A comprehensive Review on Bergenia ciliata

 

Dr. Ramesh D. Ingole1, Nasir S. Shaikh2, Aviansh B. Thalkari3, Pawan N. Karwa2*

Krushna K. Zambare4

1DJPS College of Pharmacy, Pathri.

2Gurukrupa Institute of Pharmacy (Degree), Near Chatrapatthi Sugar Factory,

NH- 222 Gadi Road, Majalgaon-431131, Maharashtra.

3Pharmacy College, Kaij, Maharashtra.

4SBSPM College of Pharmacy, Ambejogai

*Corresponding Author E-mail: karwapawan99@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Saxifrage Latin means stone breaker is Pashanabheda in Indian system is the popular name. It has been becoming a medicine more popular due to its drought resistant and non-toxicity.  The current review is a brief description of the botanically important Herb which is used world wide with a systemic approach.

 

KEYWORDS: Berginia ciliata, Medicinal uses, Phytochemisry, Pharamacology, traditional uses.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

As we know that India is called the botanical garden of the due to its large contribution of the herb producing capacity in the world.1 Knowing that plants are basic need for life on earth and are closely attached to the livelihood of the people.2 If we look at the various geographical locations in India it will be quit clear that India has a vast diversity in rich culture of the medicinal herbs and spices which almost consists of more that 2000 species and has great potential activities for Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha and various traditional medicines. The ancient tribes has used plants for the treatment of various ailments since the past.3 With the experience procured from these ancienters the use of the traditional medicine by the Amchis, faithhealers and ethnic groups is done despite knowing that the active principles in some specific plants are not completely known.4

 

Earlier for any of the infectious disease a pill for a few days was the need but now not any more. Near about 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants and 252 of them are considered as basic and essential by the World Health Organization(WHO).5 The WHO considers phytotherapy and it’s basic procedures for the validation of drugs in developing countries as a best option to deal with diseases.6 According to recent survey by Newman et al. 61% of the total 877 small- molecule and the chemical entities which were used as drugs worldwide from 1981–2002 all these were inspired by natural products7. Moving toward the topic Saxifrage Latin means stone breaker. Pashanabheda in Indian system is the popular name. It has been cm becoming a medicine more popular due to its drought resistant and non-toxicity. Plants.8 The current review is a brief description of the botanically important Herb which is used world wide with a systemic approach.

 

Fig 1: Leaves

 

Fig 2: Flowers

 

Synonyms:

Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., Megaera ciliata (Haw.), Saxifraga ciliata (Haw.) Royle., Saxifraga ligulata Wall., Saxifraga thysanodes Lindl. 8.9

 

Vernacular Names:

English: Rock-foil

Sanskrit: Paashaanabheda

Hindi: Pashanbhed, Dakachru

Gujarati: Pakhanbheda8

Bengali: Patharchuri

Marathi: Pasanbheda

Malayalam: Kallurvanchi, Kallurvanni, Kallorvanchi

Oriya: Pasanbhedi

Tamil: Sirupilai

Telugu: Kondapindi

Urdu: Pakhanabeda, Zakham-e-hayat

Arabic: Barghienia-mehdiyata. 10,11,12,13

Nepalese: Pakanabadha

Sinhalese: Pahanabeya

Japanese: Yukinoshita

German: Steinbrech

Unani: Mukha

Persian: Gashah

Assamese: Patharkuchi

Kannada: Alepgaya, Pahanbhedi, Hittaga, Pasanaberu, HittulakaPasanaberu, Hittulaka

Kashmir: Pashanbhed

Punjabi: Kachalu, Pashanbhed.10,11

Telanurupindi: (Andhra Pradesh),

Patharchur: (Uttar Pradesh, Bihar),

Sirupilai: tamil naidu

Padamdawi: (Mizoram).8

 

Taxonomic hierarchy:

Classification-Bergenia Moench. Kingdom-Plantae-plants

 

Subkingdom-Tracheobionta-vascular plants Super division- Spermatophyta-seed plants Division-Magnoliophyta

 

Class-Manoliopsida-dicotyledons Subclass-Rosidae

 

Order-Saxifragales Family-Saxifragacae14

Genera- Bergenia

Species - Ciliata f. ciliata.8,10,11,13,15,16

 

Distribution:

