Pharmacological actions of Tridax procumbens L.: A Scientific Review


Mr. Avinash B. Thalkari1, Mr. Pawan N. Karwa2, Ms. Pallavi S. Shinde2, Chandrakant S. Gawli2, Priyanka S. Chopane2

1Vasant Pharmacy College, Kaij-431517, Maharashtra.

2.Gurukrupa Institute of Pharmacy (Degree), Near Chatrapatthi Sugar Factory,

NH- 222 Gadi Road, Majalgaon-431131, Maharashtra.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:



Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae) is. known for several potential therapeutic activ'ities like antiviral, antibiotic efficacies, wound healing activity, insecticidal and anti-int'lammatory activity.  The medicinal plants are the rich sources of natural remedies to treat the pathogenic and other diseases. Plant Tridax procumbens belongs to family Asteraceae one off. Plant is native of tropical America and naturalized in tropical Africa, Asia, and Australia. Local people known it as “Ghamara”, in English popularly called ‘coat buttons’ and is dispensed for “Bhringraj” by some of the practitioners of Ayurveda. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids (catechin and flavones), fumeric acid, fl-sitosterol, saponins and tannins. It is richly endowed with carotenoids, saponins, oleanolic acid and ions like calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and selenium. The extracts of Tridax procumbens have been used as indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments. It has been extensively used in Indian traditional medicine for wound healing, as anticoagulant, antifungal and insect repellent, in diarrhea and dysentery.


KEYWORDS: Therapeutic, traditional, pharmacology, Tridax procumbens Biological activity Plant extract Medicinal plants.




Asteraceae is one of the successful taxon' among the angiosperms. The members belonging to this family either show a wide speckumof habit and habitat. It  attributes economic and valuable plants, including the many medicinal plants. for their beneficial pharmaceutical uses.(1)


Tridax procumbens also well know as the coat button or Tridaxdaisy, belonging to the family daisy family. It has been widely used due to its use as a weed and pest plant.


It is found in American zones but rather than this zone it has also been has been precured in the tropical, subtropical, and mild temperate regions thought about the world. Recently it has also been enlisted as a noxious weed(2). From the past early decades it has played a vital role in the Ayurvedic system in India.(3) Some of the medicinally beneficial species belonging to this genus Tridax are: T. angustifolia, T. serboana, T. bicolor, T. accedens, T. dubia, T. erecta and T. rosea.(4)


Scientific Classification(5):

Taxonomic Classification
























T. procumbens

Binomial name

Tridax procumbens


Common names:



Tridax daisy



Erva de Touro




Dominican Republic


Piquant Jambe



Coat buttons, Tridax daisy



Herbe Caille



Bull Grass, Bull’s herb






Bisalyakarmi, Mukkuthipoo, Phanafuli, Tunki, Ghamara, Javanti Veda, Dhaman grass, Vettukkayapoondu, Vettukaaya






Tridax procumbens (Linn.)






Dagadi Pala 



Igbalobe, Muwagun, Muriyampachila, Jayanti, Vettukkaaya-thala




Puerto Rico





Jayanti Veda,







United States


Tridax daisy (3)





Fig 1: Tridax procumbens Linn.(2)


General characteristics:

Tridax procumbens is a short-lived perennial, perennial, prostrate to ascending herb with stems height ranging to 50cm long. The plant blossoms yellow-centered white or yellow flowers with an three-toothed ray florets. The Capitulais about 1-1.5cm in diameter, rays 4mm. The leaves are simple, toothed and normally arrowhead in shaped, entire, rarely pinnatisect. The Peduncle is very long, strigose. The fruit is hard turbinate achene, smooth or faintly ribbed covered by the stiff hairs and having a feathery, it shows plume like white pappus at one side. Fruit with pale ascending hairs, giving achene grayish-brown appearance. Fruiting is seasoned thorough out the year. Fruit is narrowly obconic to cylindrical, tapering to a blunt base, 1.5-2.5mm long, 0.5-1.4mm in diameter(2)


