Coffea arabica: Herbal drug on Global health issue-obesity

 

Ms. Sangeeta Sankpal, Mr. Krisna S. Pathade, Dr. Manish Kondawar

Appasaheb Birnale College of Pharmacy, Sangli, Ms. Sherekar P. P. Sawkar Pharmacy College, Jaitapur, Satara.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sherekarpu@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Coffee is one of the oldest raw mates ++ rials having various bioactive substances. The purpose of this paper is to show the efficacy and importance of green coffee extract in weight loss supplement. This paper also shows the antioxidant activity of Arabica and Robusta green coffee beans spices and preparation of beans. Also shows the chemical composition of both species of coffee. Obesity is a global health issue they may causes many health problems like cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

 

KEYWORDS: Obesity, Weight loss, Robusta and Arabica Green coffee.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Chronic disorders like osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, gallstones, fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, reproductive and gastrointestinal cancers, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure and stroke are the global problem because of obesity. [1,2] To manage obesity many medications have been approved and it noticed over the year a significant increase in the prescriptions for those obesity drugs. [3] Cholorogenic acid is the main content of GCBE shows most of biological effects and weight losing properties and etherification of cinnamic acids from natural phenolic compound give the series of health benefits. [4-7]

 

With the help of healthy life style and balance between healthy eating and physical activity we can manage the weight. [8] According to world health organization, Projection for adult weight in 2015, 3.2 billion were predicted to in united state. Obesity has increased at an epidemic rate during the past 20 years. To manage the obesity, different threatment strategies have been used for addressing it. The most frequently used therapeutic strategies for obesity like behavioral therapy, diet, drug therapies and surgery. [10] Now a days many people have had atendency to use neutraceuticals to lose weight. To treat and prevent obesity many therapeutic agent supplements are developed.

 

A Green Coffee: Extract:

Coffee is most commonly consumed drinks throughout the world, and its health benifits are related to its increased level of consumption. [11-15] Common form of coffee is available in the roasted form and its beneficial effects will got caffeine content. [16-19] Raw coffee beans are mostly contain in (CGA; 2–5g/100g), and also related compounds, like quinic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid. Coffee is quickly absorbed and reaches its peak plasma concentration within 1h. And.caffeic acid or its glucuronide conjugates in plasma and is typically found in the form of sulphate also one-third of CGA is orally absorbed. [20-23]

 

The positive effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) and CGA, on weight management has been reported in most of the studies. [24,25]

 

 The adipose tissues store energy in the form of triglyceride also, break down lipids into free fatty acids whenever energy is needed [26]. Polyphenols are abundant secondary metabolites in plants and are used to prevent diseases associated with oxidative stress and its related complications. The CGA is found in plasma in the form of sulphates of caffeic acid or their conjugates of glucuronides also one third of CGA is absorbed orally. [27]. Metabolic syndromes affected by coffee such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and insulin-resistance [28–32].

 

Patients is called as obese if their body mass index is greater than or equal to 30kg/m2 and overweight if their body mass index is between 25 and 29.9kg/m2. [33] Coffee affects metabolic syndromes such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and insulin-resistance [34] Now a days, green coffee is being marketed for ‘‘natural’’ weight loss as a drink and in various solid oral dosage forms. [35] But one third of CGA is orally consumed, and is typically found in plasma in the form of caffeic acid sulphates or their glucuronide conjugates. (36,37).

 