Bergenia ciliata is commonly a perennial climbing plant. 10 It has been widely spread over the cold temperate regions. 16According to The International Plant Names Index there are in total about 32 species included of the Bergenia genus throughout the world .If distributed China has its in total total seven species, growing in the three provinces Sichuan, Sanxi and Shanxi and two Autonomous Region Tibet and Xinjiang.17About 6 species of Bergenia are procured in the temperate Himalayas and Central and East Asia. 14. Bergenia is also found in Afghanistan, South Tibet, and Bhutan. Moving towards india it is found

 

in the Himalayas (Kumaon), Meghalaya, Lushai hills West Bengal (Darjeeling, Labha, Takdah, Rimbick( Kalimpong), Arunachal Pradesh (Nyam Jang Chu), Kyongnosla, Changu, Karponanag, Lachen to Thongu, Nathang, Prekchu-Tsokha, Pangolakha-Subaney Dara, Gangtok (domesticated) in Sikkim.11,15 Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand .The It is also found in adjoining countries like Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan upto Tibet and China at higher altitudes.8,14,18,19,20,21,22

 

Botanical Descriptions:

Saxifraga ligulata is a very tiny plant.22

Plant spreads about 45.72-60.96 cmspace.16

 

Stems:

It is short, thick and fleshy.8,18,21

 

Leaves:

The leaves are stalked and sheathing in the base being ovate, orbicular in shape with fringed margin and has short and stiff hairs.21 The leaves typically have less or incised margin. Long leaves are about 2.5cm in diameter obviate to sub orbicular, hairy, mid green, tapering at base.13,18,22

 

Flowers:

These are are borne in terminal corymbs and are white, pink or purple in colour.21 Flowers consists of nearly about five petals and sepals and are usually white.3 These are 3.2 cm in diameter, forming a cymose panicle with flexible flowering stem, 10-25 cm long leafless and styles. 13,18,23

 

Fruits:

It is capsular. 3,21 The fruit is a capsule and rounded in shape.18

 

Seeds:

are greyish in colour, minute and numerous in one capsule.3,18 Seeds are 1 mm long, minutely tuberculate, usually numerous, albuminous.10

 

Rhizomes:

There are solid, barrel, cylindrical shaped small roots. Rhizome is used for medicinal purpose. These are high in the chemical constituents in its root, stems and leaves. It is having aromatic odour and astringent taste 3The rhizome comes out from the cervices of rocks and hangs in the air in sloppy areas.18 The colour of sepals is pink to reda and 7mm Long.

 

Carpels and styles green or pinkish in colour and 7mm long. Capsule 13×6 mm in size, including styles. are inserted with the petals, equaling or double their number, Ovary is of 2 or 3-5 united carpels, usually 2 or 3-5 celled with axile placentas, occasionally 1-celled with parietal placentas ovules numerous, anatropous.10

 

Flowering time of Bergenia ciliata is February to April and fruiting time is March to July.11

 

Species of the Bergenia genus:

Bergenia, Bergenia beesiana, Bergenia biflora, Bergenia ciliate, Bergenia cordifolia, Bergenia coreana, Bergenia crassifolia, Bergenia delavayi, Bergenia emeiensis, Bergenia fortunei, Bergenia gorbunovii, Bergenia himalaica, Bergenia hissarica, Bergenia ligulata, Bergenia media, Bergenia milesii, Bergenia × newryensis, Bergenia orbicularis, Bergenia ornata, Bergenia pacifica, Bergenia pacumbis, Bergenia purpurascens, Bergenia schmidtii, Bergenia × schmidtii, Bergenia scopulosa, Bergenia smithii, Bergenia spathulata, Bergenia stracheyi, Bergenia thysanodes, Bergenia tianquanensis, Bergenia ugamica, Bergenia yunnanensis. 24

 

Chemical constituents:

S. No

Compounds Name

Activity

1.

Bergenin

Antioxidant activity against ascorbic acid

2.

Tannic acid

Pharmaceutical application

3.

Gallic acid

Antifungal, Antiviral,

 

 

Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant

4.

Catechin

Histidine decarboxylase inhibitor

5.

(-)-3-0-galloylcatechin

-

6.

(-)-3-0-galloylepicatechin

-

7.

Gallicin

-

8.

β-Sitosterol

Inhibit cholesterol level

9.

Arbutin

Prevent the formation of melanin

10.

Leucoanthocyanidin 4-(2-galloyl)

-

11.

(+)-Afzelechin

-

12.

Camphor

Antinociceptive, Antispasmodicc, Antimicrobial

13.

Glucoside

-

14.