Chemical constituents:

A number active chemical constituent were isolated and reported from the plant Tridax procumbens. As a alkaloids, flavonoids, carotenoids, β-sitosterol, fumeric acid, Luteolin, quercetin, oxoester, lauric acid, myristic, palmitic, arachidic, linoleic acid and tannin etc. Earlier researchers reported presence of dexamethasone, Luteolin, glucoluteolin, beta-sitosterol and quercetin. Linolenic acid was also reported in the aerial parts. Two water soluble polysaccharide WSTP-IA and WSTP-IB containing β-(1->6)-DGalactan main chain has also been purified from the leaves of the plant. Identification of some sterols by GC-MS and lipid constituents of Tridax procumbens was also reported. A new flavonoid “Procumbenetin” isolated from aerial parts of plant has been characterized as 3, 6- dimethoxy-5, 7, 2’, 3’, 4’- pentahydroxyflavone 7-O-β-glucopyranoside11. Mineral composition of T. procumbens reported from leaves is calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and selenium. It has been observed that T. procumbens can serve as a good source of plant protein and potassium supplement, as well as being potential source of provitamin A (carotenoids) to the population. Four new terpenoids along with bis-bithiophene were reported from T. procumbens: Taraxasteryl acetate, beta-amyrenone, lupeol and oleanolic acid. Two new flavones, 8,3′-dihydroxy- 3,7,4′-trimethoxy-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl flavone and 6,8,3′-trihydroxy-3,7,4′- trimethoxyflavone were isolated from Tridax procumbens Linn., four known compounds puerarin. Esculetin, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid.(2)


Histological studies of Tridaxprocumbens (6)


Fig 1: TS of Leaf of Tridax procumbens X40  

A: Upper epidermis, B: palisade cells, C: mesophyll,  D: lower epidermis, E: vascular bundles 



Fig 2: TS of Root of Tridax procumbens X40

A   A: exodermis, B and C: phelloderm, D: pericycle, E: phloem, F: xylem, G: medullary rays



Fig 3: TS of Stem of TridaxprocumbensX40 (2)

A: covering trichome, B: cuticle, C: epidermis, D: cortex, E: primary phloem, F: cambium, G: primary xylem, H: pith


Pharmacological activity:

Prolongation of clotting time:

T. procumbens extract 200 mg/μg IP injected to experimental rabbits, reduced normal heparin induced prolongation of clotting time (7)


Wound healing activity:

Aqueous extract of T. procumbens (leaves) not only helps healing but also helps in the steroid depressed healing in experimental male wistar rats. The increased lysyl oxidase activity induced by the preparation has been checked to be show the wound healing activity. The increased nucleic acid level indicates the action at cellular level(8) Leaf juice of Tridax procumbens was shown to depress wound contraction in experimented animals.


Cardiovascular effects/Hypotensive effect:

The cardiovascular effects of aqueous extract from leaf of T. procumbens were studies and obtained a positive results on the anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rat(9)


Hepatoprotective activity:

The hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of Tridax procumbens was investigated against d- Galactosamine/ Lipopolysaccharide (d- GalN/LPS) induced hepatitis in rats.13



Antimicrobial activity:

The methanolic extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves shows antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method revealed that the methanol extract have a broad spectrum activity on gram positive, negative organisms respectively. The highest activity was shown in S. Typhi S. flexneri and least activity on E.coli Antimicrobial screenings have been done, but additional studies are needed to corroborate some of the results.5


Anti-juvenile hormone activity:

Topical application of fraction of petroleum ether extract of T. procumbens showed remarkable effect on metamorphosis of Dysdercus and were found to be notable in generating abnormalities in adults due to juvenile hormone activity against laboratory colonized late fourth instars larvae and adult female mosquitoes.(2)


Immunomodulatory activity:

The immunomodulatory properties of ethanol insoluble fraction of aqueous extract of T. procumbens have been investigated(11)


Antioxidant activity:

Tridax procumbens is very effective in alleviating the D-galn/LPS-induced oxidative stress suggesting its antioxidant property


Anti-inflammatory activity:

The aqueous extract of T. procumbens leaves was lyophilized and studied on the excision wound model, rat skin fibroblast and rat paw oedema.(2)


Anti-cancerous activity:

The effect of anti-cancer activity of traditional plant Tridax procumbens flower crude aqueous and acetone extract was examined over the on prostate epithelial cancerous cells PC3 was determined by measuring cell viability by MTT assay.(12)


Leishmanicidal activity:

The Tridax procumbens whole plant Methanol extracts prepared from plants collected in the Yucatan peninsula and evaluated in an in vitro bioassay for leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. (IC50 < 50 μg/ml)(13)


Antidiabetic activity:

The diabetic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals. T. procumbens inhibited streptozotocin-induced weight loss and significantly alter the lipid levels(14)


Antifungal Activity:

Antifungal activity of T. procumbens has been investigated. Different extraction methods have been used to find the optimum zone of inhibition from different fungal strains including Microsporumfulvum, Microsporumgypseum, Trichophytonmentagrophytes, Trichophytonrubrum, Candida albicans, and Trichosporonbeigelii


Antibacterial Activity:

Tridax procumbens has shown to have antibacterial activity. It is one of the most common plants for treating bacterial infections in rural parts of the world.(3)


Medicinal Uses:

In this modern decade there are lot of people suffering from the deprivation of even essential need, and the urge to survive has prompt them to explore naturally available resources for therapeutic effects with respect to common ailments including Inflammation. Inflammation is a common reaction of the body to be insult cause by various biological and non biological factors present in the environment. The procumbent is valued for its pharmaceutical properties.


Traditional Uses:

It is mostly used as an anticoagulant, hair tonic, antifungal and insect repellent, in bronchial catarrh, diarrhoea, dysentery, and wound healing.(15) Traditional and complementary medicine is being increasingly recognized as an integrative approach to health care in many countries (WHO, 2013). The use of plants for medicinal purposes may date back to the Middle Paleolithic age, approximately 60,000 years ago. T. procumbens is found to be used to treat anemia, colds, inflammation, and hepatopathies in Central. In Guatemala worldwide. T. procumbens is used as an antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral. The entire plant is used for the treatment of protozoal infections with malaria, leishmaniasis and dysentery.  The leaf juice is used to treat wounds and stop bleeding This species is also used in the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Aqueous extracts of T. procumbens have strong anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant.(3)



This review tries to focus on the beneficial and why it is needed   to continuously research plants known to be used in traditional medicinal that could lead to the discovery and creation of new conventional medicines. Tridax procumbens has a long history of traditional use but isolation and evaluation of each phytochemical has not been properly related to its pharmacological properties and could show difficulty in reproducibility after isolation and evaluation. Different extracts have been used for isolation of metabolites and for treating different ailments.





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10.   Saraf S, Dixit VK, Hepatoprotective activity of Tridax procumbens part II. Fitoterapia. 1991 62: 534-536.

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1.      12.Korakot A, Weerah W, Puttinan M, Prasat K, Prasert S, Ann B.E, Phil J. W, In Vitro screening for anthelmintic and antitumour activity of ethnomedicinal plants from Thailand, J. Ethnopharmcol, 2009 123 (3): 475-482.

12.   Peraza-Sanchez SR, et al. Leishmanicidal evaluation of extracts from native plants of the Yucatan peninsula Fitoterapia. 2007 78:315–318.

13.   Petchi RR, Parasuraman S, Vijaya C. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Basic Clin Pharm. 2013 4(4):88-92.

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Received on 10.01.2020         Modified on 31.01.2020

Accepted on 18.02.2020  ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2020; 12(1):. 27-30.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2020.00006.0