The antioxidants foods like, vitamins (A, C, and E) and polyphenols will reduce CVD-related deaths [38,39]. When such type of food taken regularly, so in our diet use of anti-oxidant andnutritional supplementation growing and contemporary interest on CVD. The polyphenols are the major group of antioxidants are available mostly in coffee, apples, tomatoes, chocolate and tea. The chronic diseases like oxidative stress will managed by polyphenols which are rich in (GCBE) [40]. The polyphenols are rich in (GCBE) that help defensive factors against chronic diseases introduced by oxidative stress [41]. By animal studies it is proved that increases the effect of GCBE supplementation on chronic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity [42-44]. CGA is the most important constituents of green coffeewhich can reduces Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) which is proven on laboratory animals [45], Hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) [45], TG, TC, LDL-C and OX-LDL has been shown to be one of the in laboratory animals. [46,47]. Study on human also have proved that the beneficial effects of GCBE and CGA supplementation on blood pressure [48,49], lipid profile [50], body weight, body weight, fat mass index [49,50] and serum FBS levels [49]. In addition, CGA has been asserted to increase the total antioxidant potential (TAC) [51,52] and to decrease certain inflammatory biomarkers [52,53]. Cholorogenic acid is an important intermediate biosynthetic agent which is the ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid [54]. Compound Anti-oxidant, i.e. Cholorogenic acid is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of lignin and such compounds become active after a meal sometimes delays glucose release into the bloodstream [55].

 

Characteristics of GCB- light grains, flavor- distinct, colour-green. We can tress out the chemical composition of the coffee, i.e. genetic and environmental conditions which are responsible for the concentrations of chemo protective compounds present in the green coffee beans, such as the antioxidants However, when the roasted beans are a change in its bioactive compound concentration [56-58]. GCE has suggested that most of the weight-loss effects are related to its cholorogenic acid content [59]. Cholorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural chemical compound in which caffeic acid and quinic acid are the esters. This is an effective intermediate biosynthetic agent [60]. In lignin biosynthesis Cholorogenic acid is an important intermediate. This compound, known as an antioxidant, they slow the release of glucose into the bloodstream after a meal [59]. Cholorogenic acid is rich found in the green coffee beans extract [60] and some extend in potatoes [61] and prunes [63]. Phenolicacid abundantly found in the flesh of eggplant fruits [62].

 

World is faces the problems of obesity and overweight, theseare serious health problems which are related with epidermicproportion. Quality of life is attached by overweight showing negative impact also expectation from life reduces by obesity. To overcome the side effect many prescription on weight loss drugs, herbal remedies are becoming widely popular as alternatives to prescription medications for weight loss [64]

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Preparation of Aqueous Extract of Green Coffee Seeds:

3g of dried powdered seeds of Green coffee in 300ml of distilled water for 20 min and keep for 25 min to cool and filtered. Lyophilization of filtrate takes place and the desired dose was then prepared and reconstituted in 10 ml of distilled water per kilogram body weight just before oral administration.

 

Dose -20 mg/kg body weight daily by orally.

 

Benifits of Green Coffee Beanns:

Antioxidant activity:

The phenolic compounds contained in green coffee beans such as CGAs, caffeic, ferulic and n-coumarinic are the main contributors having anti-oxidant capacity. Ferulic acid having anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antibacterial, anti-platelet and antiviral effects [69,70, 71]. Some researchers have observed antioxidant activity in extracts of green coffee presenting a hypotensive effect in rats [72].

The author Yashin was demonstrates the antioxidant activity of green coffee through ORAC (Oxygen Radiation Absorbance Capacity), FRAP (Reduced Antioxidant Potency), TRAP (Total Reactive antioxidant) TEAC (Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) when comparing Arabic and Robusta coffees submitted to different roasting methods and temperatures. He also observed that the antioxidant activity of the Robusta coffee was higher than that of the Arabica coffee. This difference becomes insignificant after the light roasting and the Arabica coffee exceeds the Robusta coffee when the degree of roasting is increased [73]. In the green coffee beans, polysaccharides present besides having an important role with respect to the organoleptic characteristics in coffee beverage, researchers have found that these components have a prebiotic potential and antioxidant activity and activities are satisfactory when a molecular modification occurs [74]. Robusta coffee 3% to 7% sugar present while Arabica coffee presents 6% to 9% of sugars. The modified polysaccharides showed excellent antioxidant activity. By in vitro methods, the evaluation of the antioxidant activity was determined using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast as a model of living cells. The in vitro methods are classified in hydrogen transfer (HAT) and electron transfer (ET) assays. The CGAs are the only compounds that demonstrated a positive response to intracellular antioxidant activity measured in intestinal Caco-2 cells [75]. The Liang concluded that intracellular antioxidant activity responds positively to CGAs, providing coffee health benefits.