2-pentanone

-

15.

2,4-Dimethyl-3-pentanone

-

16.

Hexanal

Antifungal

17.

2-methyl-1-propanol

-

18.

Acetic acid

Therapeutic activity

19.

Heptanol

-

20.

2-ethyl hexanol

-

21.

3-pentanol

-

22.

2-pentanol

-

23.

Octanol

-

24.

Pentanol

Antibacterial and antifungal

25.

Heptanal

-

26.

Limonene

Antiseptic and Chemotherapeutic agent

27.

Linalool

Food additives and shows bioactivity

28.

3-methyl-4-hexen-2-one

-

29.

2-Nitropropane

Shows hepatotoxicity

30.

Hexanol

Therapeutic activity

31.

2,4-Hexadienal

Therapeutic activity and sesquiterpene

33.

α-Terpinol

Myorelaxant and antispasmodic effects

34.

Pentanoic acid

Fragrant causing agent

35.

2,4-nonadienal

Bioantimutagenic

36.

Hexanoic acid

Antifungal activity

37.

Hexalactone

-

38.

Isobutyrophenone

-

39.

5,6-Dihydro-2-pyranone

-

40.

Decanoic acid

Antimicrobial and antifungal activity

41.

Nonanoic acid

Herbicidal activity

42.

2-methyl butanoic acid

-

43.

Methyl nonanoate

Antimicrobial and Antifungal activity

44.

Methyl cinnamate

Antimicrobial activity

45.

β-phellandrene

Used in fragrances

46.

[E]-4-Hepten-2-one

Used in fragrances

47.

Quercetin 3-o-β-D- xylopyranosides

-

48.

Quercetin 3-o-α- Larbinofuranoxide glycosides

-

49.

Tannins, saponins, coumarins

Antimicrobial activity

50.

Phenolic and flavonoid

Antimicrobial and antifungal activity

51.

Terpenoids andcardiac glycoside

Phytotoxic activity

52.

Epicatechin, catechin

Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activity

53.

Terpenoid

-

54.

Bergenin, p-hydroxybenzoyl bergenin

Antioxidant

55.

Alkaloid, saponin, glycoside, tannin and phenol, reducing sugars, flavonoid

-

7,8,10,11,12,13,15,17,20,23

 

Pharmacological actions:

Antibacterial activity:

The antibacterial activity was been studies using the disk diffusion method. The Methanolic extract of Berginia ciliata rhizome was used in different concentrations of 200, 400, 800, 1000μg/discs against the Gram positive bacteria i.e. Bacillus pumilis and Staphylococcus aureus and also negative bacteria i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio choleare. Chloramphenicol was the standard reagent in the concentration of 10μg/disc. Methanolic extract possesed a broad spectrum activity at all tested concentrations. The antibacterial efficacy of the extract was potent at 1000μg/disc, the maximum effect shown against S. aureus being also comparable to that of chloramphenicol 10μg/disc.

 

Antioxidant activity:

The roots and leaves extracts of B. ciliata were promising against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and were showed that that the Methanolic and aqueous extracts of Bergenia ciliata rhizomes exhibited antioxidant activity.

 

Antitussive activity:

The Methanolic extract of rhizome part of the plant showed anti-tussive activity in rat. Antitussive effect against sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough was evaluated in mice by using method implemented by Miyagoshi et al. (1986). In the experimental conditions the animals were divided into five groups, each with ten mice. One group served as control, three groups for methanol extract of B. ciliata (100, 200 and 300mg/kg body wt. p.o.) and the remaining group was used for the standard drug, codeine phosphate (10mg/kg body wt., p.o.). The antitussive activity of the extract was comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10mg/kg body wt.), a standard antitussive agent. The extract at doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body wt., p.o. showed significant inhibition of cough reflex by 28.7, 33.9 and 44.2%, respectively, within 90min of the experiment. Both codeine phosphate and the extract of B. ciliata (at different doses), maximum inhibition of cough reflex occurred 90min after drug administration. The highest cough inhibition (44.2%) was produced by the extract at a dose of 300mg/kg body wt. (p.o.) 90min after the experiment, whereas codeine phosphate (10mg/kg) showed maximum 48.9% inhibition at the same             time. 18-19.3,22,20,10,11,12

 

Diuretic activity:

The ethanolic extracts of root of Bergenia ligulata was used to prove the diuretic activity in albino rats that was compared with standard drugs. For evaluation of the diuretic activity Lipschits method was used. It was done by measuring the volume of urine collected at the end of 5 hrs and Na+,K+and Cl- concentration in urine. The ethanolic extract of the roots of Bergenia ligulata was found to produce desired activity.15

 

Hepatoprotective activity:

Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated using the male albino rats. The Liv 52 syrup was used as standard solution and the carbon tetra chloride was used to induce hepatotoxicity.

