Avinash B. Thalkari1*, Pawan N. Karwa2, Rahul. M. Sagde2, Priyanka. S. Chopane1, Krushna. K. Zhambare1
1SBSPM’S B- Pharmacy college, Ambajogai-431517, Maharashtra.
2Gurukrupa Institute of Pharmacy (Degree), Near Chatrapatthi Sugar Factory,
NH- 222 Gadi Road, Majalgaon-431131, Maharashtra.
Cissus quadrangularis L. is one of the beneficial plant blogging to the family Vitaceae mostly seema in the tropical and subtropical xeric wood. It is a flesh, cactus-like herb which is used as a food item in the variousparts of indian continents. The plant parts were also prescribed in the early Ayurvedic literature to great general tonic and analgesic diseases with certain specifications like bone fracture and healing properties. The plant is also been use in the treatment of the helminthiasis, anorexia, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, skin diseases, leprosy, hemorrhage, epilepsy, convulsion, haemoptysis, tumors, chronic ulcers, swellings.The present review is an attempt to highlight the classification, alternatenamra, phytochemicalsqnalysis as well as the microscopic character including the various traditional uses as well as pharmacological reports on Cissus quadrangularis L are made to under stand easily.
The role of the Medicinal plants and herbs now a days has becoming an important alternate source to the health for the individuals as well communities. In past decades, many scientific studies related to the traditional herbal remedies for treatment of the diseases havebeen carried out and this has lead an idea in the development of alternative drug system and therapeutic strategies. Since the growth as well as its medical importance of medicinal plants is increasing day by day it is interesting to use these plants as an optional in food taking into body to obtain the vital nutrients needed to body development. (1) Cissus quadrangularis is commonly identified as (Hadjod) belonging to the family Vitaceae. It is native plant to India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
It is also observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Brazil and the southern United States are the national were the plant is imported (2), warm tropical climate is berde to be grown and is propagated by stem cuttings in months of June and July.Then collection is done in the month of the October to November. (3) In India Medicinal plants comprise nearly about 8,000 species and has around 50% of all the flowering plant in india.(4) Cissus quadrangularis has an average height of 1.5 m and has quadrangular-sectioned branches with internodes of about 8 to 10 cm long and 1.2 to 1.5 cm wide. Along each angle is a leathery edge. The Toothed triode leaves 2 to 5 cm wide appear at the nodes. Each contain an tendril emerging from the opposite side of the node. Racemes of small white, yellowish, or greenish flowers, globular berries are red when ripe(5).
Fig 1: Cissus quadrangularis Linn.
Fig 2: Stems and leaves of Cissus quadrangularis Plant
Cissus quadrangularis is a used as vine in AsianandAfrican countries. It is one of the most commonly recommended medicinal plantsin Thailand. It is traditionally used in African medicine in form of the Ayurveda. All parts of the plant areused formedicinal use in the treatment of the various diseases. Cissus quadrangularis is one of the traditional medicine which is been to be beloved to arise from from Ayurveda but looks like to have a wide range of the location that is used medicinally due to its growing in numerous locations. Traditionally it was mostly used in treatment of female disorders (menopause, libido, andmenstrual disorders) and treating bone disorderswhich givesit the traditional name of the‘Bone Setter’ (Hadjod), someother traditional usages are in regards to its supposed antiulcerproperties, Antihemorrhoid properties, pain relievingproperties and wound healing properties .(6)
IV] Other Names:
There are various alternate names of the Cissus Quadrangulariswhich are known in different parte if india. These are as follows:
Phet Sangkhat, Pirandai, Quadrangularis, Samroi To, San Cha Khuat, Stemmed Cissus Quadrangularis, Cissus quadrangularis Extract, CORE, CQ, CQE, CQR-300, Extrait de Cissus, Hadjod, Hadjora, Harbhanga, Harsankari, Hasjora, Kandavela, Mangaroli, Nalleru, Namunungwa, Phet Cha Sung Khaat, Phet Sang Kat. Vine, Vajravalli, Vedhari, Veld Grape, Chaudhari, Cissus, Cissus Extract, Cissus Formula, Cissus Formulation, C. quadrangularis, Veldt-grape, Vitis quadrangularis, Winged Treebine. Asthisonhara, Chadhuri(7)
V] Vernacular names:
English: Edible stemmed vine, Adamant creeper, Bone setter
Hindi: Hadjod, Hadjora, Hadsarihari, Harsankari, Kandvel
Har, Harbhanga, Hasjora, Horjora
Chodhari, Hadsand, Hadsankal, Vedhari
Malyalam: Cannalamparanta, Peranta
Marathi: Horjora, Harsankar, Kandavel
Tamil: Piranti, Vajjravalli
Telugu: Nalleru, Nelleratiga, Vajravalli
Urdu: Harjora, Hadsankal(2,8,9,10,11)
Super division: Spermatophyte
VII] Ayurvedic properties:
Doshaghnata- Kaphavatashamaka, Pittavardhaka(16)
VIII] Macroscopic character:
Roots - are aerial, develop during rainy season.
