S.D Mankar*, M.S. Bhosale, Mohini Shelke, Pankaj Sonawane
Pravara Rural College of Pharmacy, Pravaranagar A/p. Loni - 413736, Tal - Rahata, Dist - Ahmednagar (M.S.)
Native to India, Murraya koenigii (Curry Leaves/Kadi Patta/Mitha Nimba/Giri Nimba) is found almost anywhere in Indian subcontinent, except the higher Himalayan levels. There are several diseases that protect components (natural compounds) in the curry tree that can be used as a natural compound. A source for the manufacture of modern, complementary and revolutionary medicines. Traditionally it is used as an antiemetic, antidiarrheal, febrifuge and blood purifier. The entire plant is known to be a tonic and a stomach. As anantioxidant, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antihypertensive, cytotoxic and also in the treatment of respiratory problems in the bronchial system. In curry and other dishes, the leaves are traditionally used as a seasoning. Curry leaves are useful for hair because they are high in beta-carotene and protein content, which are instrumental in preventing hair loss and hair thinning. Proteins are necessary for hair growth because hair is made of protein and is also vital for hair development. The amino acid content that strengthens hair fibre is also high in curry leaves. It is important to compile the well-known pharmacology and phytochemistry of M. koenigii and the therapeutic potential of this plant in the form of a study.
Murraya koenigii, commonly known in Indian dialects as curry leaf or kari patta, belongs to the Rutaceae family, comprising more than 150 genera and 1600 species. Murraya koenigii, because of its characteristic fragrance and medicinal value, is a highly valued herb. As it obtains strong foreign revenue, it is an essential export commodity from India. A variety of chemical constituents have been extracted from any section of the plant. P-gurjunene, P-caryophyllene, P-element and A-phellandrene are the most important chemical constituents responsible for its strong characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of alkaloids from carbazole. Ito has reviewed bioactive coumarins, acridine alkaloids and carbazole alkaloids from the Rutaceae family.
M. Koenigii has been commonly used for centuries in Indian cookery and plays a versatile role in traditional medicine. plant is credited with tonic and stomachic properties. Murraya koenigii is proven as the natural medicinal plant. The plant is associated with tonic and stomachic effects. The natural medicinal plant is proven to be Murraya koenigii. There are various types of Murraya koenigii as a useful plant such as extract, essential oil, because of which they are found. The Murraya koenigii plant belonging to the Rutaceae family is a plant that mainly grows in any part of the tropical region up to 1500 to 1655m from sea level in the spring, summer and rainy season. The aim of the analysis study is to update Murraya koenigii's pharmacognostic, phytochemical and pharmacological information. It has broad types of characteristics, such as antibacterial activity, activity of antifungal, activity of antiprotozoal. For leaf, stem, bark and oil, the medicinal utilities explicitly mentioned were established. Other pharmacognostic characteristics of Murraya koenigii extract, such as morphology, growth constraints, biochemical composition and biological activities, are of therapeutic benefit.
Curry Leaf (English), Karivepaku (Andhra Pradesh), Narasingha (Assam); Gorenimb (Gujrat); Mitha Neem (Himachal Pradesh); Barsanga, Kartaphulli (Bengal); Sanskrit; Karivempu (Tamilnadu).
● Kingdom - Plantae
● Subkingdom - Tracheobionta
● Superdivision - Spermatophyta
● Division - Magnoliophyta
● Class - Magnoliospida
● Subclass - Rosidae
● Order - Sapindales
● Family - Rutaceae
● Genus - Murraya J. Koenig ex L
● Species -Murraya koenigii Spreng.
Fig: 1 Leaves of Murraya koenigii
Mature leaves contain 63.2 percent humidity, 1.15 percent total nitrogen, 6.15 percent fat, 18.92 percent total sugar, 14.6 percent starch, 6.8 percent crude fibre, ash 13.06 percent, 1.35 percent acid insoluble ash, 1.82 percent alcohol soluble extractive, 27.33 percent cold water (20 ⁇ C) extractive and 33.45 percent overall hot water-soluble extractive.