 

The animals were divided in three groups of six each. Group I- Normal control (administered with 1% Gum acacia in distilled water), Group II- Negative control (CCl4 intoxicated, 0.7ml/kg ip), Group III- administered with ethanolic extract of root (500mg/kg p.o./day). CCl4 was given on 3rd, 6th and 10th day for all groups except Group I. On the 10th day one hour after the last dose of CCl4 injection, blood was collected from carotid artery. SGPT, SGOT and total bilirubin levels were estimated. CCl4 toxicant increased the level of SGPT, SGOT, and total bilirubin. Group III animals treated with Bergenia ligulata has shown significant decreased in the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and Total Bilirubin as compared to negative control group. So therefore it was proved to be used as in activity.8

 

Anti-pyretic activity:

The methanol extract of B. ciliata rhizome exhibited significant antipyretic effects on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. It in both models at oral doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg. B. ciliata extract, at 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the normal body temperature in rats for up to 5 h after its administration. In yeast-induced pyrexia, the extract significantly lowered body temperature for up to 4 h after its administration in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was comparable with that of paracetamol, a standard antipyretic agent.12

 

Anti-inflammatory activity:

Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of the rhizomes of Bergenia ligulata are reported to attenuate the inflammatory response as determined by pharmacological and biochemical measurements. The treatment significantly decreased the inflammation. The activity level of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which was been reported to rise in inflammation decreased in rats receiving the extract treatment. The study reports the radical scavenging activity of the rhizomes of B. ligulata, and establishes the therapeutic rationale of using B. ligulata in Indian System of Medicine.22,15

 

Anti-bacterial activity:

The methanolic extract of B. ciliata rhizome showed a wide spectrum of concentration dependent antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of B. ciliata rhizomes at a concentration of 200-1000 µg/ . The broad spectrum and concentration dependent antibacterial activity was also confirmed in aqueous extract of crude drug.12

 

Antiviral activity:

Methanol-water extract from rhizomes of Bergenia ligulata inhibited in vitro the replication of influenza virus in a dose dependent manner and did not show virucidal activity at effective concentration. Pre-treatment of cells with B. ligulata extract was shown to be most effective to prevent cell destruction. The extract inhibited viral RNA synthesis and reduced viral peptide synthesis at 10µ/ml. The principal chemical compound was condensed tannins in the extract.8

 

Antidiabetic activity:

B. ciliata showed anti-diabetic activity and proved that glucose inhibit the activity of two digestive enzymes α-glucosidase and α- amylase and lower the effect of this plant.The two active compounds (-)-3-O-galloylepicatechin and (-)-3-O-galloylcatechin isolated from the 50% aqueous methanol extract of rhizome part and these two enzymes showed strong inhibitory action against α- glucosidase and α- amylase in rat intestine. The standard IC50 value for sucrose, maltase and α-amylase were 560, 334 and 739 μM, respectively for             [(-)-3-O-galloylepicatechin] and 297, 150 and 401 μM, respectively for (-)-3-O-galloylcatechin.10

 

Anti neoplastic activity:

Currently several many more new drugs used in the in chemotherapy are those isolated from plants. Natural products have long been used to prevent and treat cancer and thus they are good examples to be used as the anti-cancer drugs (1). According to Cragg and Newman (2000)(2), over 50% of the drugs in clinical trials for anti-cancer activity are isolated from natural sources or are related to them. 25 The study was aimed inevaluating the anti-neoplastic efficacies of the methanol and aqueous extracts of Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. Rhizome. The extracts were tested for their cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma), Hep3B (human hepatocellular carcinoma) and PC-3 (human prostate cancer) cell lines by the XTT assay. Furthermore, the apoptotic inducing abilities of the extracts were analysed by the cellular DNA fragmentation ELISA. The results obtained suggest that the extracts bear anti-cancer metabolites and could be considered as a potential source for anti-cancer drug. 22

 

Antifungal activity:

when ethanol (95%) extract of the dried roots of B. schmidii was experimented it showed the antifungal activity.20

 