Stem - is buff colored with greenish ting, dichotomously
ranched, sub glabrous, fibrous and smooth.
Tendril - occasionally present at nodes.
Internodes - measures 4-5 cm long and 1 2 cm thick.
Leaves - are simple or lobed, cordate, broadly ovate or eniform, serrate, detate, sometimes 3-foliate.
Flowers - are small, greenish white, bisexual, tetramerous, in umbellate cymes, opposite to the leaves. Petals are 4-5, imbricate.
Calyx - is short, entire, deciduous and cup shaped.
Fruit - are globose or obovoid fleshy berries, succulent, very acrid, dark purple to black.
Seeds - are ellipsoid or pyriform, one seeded, flowering and fruiting time – post rain and autumn season
IX] Chemical Constituents:
X] Pharmacological uses:
There are various pharmacological uses of the plant. These possess this following activities
1. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity- Methanolic extract obtained from the plant of Cissus quadrangularis exhibits strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity in vitro as well as in vivo systems.This is due to the presence of β-carotene.(2,10,21,22) The stem part obtained from the plant of Cissus quadrangularis Linn contain vital vitamin ‘C’, carotenoide, calcium, steroid. and these are one of the excellent antioxidants. Numerous studies have reported that intake of plant polyphenol antioxidant may have positive effect in oxidative stress related pathogenesis, hence the extract of C. quadrangularis were tested for Antioxidant activity by β- carotene linolenic acid model(23,24)
2. Anti-microbial and antibacterial activity-The Methanolic extract (90%) and dichloromethane extract obtained from the stems possess antibacterial activity against the bacteria S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa and mutagenicity against Salmonella microsome. Antimicrobial activity has also been observed from different parts of the stem and root extracts. The alcoholic extract obtained from the aerial part was found to show antiprotozoal activity against the bacrmtrmeria Entamoeba histolytica. (2,10,22)
3. Bone healing activity-The alcoholic paste extracted from the plant waslocally as well as intramuscularly use to possess rapid healing of fracture in the albino rats.When the Ethanol extract in the conc 95% was used it enhances the development of cortical bone and trabeculae in foetal femur, which lead to enrich the content of calcium, phosphorous and phytoestrogenic steroids and shows an early regeneration and quick response to the recovery of bone fracture healing process. (22,25,26) Ethanol extract (95%) of whole plant was also found to show antiosteoporotic activity in ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg per kg per weight (2,10,21). The healing property show effect due to the presence of Steroidal substance in the plant that influences the rate of healing and quicker mineralization of callus. C. quadrangularis acts by increasing the metabolism and uptake of the minerals calcium, sulfur, and strontium by the osteoblasts in fracture healing. Certain amino acids such as lysine help in absorption of calcium. Cissus also contains Vitamin A and C that is effective in the formation of collagen. It was also reported to have an inhibitory effect on anti-anabolic property of steroidssuch as cortisone thus stimulating the cells of mesenchymal origin, such as fibroblasts, chondroblasts and osteoblasts. These cells have a greater impact on cellular proliferation of osteoblast than other cellular cycles (27).