The curry leaves, with a complex chemical composition, are a rich source of many carbazole alkaloids. Researchers have used solvents such as ethyl acetate, ethanol, petroleum ether, water and chloroform to prepare plant extracts, and it has been stated that compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids and sterols are found in them. Curry leaves are rich in protein, fibre, carbohydrates, minerals, nicotinic acid, fibre, calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, copper, minerals and vitamins such as nicotinic acid, vitamins B, C, A and E, antioxidants, sterols, glycosides and flavonoids. Curry leaves are antioxidant-rich. The scalp is moisturised by these antioxidants and dead hair follicles are also extracted. In addition, curry leaves are beneficial for hair because they are high in beta-carotene and protein content, which are essential for hair loss and hair thinning prevention. Proteins, because hair is made of protein, are also important for hair development. The amino acid content of curry leaves is also high, which strengthens the hair fibre.
M.Koenigii leaves extract with six known alkaloids; koenimbine, O-methyl murrayamine, O-methyl mahanine, isomahanine, bismahanine, and bispyrayafoline. 1-formyl-3 methoxy-6-methyl carbazole and 6, 7-dimethoxy-1-hydroxy-3-methyl carbazole were isolated from dried leaves of glycozoline. The leaf acetone extract was isolated from koenigine, koenine, koenidine and-) (mahanine. Shape a leaf hexane extract. Mahanimbine, iso mahanimbine, koenimbidine, and murrayacine have been isolated by Joshi et.al. Isomahanimbicin was isolated from leaves of M derived from petroleum ether. Koenigii was obtained explicitly in the month of February. Christine B, mahanine, mahanimbicine, bismurrayafoline E 35,40, mahanimbicine, mahanimbicine 35, mahanimbine 35, Biicyclomahanimbicin 41, cyclo mahanimbine bicycle mahanimbine, mahanimbine 42, mukonicin 43, 8, 8 bis koenigine, the new binary carbazole alkaloid and its monomer koenigine 44 and the minor alkaloid mahanine 45 have been detected and isolated from M. leaves. koenigii.
As obtained by steam distillation, tender leaves contain 0.8 percent oil. The essential oil composition of leaves obtained by steam distillation, solvent extraction or fluid extraction of carbon dioxide is recorded in a variety of papers. In different origin germplasm lines of curry neem 80-87, the oil composition suggests phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. The chemical composition of the leaves of the essential oil M. In agro-climate and geographical variation, Koenigii varies with variation. Southern Nigeria's Murraya koenigii 88 leaf oil contains sesquiterpenes (89.1%). B-caryophyllene (20.5%), bicyclogermacrene (9.9%), a-cadinol (7.3%), caryophyllene epoxide (6.4%), b-selinene (6.2%) and humulene (5.0%) were the key constituents. Pinene (51.7 percent), sabinene (10.5 percent), ß-pinene (9.8 percent), ß-caryophyllene (5.5 percent), limonene (5.4 percent), bornyl acetate (1.8 percent), terpinen-4-ol (1.3 percent), g-terpinene (1.2 percent) and a-humulene (1.2 percent) are the main constituents of Murraya koenigii's fresh leaves from Dehradun 89. The basic leaf oil consists mainly of monoterpenoids and their derivatives that are oxygenated.
Seed lipid composition showed 4.4% of total lipids, 85.4% of which were neutral lipids, 5.1% of glycolipids, and 9.5% of phospho-lipids. 73.9 percent triacylglycerol, 10.2 percent free fatty acids and small quantities of diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols and sterols were neutral lipids. The main glycolipids are steryl glucoside and acylated steryl glucoside. The phospholipids were primarily composed of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
Structure of Beta carotene
Structure of Girinimbine Structure
Figure 1: Phytoconstituents present in Curry leaves
Structure of Phytoconstituents:
Chemical Test/Identification Test:
1. The presence of alkaloids in the extract of Murraya koenigii was a white or cream coloured precipitate.
2. By adding a few drops of 5 percent lead acetate solution to alcoholic extracts of Murraya koenigii, phenolic compounds were confirmed by white precipitate formation.
3. Yellow coloration of the philtre paper by dipping in ammoniated alcohol on the extract detects the presence of flavonoids.
4. The presence of saponins is taken into account when, after a shake with sodium bicarbonate, the extract showed honeycomb-like frothing formation.
5. The following checks, i.e. Millions, Biurets and Ninhydrin, show the presence of proteins and free amino acids.
6. Alcoholic extract that was shaken with chloroform and a few drops of acetic anhydride along with a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid from the side of the tube from the coloration of blue to brick red suggests the presence of sterol and triterpenes.