Anti-ulcer activity:

B. ciliata was evaluated for its gastro protective effects on ethanol/HCl, indomethacin and pylorus ligation- induced gastric ulcers in rats. Doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg b/w of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the rhizome exhibited anti-ulcer activity. The aqueous extract decreased the ulcer lesion (p < 0.05) in all models to a greater extent than the methanol extract, but at the higher doses the effect was reduced. The antiulcer activity appears to be mediated via cytoprotective effects conferred by enhancement of the mucosal barrier, rather than by prevention of gastric acid secretion or the lowering of pH and acidity. 26

 

Antimalarial activity:

The leaf extract of the plant showed good in vitro antiplasmodial activity, with an IC50 <10 μg/ml. When tested in vivo, different concentrations of the extract (250 to 1,000 mg/kg) exhibited considerable chemo suppression on day 7, in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum chemo suppression was observed to be 87.50 % at 1,000 mg/kg. Administration of (750 and 1,000 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.0005) enhanced the mean survival time of mice in comparison to infected control, which exhibited a mean survival time of 8.6 ± 1.5        days 27.

 

The other including Anti-bradykinin activity, Antilithic activity, Anti-Antiurolithic activity are also shown by the plant and it’s parts.

 

Clinical Uses:

·       B. ciliata is used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of several diseases in Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bhutan and some other countries.

·       It is used in the treatment of the diseases including the kidney and bladder stones, abnormal leucorrhea, piles, and pulmonary affections also cooling, laxative, analgesic, abortifacient, aphrodisiac properties and used in treatment of vesicular calculi, urinary discharges, excessive uterine haemorrhage, diseases of the bladder, dysentery, menorrhagia, splenic enlargement and heart diseases .

·       The dry powder of Bergenia is often used for treating cough, stop bleeding, increasing immunity.

·       It also used as health food as many kinds of amino acids and mineral elements which are helpful, so used as a cuisine.

·       It can also be used in the disinfectant of urine

·       The degradation of the Insulin can also be prevented.

·       Has also a role in the Cosmetic’s.Bergenia can be applied in cosmetic field, owing to its functional ingredient arbutin, arbutin can make skin whiten, because it can prevent tyrosinase within skin from taking effect. Currently, Bergenia has already been manufactured into cosmetic brightening agent.

·       It is also considered absorbent and given in dysentery.

·       When it is rubbed down and given with honey to children when teething. earaches

·       It is used in the treatment if ophthalmia.

·       It is utilized in veterinary medicines and when this is applied externally to the cattle it produces an astringent effect. 16,17

 

CONCLUSION:

The present study explores the detailed information of B. ciliata and its therapeutic efficiency about the medicinal uses explained in medicinal systems. The phytochemical and biological investigation of B. ciliata reports the versatility and explains its diverse role. It is concluded that this miracle herb had been used traditionally among the various communities across the tribal region of worldwide ailment of urinary, gastrointestinal, skin, pulmonary, hepatics, gynecological, inflammatory and infectious diseases. In total of 104 different disease disorders were reported to be treated by this species while its highest potential was observed to cure gastrointestinal disorders primarily. Almost all parts of the plant are used for curing different but the most frequent part used is rhizome followed by root. In recent times, the old traditional practices are at gradually decline very rapidly and under risk due to rapid modernization hence there is urgent need for documentation of such tribal species and help to find innovative ways for uncap its efficiency used for human welfare in future.

 

REFERENCES:

1.     Ahatsham Hussain, Mudassir Kanth, et. al, phytochemical analysis of the rhizomes of Bergenia ciliata (how) sternb, Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2019; vol 9(3):412. available online on 15.05.2019 at http://jddtonline.info

2.     Dhiraj S. Rawat, Anjna D. Kharwal, Ethnobotanical studies on different species of bergenia in himachal pradesh, India, Research article, Int. J. Adv. res, vol 6(3), 672.

3.     Priyanka Kantivan Goswami et.al, Multi faceted saxifrage ligulata, review article int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. vol4(4), Jul Aug 2013,pg.no608.www.ijrap.net

4.     Gan B. Bajracharya, Rokesh Maharjan and Bijaya L. Maharjan, Potential antibacterial activity of bergeniapurpurascens, Nepal Journal of Science and Technology vol12 ,2011 157.