4. Anti-ulcer activity-Methanol extract showed significant antiulcer activity in experimentally induced ulcer in rat model it showed the effect by inducing the gastric secretions and by enhancing glycoprotein levels. Methanol extract was shown to produce healing activity on the aspirin which induced gastric mucosal damage in rats by its antioxidative mechanism. The presence of the. Triterpenoids and β- sitosterol in methanol extract showsanti-lipid peroxidating effect and thus helps in the prevention of the gastric damage (2,10,21,22) Cissus quadrangularisis an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer-protective effect of a methanolic extract of Cissusquadrangularis was said to be equivalant to that of srandard drug sucralfate. This antiulcer activity is proved experimentally in ulcer induced rat models.(22,28)
5. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and stimulatory activity-Methanol extract possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects associated with haemorrhoids, anti-inflammatory activity is due to flavonoids especially luteolin and by β-sitosterol. β-sitosterol present in methanol extract has ability to reduce the enzyme MPO indicating a reduction of neutrophils influx in the inflamed tissue. Ethanol extract leads to the formationof the protective effect on neutrophile on the tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats. Methanolic extract (90%) and dichloromethane extract of stems possess anti-inflammatory activity against the COX-2 Enzyme. The stimulatory effect of extract arises due to vitamins and greater than that of the anabolic hormone durabolin. (2,10)Flavanoids inhibits the inflammatory process by blocking the lipo-oxygenase enzymes especially the luteolin, which is a known compound of C. quadrangularis. The anti-inflammatory activity of β-sitsterol was demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on edema induced by arachidonic acid. Hence it was suggested that C.quadrangularis L. is dual inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism29. (22) Study revealed the anti- inflammatory activity of Cissusquadrangularisextract by measuring its ability to inhibit COX (Cyclo-oxgenase), 5-LOX (Lipo-oxygenase), TNF (Tissue necrosis Factor)- Alpha, etc. Active fraction of Cissus quadrangularis extract showed a IC50 value of 550 micro-gram/ml. Inflammatory effect of the active fraction was studied by pre-incubating RAW 264.7 cell in active fraction of various concentrations and assayed using MTT assay. Result showed effective reduction in COX, iNOS (Nitric oxide synthase) and TNF-Alpha levels in dose-dependent manner.The Analgesic study and antipyretic studies regarding Cissus quadrangularis revealed that the plant is potent as aspirin which was taken as an necessary constituent in the treatment of acetic acid induced writhing in mice, formalin test and tail-flick test in rats. The plant is also effective in the treatment of yeast injection induced hyper-pyrexia (29)
6.Central nervous system activity-The extract obtained from the possess central nervous system depressant activity indicated by decrease in exploratory behaviour. Methanol extract of roots contains saponins which show potent sedative activity and also inhibit spontaneous motor activity in mice (2,10,22)
7.Antihemorrhoidal Activity-As the combination of flavonoids (90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin) used clinically for the treatment of haemorrhoid was reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities as well as venotonic effect which is not reported previously. Phytochemical study of C. quadrangularis revealed that its major compounds are flavonoids. The bioflavonoids, particularly diosmin, hesperidin and oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes have an important role in the treatment of haemorrhoids and varicose veins. These bioflavonoids exhibit phlebotonic activity, vasculoprotective effects and antagonistic effect on the biochemical mediators of inflammation. As diosmin and hesperidin are used in combination to treat haemorrhoid, the extract which produced the same activities (anti-inflammatory and venotonic) can also be used as Antihemorrhoidal drug. Besides these effects, C. quadrangularisalso possesses analgesic effect, which can be very useful in painful haemorrhoid(2,30)