Antioxidant properties Extracted carbazole alkaloids from the extract of dichloromethane from M. leaves. On the basis of the lag time to reach a steady state, koenigii were evaluated on the basis of the oil stability index along with their radical scavenging ability against the DPPH radical. The 12 carbazole groups were grouped into 3 groups. It indicated that an aryl hydroxyl substituent plays a role in stabilising thermal oxidation and reaction rate against DPPH radicals on the carbazole ring 37. The antioxidant properties of Murraya koenigii leaf extracts using different solvents, along with their radical scavenging potential against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, were evaluated on the basis of the OSI oil stability index. It was found that the overall antioxidant activity in M was the highest. Koenigii (sample of 2 691.78 μmol of one gramme of ascorbic acid) and less in C. asiatica (623.78 μmol of an ascorbic acid extract of one gram) 95. The acetone derived from curry leaves with oleoresin was tested using a β-carotene /linoleic acid model system for its antioxidant activity. It showed 83.2 percent maximal activity at 100mg/L. At the same concentration, methanol and water extracts showed activity of 16.7 percent and 11.3 percent respectively, and volatile oil showed negligible activity (< 10 percent) at 100mg/L concentration. For maximum antioxidant activity, Mahanimbine and koenigine were reported. In stabilising the thermal oxidation and reaction rate against DPPH radicals, the carbazole ring containing an aryl hydroxyl substituent plays a significant role. The two alkaloids of carbazole, koenigin and mahanimbine, were isolated from M. Koenigii leaves have shown antioxidant function. To a great degree, Koenigine also demonstrated radical-scavenging properties.
Curry leaves as hair growth:
A decent amount of vitamin A is present in curry leaves (beta-carotene is 12,600 IU/100gm), calcium (810 mg/100gm), phosphorus (600mg/100gm), iron (3.1 mg/100gm), vitamin C (4mg/100gm) and fibre (6.1%). It has high oxalate levels (1.35 percent) as well. Since they are high in beta-carotene and protein content, which are critical for hair loss prevention and hair thinning. Proteins, because hair is made of protein, are also important for hair development. Curry leaves are also rich in amino acid content that strengthens the fibre of the hair. Kadi patta has always been known to help avoid hair greying. It is also very helpful in treating damaged hair, adding limp hair bounce, strengthening thin hair shaft, hair fall and dandruff treatment. The best part of this advantage is that you can either opt to eat curry leaves to help with your hair troubles or apply them as a cure to your scalp. Hair Care Curry leaves are thought to help improve hair roots. It is possible to add dry curry leaf powder mixed with oil to your hair. In cases of grey hair, paste from curry leaves can also be added. Doing these on a regular basis may also promote hair growth. Since they are high in beta-carotene and protein content, they are important for the prevention of hair loss and hair thinning. Proteins, because hair is made of protein, are also important for hair development. The amino acid content of curry leaves is also high, which strengthens the hair fibre. A decent amount of vitamin A is present in curry leaves (beta-carotene is 12,600IU/100gm), calcium (810mg/100gm), phosphorus (600mg/100gm), iron (3.1 mg/100gm), vitamin C (4mg/100gm) and fibre (6.1%). It has high oxalate levels (1.35 percent) as well.
Fig: 2 Importance of Murraya koenigii
Fig: 3- Benefits of curry leaves
Prevents Greying of Hair:
It has always been recognised that Kadi patta helps to keep hair from greying. It is also very helpful in treating damaged hair, adding limp hair bounce, strengthening thin hair shaft, hair fall and dandruff treatment. The best part of this advantage is that you can either opt to eat the curry leaves to help with your hair woes or apply them as a treatment to your scalp.
In order to improve hair roots, curry leaves are believed to help. It is possible to add dry curry leaf powder mixed with oil to your hair. In cases of grey hair, paste from curry leaves can also be added. Doing these on a regular basis may also promote hair growth.
Murraya koenigii was one of the medically useful plants used by our ancestors many centuries ago. Murraya koenigii can be used to relieve the symptoms of a variety of diseases, as evident from the pre-clinical evidence, keeping in mind the enormous pharmacological activities and availability of literature. The Murraya koenigii's chemical composition consists of essential oil alkaloids and terpenoids. It has many benefits for hair growth, the murraya koenigii, also known as hair growth enhancer. Since they are rich in beta-carotene and protein content, which are important for preventing hair loss and thinning hair. Proteins are also important for hair growth, as hair is made of protein. Curry leaves often have a high amino acid content, which strengthens the hair fibre.
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Received on 02.12.2020 Modified on 14.12.2020
Accepted on 21.12.2020 ©AandV Publications All right reserved