas for minimum number of days). These are very simple to self-administer.

Solution: The small quantity of oil injected is generally with 3-4 ouncesand the herbs used are kapha-vata ahara (kapha and vata lowering) helpful.


·       DIET (Ahara):

The diet plays an important role as it used to treat or prevent a condition against COVID-19 and is generally a standard Ayurvedic ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet which is modified according to each patient’s requirementswith dosh predominance.


Solution: Adding of these in diet pippaladi kheer (milk with added pippali powder), and lasunadi kheer (garlic milk), Kritayusha {vegetable barley prepared soups spiced liberally with trikatu (ginger, black pepper and pippali)}, barley, millet, buckwheatand oats in sufficient quantity.


·       Dhoomapana (Medicinal Smoke):

If the dry cough is accompanied by difficulty breathing or by high-pitched musical wheezing indicates srotodushti sanga—obstruction in the small passage of the respiratory tract. In this case we administer dhoomapana: the nasal inhalation of herbal smoke.


Solution: Dhoomapana is very useful in relieving blockages and to  relieve from congestion in the lower respiratory tract.



On observation according to Ayurveda system pandemics and outbreaks observed to be transmitted with any of the following heads:

a.     Prasanagat (physically closes interaction or gathering)

b.    Gatra samsparshat (by physical contact with diseased individual)   

c.     Nishwasa (by inhalation of infected respiratory droplets)                           

d.    Sahabhojanat (by sharing food with others)

e.     Sahashayya (by sleeping together)

f.      Asana (whilesitting close together)

g.     Vastra (on sharing the same cloths)

h.    Malya (by handkerchief and towel sharing)


Preventive measure includes:

1.     By dissolving 2-4 table spoon of honey in 100 ml of container of herbal tea prepared with Black Pepper. (Other herbs may also prefer like madhuyashti, basil, peppermint, vasa)

2.     By preparing healthy salads using detoxifying foods such as beetroot, radish, cabbage, broccoli. Firstly allow them toboil and then mix them gently, it can bea cooked meal also.

3.     Another one,yoga is important way to detoxify your body because healthy form of cleansing the body makes healthy environment around you.   



As the pandemic occurred Covid-19 and there is no effective medicine available, adaptation of the Ayurvedic medicine would be great because of its acute direct point of action and without having such side effects which any chemical can possess. Black Peppers and its active constituent would be very helpful in terms of the preventive measure of the Covid-19. We heard how our honorable Prime Minister took the conference and indicate that the Coronavirus may would never banish, we have to learn to live with it. If it is the choicethan Ayurvedic medicines can be important as per its availability and effectiveness.It is not possible to stop the outbreaks of any undetermined viral attacks. Our nation mightnot forget the incident of 2003 outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS and bird flu) which had affected thousands and killed approximately hundreds of people and left a massive disruption on throughly global trade and accompany.


It is best to build the firewall to boost self immunity. Ayurveda helps to make it simple by adaptig the various spices and medicines available and Black Pepper is the king of the spicesin terms of the Ayurveda. Ayurveda has enough potential and possibilities to be employed for both prevention and treatment of COVID-19. This article will provide an important opportunity for learning and generating credible evidence with gaurantee. It is pertinent to reiterate that participation of Ayurveda in addressing the COVID-19 challenge in India should not remain limited and seen as the extension of healthcare services and support to bio-medical system by adopting the herbal medicines. Important with adequate monitoring and properdata maintenance during the implementation important lessons and research directions are likely to emerge on the management of increasingly frequent and virulent communicable diseases like Covid-19. Implementation of this articles proposed action is likely to provide evidence-based insight strengthening the scope of Ayurveda system and beyond preventive health care and care for non-communicable diseases. Also the AYUSH system across the country has been put on alert for being called anytime to serve the nation to everyone without demanding any return. AYUSH healthcare facilities are also ready to be converted into quarantine facilities in hour of need in this critical time. From this perspective, implementing the suggested intervention plan within AYUSH healthcare facilities of Ayurvedic system workforce will benefit the nation and around the globe generously. India is the country where the world’s ancient health care system originated from herbs and therefore it is being keenly observed by the world community for how India handles the crisis using its own resources.


According to the studies the best line of defense is to choose a healthy lifestyle and following these general health guidelines will be beneficial to prevent and to cure against the Covid-19:

1.     Mminimize mental stress.

2.     Adaptation to eat a diet containing grains, fruits and vegetables.

3.     Routine exercise for fit body.

4.     By maintaining healthy weight. 

5.     Avoid drinking alcohol on daily basis.

6.     Have adequate sleep nearly 6-8 hours per day.

7.     Use sanitizers and also observe meticulous hygiene such as washing hands frequently.

8.     Skip smoking as it make lungs strong.

9.     Indeed use of herbal medicines likeBlack Pepper every day with 3-4 seeds regularly, it will boost mmunity as well as helps to prevent Covid-19 in combination with all of the above guidlines and preventive measures.


This article gives the knowledgeregarding Ayurvedic medicine benefits and role of the Black Peppers, as it is the one most helpful herbs against the Covid-19.Ayurvedic system from ancient timeimapct the life by its great efforts and also serve people in this recent pandemic. According to the Ayurveda, these ten herbs can be combined in innumerable proportions and combinations according to the individual needs, and it would be helpful  to prevent Covid-19.