8. Gastro protective Activity-Cissus quadrangularis is well known for the treatment of gastric disorders in traditional medicine, owing to its rich source of carotenoids, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid, and has received role in the human nutrition. The studies show that administration of aspirin increased lipid peroxidation status, xanthenes oxides, myeloperoxidase in gastric mucosa, resulting in mucosal damages at both cellular level and sub cellular level which were reversed by anti lipid peroxidative effect present in C. quadrangularis extract (31) The studies have investigated the effect of CQE on the course of experimentally induced gastric ulcer by analyzing the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), interleukins, micro vascular permeability, activity of nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2), mitochondrial antioxidants, lipid per oxidation and DNA damage. In addition, the findings of the studies have shown that administration of aspirin increases lipid per oxidation status, xanthine oxidase (XO), myeloperoxidase and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and selenium–glutathione peroxidase activities in the gastric mucosa, resulting in mucosal damage at both cellular and sub cellular level which were reversed by CQE. In addition, CQE prevents oxidative damage of DNA by reducing DNA fragmentation indicating its block on cell death. Pre-treatment with CQE ameliorated the observed effect significantly in the gastric mucosa of ulcerated rats. (2)
9. Toxicology-The Cissus quadrangularis extract does not produce any toxic effect upon the oral administration in animals only ding the mice, rats and guinea pigs. However, on intravenous administration, the animals developed convulsions and dies with in the five minutes. The MLD worked out to be 15.5 mg/Kg in guinea pigs.Toxicological evaluation of the plant revealed that the drug is safe even at higher dose for a prolonged duration of treatment (22)
10. Anti-osteoporosis activity-The rats were dividedinto five groups. Here the methanol extract was used to show the effect First group served as control. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. The group 2 was fed with saline and worked as ovariectomized control. Groups3–5 were orally treated with Raloxifen (5.4 mg/kg) and ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 and 750 mg/kg), respectively. The biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters showed that the ethanol extract had a definite antiosteoporotic effect(15) Further studies revealed that groups when treated with petroleum ether extract have a very high rate of mineralization. Another study revealed the beneficial effects of the plant extract in the treatment of induced osteoporosis. Ovareictomized rats were taken for the particular study which simulated post- menopausal bone loss due to osteoporosis. ALP, and osteoporosis. The estimation of ALP and tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression was done by using dyeing and subsequent analysis using microscope and computer software which extrapolated intensity of the dyeing to concentration of bio-marker ALP and TRAP. The experiment concluded that ALP levels have increased while TRAP levels which is a widely accepted indicator for bone resorption through osteoclast function has decreased. Study of the femur morphology supported the data that bone loss has been decreased substantially. (29)
11. Anti-Oxidant activity-Both in-Vivo and in-Vitro analysis of anti-oxidant properties of Cissus quadrangularis were evaluated in several studies. In a particular study the In-Vitro studies were carried out using two methods- The first test of anti-oxidant activity was assessed through erythrocyte lipid peroxidation rate in which (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) TBARS formation was used as a marker and Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) was used the reference drug. The second study incorporates the discoloration of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) where Catechin was used as the reference drug. In both the cases the antioxidant activity of Cissus quadrangularis extract was found to be almostsuccessful on these drugs. In-vivo analysis for the anti-oxidant activity of Cissus quadrangularis was studied over CCl4 treated rats with several enzymes like Aspartate amino-transferase, Superoxide dismutase, catalase, Glutathione peroxidase was taken as bio- markers. The study revealed that when the rats were pretreated with Cissus quadrangularis extract they had lower level of the enzymes showing the the plant contain the antioxidant activity .(30)
12. Hepatoprotective activity-Hepatoprotective effects of Cissus quadrangularis extract was analyzed by using it in rats which had been previously administered Isoniazid in order to induce hepatotoxicity. Effectiveness of Cissus quadrangular is extract was done monitoring levels of key bio-markers such as Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. Results obtained from the experiment and analysis of the liver of the sacrificed animal using ERBA diagnostic kits showed higher level of the aforementioned markers, additionally it was found that there is also a marked decrease in lipid peroxidation and increased anti- oxidant activities due to decreased Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalse (CAT)levels.(31)