 

Other benefits:

Author Godos et al. and Zhou et al. trigonelin has a hyperlipidemic and hypoclycemic effect [58,76, and 77]. After administration of trigonelin in anismalsand humans shows reduction in obesity and also reduces glucose level in diabetic patient [78]. Trigonelin also shows excellent results on reduces serum cholesterol and triglycerides. [77] The scientist or researcher are interested to study the metabolism and how the polyphenolic compound are reduces the weight. Some absorption studies on these coffee components in human is as follows - stomach -small intestine, later absorption occurs in the intestinal microbiota [79]. Cafestol and kahweol coffee beans are the most influent diterpenes found in higher amounts in unfiltered coffee (6-12mg). For small concentrations of cafestol (10-10 to 10-6 M) in vitro study carry out which showed increase in secretion of insulin and glucose uptake. Finally result, it was noted that the filtered coffee, although having low concentrations of this compound, still can have a preventative action of T2DM [80].

 

In many CGAs, the most important are caffeine-like acids (CQA), representing about 80% of the total chlorogenic content followed by dicafeoylquinic acids (diCQA), feruloylquinic acids (CFA), p-couaroylquinic acids (p-CoQA) and (CFQA). [58,81] combinely CGA and caffeic acid has ant mutagenic, anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition to the antioxidant power, CGAs have other important health properties such as hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic and antiviral activities [66].

 

In cosmetic industry considers oily raw material obtained from green coffee. They having emollient properties, softeners, moisturizing and the ability to protect against sunlight, this is because coffee oil is extremely rich in components such as sterols and unsaponifiable compounds [82]

 

RESULT:

Meta-analysis Result:

1.     Effect of green coffee extract supplementation on SBP:

The green coffee extract supplementation administration did result in significant change in SBP after green coffee supplementation with no significant heterogeneity among the studies. In another subgroup analysis, we found that green coffee extract supplementation remained significant in hypertensive subjects and metabolic syndrome patients. On other hand, there was a greater significant reduction in SBP in studies with green coffee dosage 400 mg and a significant reduction with an intervention duration of 4 weeks.

 

2.     Effect of green coffee extract supplementation on DBP

The green coffee extract supplement administration results from the random-effect model indicated that DBP did change significantly following green coffee extract administration with low heterogeneity among the studies. In another subgroup analyses based on health status; green coffee extract administration reduced DBP only in hypertensive subjects. Also, in, green coffee extract

 

Administration reduced DBP in studies with an intervention duration of 4 weeks and green coffee dosage <400 mg.

 

Appetite change:

We can observed that the patients study pre and one week after starting treatment with green coffee, there is clear decrease in the appetite. The daily intake of CGA in persons drinking coffee varies from 0.5 to 1g [83].

 

DISCUSSION:

The present study illustrated that 68.6% of the total obese patients were female. This preponderance is well known and supported by many previous studies [84].

 

Coffee shows many biological properties like, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, increased fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity, modulation of glucose absorption and utilization, and antihypertensive effects [85,86].

 

On index of blood pressure, the unroasted coffee beans and green coffee bean shows- numerous, potential, positive effects. GCBE has been shown to elicit antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats [87] and in mildly hypertensive humans [88]. We found significant reductions in SBP and DBP for patients with preexisting hypertension, particularly at dosages of 400 mg. The green coffee extract has positively impacts metabolic syndromes like as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance [89].

 

CONCLUSION:

There are, more and more trials are needed to show the usefulness of green coffee extract used in a weight loss tool. According to the effect of green coffee which is increasing energy metabolism and decreasing lipogenesis, so it is suggested that carry out studies on patients with BMI more than 40. Also, study will carry out on the health account of various physiological responses to natural components present in green coffee.

 

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Received on 05.08.2020         Modified on 22.08.2020

Accepted on 04.09.2020  ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2020; 12(4):201-206.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2020.00034.5