1.     Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum)

2.     Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia)

3.     Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

4.     Kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum)

5.     Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata)

6.     Amalaki (Embelica officinalis)

7.     Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

8.     Haridra (Curcuma longa) with Maricha (Black Pepper)

9.     Pippali (Piper longum)

10. Vasa (Adhatoda vasica)


One of ideal ways of taking herbs for the prevention of respiratory illness with relation to corona viruses is to make a decoction of the selected Black Pepper, allow it to cool down to become luke warm and add honey just before drinking. Honey acts as a perfect anupana, which is a catalyst for augmenting the effect of the herbBlack Pepper. Because honey is kaphahara (which reduces Kapha), marganusari (that penetrates deeply) and yogavahi (that connects the actions of several herbs) this will indeed increase the efficacy of herb Black Pepper and other ten herbs mentioned above. Important to ensure by allowing the decoction to cool up to lukewarm and addition of honey before drinking.


By adopting the Ayurveda a holistic approach to health that focuses on prevention and it is the key to managing this outbreak of Covid-19. Ayurveda emphasizes avoidance of causative factors and enhances immunity through Panchakarma (extremely important) diet, herbs, sleep, lifestyle and anxiety management. However with many names like Typhoid fever, bubonic plague, cholera, smallpox, leprosy, COVID-19 outbreaksall the changing names of pandemic diseases in every generation, the wisdom of Ayurveda and herbs remains recognized throughout the ages and times,but of course this will never change and will continuosly play its important role in health care.



The authors have no conflicts of interest regarding this investigation.



The authors would like to thank LCIT School of Pharmacy, Bilaspur 495220, Chhattisgarh, India; this institute provided the kind support during this work and all other studies.



1.      World health organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when covid-19 disease is suspected: Interim guidance, 13 march 2020. No. Who/2019-ncov/clinical/2020.4. World Health Organization, 2020.

2.      Wu Z., McGoogan J.M. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020;323:1239–1242.1210.1001

3.      Panigrahi H.K. Efficacy of Ayurvedic medicine in the treatment of uncomplicated chronic sinusitis. Anc Sci Life. 2006;26:6–11.

4.      Math S.B., Moirangthem S., Kumar C.N. Public health perspectives in cross-system practice: Past, present and future. Ind J Medical Ethics. 2015; 12:131–136.

5.      Makhija I.K., Shreedhara C.S., Ram H.N.A. Mast cell stabilization potential of sitopaladi churna: An Ayurvedic formulation. Pharmacognosy Research. 2013;5:306–308.

6.      Srikanth N., Singh A., Ota S., Sreedhar B., Galib, Dhiman K.S. Chemical characterization of an ayurvedic herbo-mineral preparation- mahalaxmivilas rasa. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2019;10: 262–268.

7.      Ren J-l, Zhang A.-H., Wang X.-J. Traditional chinese medicine for covid-19 treatment. Pharmacol Res. 2020; 155:104743.

8.      Srikantha Murthy K. editor. Sarangadhara-Samhita: A treatise on Ayurveda, Madhyam khanda, chapter 7, verse 18-21. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012, p. 103.

9.      Rani P., Sharma K., Kumar A. Probable mode of action of Sanjivani vati - a critical review. IJHSR. 2018; 8:295–307. 

10.   Rege N.N., Thatte U.M., Dahanukar S.A. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res. 1999; 13:275–291. 

11.   Rastogi S, Lakhotia SC, Singh RH. Ayurvedic Rasayana Therapy: A Rational Understanding Necessary for Mass Benefits. In, Translational Ayurveda. Springer, Singapore, 2019. 77-99.

12.   Salzberger B., Glück T., Ehrenstein B. Successful containment of covid-19: The who-report on the covid-19 outbreak in china. Infection. 2020; 48:151–153.

13.   S.B., Shukla P., Srivastava R.K., Mondal R., Anupam R. Validation of environmental disinfection efficiency of traditional Ayurvedic fumigation practices. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2019; 10:203–206.

14.   Enjuanes L, Almazan F, Sola I, Zuniga S. Biochemical aspects of coronavirus replication and virus-host interaction. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2006; 60:211–30. 

15.   Kirchdoerfer RN, Cottrell CA, Wang N, Pallesen J, Yassine HM, et al. Pre-fusion structure of a human coronavirus spike protein. Nature. 2016; 531:118–21. 

16.   Zhou F., Yu T., Du R., Fan G., Liu Y. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult in patients with covid-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020 (1020)30566-30563. 

17.   Patwardhan B., Tillu G. Universal health coverage and AYUSH systems. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2018; 9:1–2.

18.   Publicity department of the people’s republic of china. Press conference of the joint prevention and control mechanism of state council on feb17, 2020.

19.   Xu B., Gutierrez B., Mekaru S., Sewalk K., Goodwin L., Loskill A. Epidemiological data from the covid-19 outbreak, real-time case information. Scientific data. 2020; 7:106,40448-41590.

20.   Ksiazek TG, Erdman D, Goldsmith CS, Zaki SR, Peret T, et al. Anovel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348:1953–66.

21.   Rota PA, Oberste MS, Monroe SS, Nix WA, Campagnoli R, et al. Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science. 2003; 300:1394–99.

22.   Zaki AM, van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus A, Fouchier RAM. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med. 2012; 367:1814–20.

23.   Bhat, G. B. and Chandrasekhara, N. 1987a. Effect of black pepper and piperine on bile secretion and composition in rats. Nahrung, 31: 913–916.

24.   Glatzel, H. 1968. Physiological aspects of flavour compounds. Indian Spices, 5: 13–21.

25.   Shoba, G. 1998. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med., 64: 353–356.



Received on 04.09.2021         Modified on 17.09.2021

Accepted on 23.09.2021       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2022; 14(1):55-61.

DOI: 10.52711/0975-4385.2022.00012