13. Anti-diabetic activity-Anti diabetic property of Cissus quadrangularis was established in a study where dry powder of Cissus quadrangular is, obtained through ethyl acetate extraction was administered to diabetic rats to study anti- diabetic property of Cissus quadrangularis. Diabetes was induced in wister albino ratsbyadministeringalloxan. The efficacy of Cissus quadrangularis and Glibenclamide was obtained by the comparison.The study revealed that that plasma glucose concentration taken after 72 hours showed promising anti- diabetic activity which was found to be quite comparable to Glibenclamide.(32)
14. Anti-tumourand cytotoxic activity- C. quadrangularis plant was studied for its cytotoxic activity against Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma and Erlich ascitic induced carcinoma. The survival time of the test subjects treated with the extract increased to 72-76 percent, compared to 96 percent in case of 5-fluro-uracil treatment. Cytotoxic studies of Cissus quadrangularis ethanolic exmztract as well as the chloroform extract was studied on the both on HeLa and Vero cell lines . The IC50value of extracts were found to be 62.5 µgm/ml and 125 µgm/ml for HeLa and Vero cell lines respectively .MTT assay of shows the isolated flavonoid fraction of the ethanolic extract of Cistus quadrangularis wgmhixh helps to study the difference between IC50 over MCF-7 cell lines revealed a promising IC50(10 µgm/ml) value for the flavonoid fraction. It was found to be within the NCI (National Cancer Institute) category for anti -cancer agents and hence can be considered to possess potent cytotoxic action.In a different anti-cancer study the phenolic contents obtained from Cissus quadrangularis extracts was to be subjected to an in- vitro model using A431human cell line. Purified acetone fraction of the Cissus quadrangular extract exhibited potent anti-cancer activity with GI50 value being 4.8 µgm/ml.In another literature the aqueous extract and ethanolic extract of the Cissus(33)
15. Anti-Viral activity-Anti-viral activity of partially purified methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis was established on both Herpes Simplex Virus(HSV)-1 and-2. Anti-viral activity of the plant activity was assayed using dye-uptake method. The result provided insight into potent anti-viral activity of Cissus quadrangularis(34)
16. Anti-Bacterial activity-Anti-bacterial activity of Cissus quadrangularis extract was studied using agar-well diffusion method where tetracycline was used as the reference drug. The study revealed that the ethyl acetate extract was the most effective and that gram-positive bacteria was the most susceptible although gram negative bacteria showed high level of resistance. Infee literature opportunities to develop new antibiotics from Cissus quadrangularis are also discussed upon and effect of various types of Cissus quadrangularis extracts over their classes of bacteria to be analyzed with result concluding that the ethyl acetate fraction of CQ extract being the most effective against Xanthomonas campestris and that the inhibitory concentration of the several fraction of CQ extract against the Seven different classes of bacteria examined ranges between 256-1024 µgm/ml. (35)
17. Anti-Fungal activity-Anti-fungal activity of Cissus quadrangularis extract, was established by comparing its activity to fluconazole which was taken a standard drug. The research was performed using standard agar-well diffusion method and the activity was quantified by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition formed on the surfaceofPetri- dishes. The result revealed the effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract against fungal activity and it was found out that diethyl ether extract exhibited promising activity against Aspergillus flavus(36)
18. Anti-haemorrhoidal activity-Anti-haemorrhoidal properties of Cissus quadrangularis extract was studied by measuring the venular activity of its extract on vascular smooth muscles of human umbilical vein. Results showed that the contraction occurring in extract treated smooth muscles was equal to the contraction achieved when treated with standard drug ‘Daflone’. (37)
19. Anti-convulsant and sedative activity-Anti-convulsant effect of Cissus quadrangularis was established in a research by using aqueous extract of the plant. The effectiveness was gauged using the extract in several anti-convulsant tests such as N-methyl-D- aspartate (NMDA) test, Maximal electroshock (MES) test, Strychnine (STR) test, Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test, Isonicotinic hydrazide acid (ISH) test. ‘Clonazepam’ was used as standard drug in PTZ and STR test while diazepam was used in INH and MES induced seizures and D-AP7 was used as standard reference drug in NMDA seizures. Sedative activity of Cissus quadrangularis was also studied by measuring the effect of its extract on prolonging diazepam induced sleep and as a result the extract prolonged the sleepduration.(38)