5.     Saba Muzaffar, Dr. Suhasini Bhatnagar, Syed Badakhasann, Evalution of antibacterial activity of bergenia ciliate plant, Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR), February 2020, Volume 7, issue 2, Pg. No 612

6.     Rachna Verma, Ashwani Tapwal, Dinesh Kumar, Sunil Puri, Assessment of antimicrobial potential and phytochemical profiling of ethnomedicinal plant Bergenia ciliata (haw)sternb.in western Himalaya, J Microbiol Biotech Food Sci / Verme et al. 2019: 9 (1) pg.no-15

7.     Subha Rastogi, Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat, A comprehensive review on bergenin, apotentialhepatoprotective and antioxidative phytoconstituent, Review articles, Vol. 54 issue 2 2008, pg.no-62

8.     Priyanka Kantivan Goswami, Mayuri Samant, Rashmi S. Srivastava, Multi faceted saxifragaligulata, Review Article, Int. J. res. ayurveda pharm. 4(4), Jul–Aug 2013, Pg.no-608-610.www.ijrap.net.

9.     Singh A: Sandhu A. A Dictionary of Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: Sundeep Publishers; 2005, p. 46

10.  Lakhwinder Singh, Antul Kumar and Amandeep Paul, Bergenia ciliata: The medicinal herb of cold desert, International Journal of Chemical Studies 2018; 6(3): 3609-3613.

11.  Rajani Chauhan, KM. Ruby, Jaya Dwivedi, Bergenia ciliate mine of medical properties: a review, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research,15(2), 2012, Pg.no-20 to 22.

12.  Mohammad Yaseen Khan and Vimal Kumar, Phytopharmacological and chemical profile of bergenia ciliata, international Journal of Phytopharmacy Review Article vol. 6 (5), Sep-oct 2016, pp. 90-98.

13.  Gurav and Gurav, A comprehensive review: bergenia ligulata wall-aconiroversial clinical candidate, IJPSR, 2014; vol. 5(5): 1630-1640

14.  Priyanka Pokhrel, Janmajoy Banerjee, et. al, Phytochemical screening and biological evaluation of different parts of plant bergenia ciliata, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 3(4): 220- 222.

15.  KM Ruby, Jaya Dwivedi, Rajani Chauhan, Pashanbheda a golden herb of himalaya: a review, IJPRR, vol 2, issue 2,2012,97-105.

16.  Handa SS, Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Vol-1, Mumbai: A joint publication of RRL Jammu and IDMA; 1997p. 17-24.

17.  Zhang et al, A review on resource status, bioactive ingredients, clinical applications and biological progress in bergenia, Journal of medicinal plants Research, 16 September, 2011, Vol. 5(18), pp. 4396-4399.

18.  Bergenia ciliata (haw.) Sternb. Agro-techniques of selected Medicinal Plants, page no-14-17.

19.  Sanyukta Chowdharya, Harish Kumar and K.R. Verma, Quantitative assessment of current status and biomass of bergenia ciliate and bergenia stracheyi from kuma unhimalaya, International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, Volume: I: Issue-2: Aug-Oct -2010, Pg.no 360-361.

20.  Vinesh Kumar and Devendra Tyag, review on phytochemical, ethnomedical and biological studies of medically useful genus bergenia, Int.J. Curr.Microbiol. App.Sci (2013) 2(5): 328-334.

21.  Chopra, R. N. (1948). Report of the committee on indigenous systems of medicine. New Delhi: Government of India.

22.  Jiwan Paudel, Saroj Belbase, Ramu Yadav and Shrvan Kumar, Berginia ciliata (Haw.) sternb: a miracle in between the stone menace to kidney stone its vital uses and important chemicals- a review, Int. J. Pure App. Biosci, 2018, SPI: 6 (1): 122-127

23.  Newsletter Knowledge of herbs – Bergenia ciliata, 2013. 24.http://www.ipni.org

24.  Venkatadri Rajkumar et al., Anti-neoplastic activities of Bergenia ciliata rhizome, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2011,4(2),443.

25.  Kakub G, Gulfraz M. Cytoprotective effects of Bergenia ciliata sternb, extract on gastric ulcer in rats. Phytotherapy Research. 2007; 21(12):1217-1220.

26.  Walter NS, Bagai U, Kalia S. Antimalarial activity of Bergenia ciliata (haw.) sternb. against plasmodium berghei. Parasitology Research. 2013; 112(9):3123-8.

 

 

 

Received on 09.06.2020          Modified on 21.06.2020

Accepted on 25.07.2020  ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2020; 12(3):178-183.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2020.00030.8