20. Anti-helminthic activity-Anti-helminthic activity of Cissus quadrangularis were revealed using stem extract of the plant against earthworms in a study. The effectiveness was measured by the time required by the extract to induce paralysis or cause death in test subjects(39)
21. Anti-ulcerative and gastroprotective activity-Anti-ulcerative studies were discussed by the knowing the effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract on enzyme H+-K+-ATPase which is deemed responsible for producing acidity in stomach. Results showed potential inhibition of proton-pump activity and in-vitro studies indicated that the methanolic extract potently reduced hydrolysis of ATP by gastric ATPase. The activity of the extract was comparable to the standard drug (Omeprazole) taken.33 Study also revealed the gastroprotective activity of the plant in aspirin-induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric-ligated rat models. Gastroprotective activity was eto be known by the measurement of the gastric juice output, adherened amount of gastric mucosa, also Non-Protein sulphydryl groups (NPSH) and by its histopathological studies. Results showed that Cissus quadrangularis pre-treated rats had higher NPSH concentration, higher gastric mucosa protection and lower acid output compared to un-treated rats.(40)
22. Anti-obesity and anorexiant activity-Research revealed anti- obesity activities of the plant. A study was performed using a Cissus quadrangularis formulation known as Cylaris. The study had a double-blind, placebo-control design. Results showed test subjects had decreased waist circumference, Body Mass Index (B.M.I), reduced serum lipid levels (LDL-cholesterol, tri- glyceride and total cholesterol), lower C-reactive protein count and fasting blood glucose35. It was also concluded that the extract might have anorexiant activity. This conclusion was arrived through an empirical approach after observation of increased serotonin levels in blood.(41)
XI] Traditional uses:
· Asthiyuk -strengthens bones.
· Sara -induces mobility, causes diarrheoa, purgation, relieves constipation
· Krumighna -Relieves worm infestation, useful in infectedwounds
· Amaghna -Relieves ama – a product of indigestion andaltered metabolism.
· Vrushya -aphrodisiac, improves vigor
· Pachana - Digestive, relieves AmaDosha
· Pittala -Increases Pitta Dosha
· It is used in the treatment of
· worm infestation
· peptic ulcer
· haemorrhoids and high cholesterol.
2. In Siddha:
It is used for the treatment of the healing bone fracture, piles, as an anti-aging herb, in Asthma, cough and gonorrhoea.
Young shoots of the plant are dried and powdered, are burnt toashes in a closed vessel and administered in dyspepsia andindigestion” and certain bowel complaints.
Leaves and youngshoots are also considered as powerful alternatives. Juice of stem is when dropped into the ear in condition otorrhoea and into the nose inepistaxis.Stem beaten into a paste is used to treat asthma. A preserve of stem prepared by boiling it in lime water is useful stomachic. In Medicinal Plants-Germplasm of Peninsular India the Cissus quadrangularis uses is mentioned as the stem and whole plant is used in the treatment of the asthma, bowel complaints and asepistatic; stem is useful in piles curing, also for ear and bleeding of nos. paste of the stem is useful intratment of the various pains, burns on the skin, various bites of poisonous insects and forsaddle sores of horses and camels; The root play an important role in the fractures and cuts. The stem is considered to show various medicinal values . It is useful in the treatment of gastritis, bone fractures, skin infections, constipations, eye diseases, piles, anaemia, asthma.The stem juice isuseful in the treatment of the scurvy and in irregular menstruation cycle. Hadjod or Bone Setter has proved that it can help to join broken bones. Studies haves shown, the presence of vitamins and anabolic steroid, which may act on estrogenic receptors of the bone. The plant helps in early ossification and remodelling of bones.The intake of plant formulations by the means of the oral formulation helps in quick healing of fracture byhelp of metabolism and increased uptake of theminerals.(2)
From decades plants are used as traditional medicines indifferent parts of the world and believed to be safe forhuman use. So these plants has all the new modern properties such as phytochemical studies, toxicology, biological examination on model animals and the role ofisolated phytochemicals and their clinical trials. C. quadrangularis as a bone protective action and also helps in the treatment of the many other diseases. A plus point is that Cissus showsless side effects on human body upon the intake even at highdoses. Overall Cissuspossess very high medicinal properties. The further studies regarding the plant will be beneficial to the human health care system.
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Received on 20.06.2019 Modified on 14.07.2019
Accepted on 31.07.2019 ©A&V Publications All right reserved