Pharmacognostical Studies on the leaves of Jatropha tanjorensis


M. B. Viswanathan1, J. Jeya Ananthi2, N. Venkateshan2

1Department of Plant Science, Bharathidasan University, Trichy–21(India)

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Arulmigu Kalasalingam College of Pharmacy, Krishnankoil-626126 (India)

*Corresponding Author E-mail:,



Species of Jatropha belonging to the family of Euphorbiaceae are found distributed in the tropical, Subtropical region. Most of them are generally grown as hedge species and contain sticky, opalescent, acrid and astringent latex, which promote healing of wounds, refractory ulcer, Septic gums and as styptic in cuts and bruises.  Jatropha tanjorensis is one of the 9 species in Tamil Nadu. This paper deals with the micro morphological studies carried out on in the leaves of Jatropha tanjorenesis one of the WHO Accepted Parameters for identification of medicinal plants; Taxonomy, Distribution and Medicinal Uses of  Jatropha L. Pharmacognosy,  Physico-chemical standards,  Determination of Total Ash; Water-Soluble Ash, Acid-Insoluble Ash, Alcohol-Soluble Extractive, Water-Soluble Extractive,  Leaf Constant, Vein Islet Number and Vein Termination Number,  Stomatal Index and Stomatal Number, Microscopical Evaluation of Leaf and Powder, Collection of Plant Specimens, Sectioning and Photomicrographs.


KEYWORDS: Jatropha tanjorensis, leaves, micro morphology.




Taxonomically the genus Jatropha belongs to tribe Joanneasiae of Crotonoideae in the Euphorbiaceae family and contains approximately 175 succulents, shrubs and trees (Some are deciduous like Jatropha curcas L.). It is a multipurpose tree of Mexico and Central American origin with a long history of cultivation in tropical to temperate regions of the world (America, Africa and Asia)[1,2,3]. Madagascar, Dahomey (now Benin) and Cape Verde Islands were major exporters of Jatropha products.



The name Jatropha is derived from the Greek words ἰατρός (iatros), meaning "physician," and τροφή (trophe), meaning "nutrition". It is a small tree or large shrub, which can grows between 3 to 5 meters in height, but can attain a height up to 8 to 10 meters in favorable conditions. The branches Jatropha contain latex, normally five roots are formed from seeds, one central (tap root and four peripheral. Cuttings, when planted do not form tap root. The plant is monocious and flowers are unisexual. Pollination is by insects. The life span of the plant is more than 50 years,[4,5] it is planted as a hedge (living fence) by farmers all over the world around homesteads, gardens and fields, because it is not browsed by animals.[6,7] The root, stem, leaves, fruit, seed, bark and latex of the plant are largely used for the treatment of many diseases in different parts of the world.[8].




Of the 9 species in Tamil Nadu Jatropha tanjorensis is a shrub or small tree found in Pondicherry mainly in Tanjore district. Lack of proper standards of medicinal plants may result in the usage of improper drugs which in turn will cause damage not only to the individual using it, but also to the respect gained by the well known ancient system of medicine. Therefore scientific method must be resorted to identify and maintain quality of plant drugs to be used in the traditional system of medicine.  In this present study medicinally important drug of Jatropha tanjorensis is studied from micro morphological point of view.




Plant Material:

Leaves of Jatropha tanjorensis (Figs. 1, 2) were collected in the vicinity of Pondicherry during August and September 2004.  An authentic herbarium specimen (MBV & JJ 14774) was prepared and deposited in the Herbarium of the Centre for Research and Development in Siddha-Ayurveda Medicines (CRDSAM), Department of Plant Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu, India, for reference.


About the Plant:

Jatropha tanjorensis J. L. Ellis & Saroja in J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 58: 834. 1962. (Figs. 1, 2) Shrubs, 3-4 m high; stem long, stout, dichotomously branched; branches puberulous when young, glabrous when mature.  Leaves simple, alternate; lamina 7.5–12.2 x 7.5 –12.2 cm, palmately 3-5-lobed above middle; lobes broadly ovate, subcordate with shallow sinus at base, distantly serrate at margin, acuminate at apex, sparsely hairy on both sides; each serrature ending in gland-tipped bristle; main nerves 7-9, prominent; veins and vein lets velutinous; petioles 4.5-7.8 cm long, glandular hair near base on the upper surface; stipules ± 1.2 cm long, ciliate, each ending with glandular head.  Flowers, polygamous in corymbose cymes, green with pale pink tinge; bracts 0.6-2.0 x 0.2-0.5 cm, lanceolate, acute with gland-tipped hairy at margin.  Staminate flowers: pedicels 0.2 cm long.  Calyx lobes 5 c. 0.4 cm long, quincuncial; lobes ovate, slightly serrate at margin, pilose without.  Corolla lobes 5, c. 0.4 cm long, free, contorted, obtuse at base, rounded at apex.  Disc 5-glandular at column base.  Stamens 8, free; anthers erect, attached at base, 5-7 hairs on anthers; connective prominent with pollen sacs on either side. Bisexual flowers: pedicels 0.2 cm long.  Calyx lobes 5, 0.5-0.8 cm long, quincuncial; lobes ovate, pilose within, gland-tipped serratures at margin, without.  Corolla lobes 5, 0.5-0.8 cm long, connate to one-third of length at base, contorted, obtuse at apex, veined, hairy within.  Disc 5-glandular, around ovary, smooth.  Stamens 6-8, free; anthers erect, flat; connective prominent. Ovary superior, trilocular, glabrous, syncarpous, one pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, each bifurcating into two stigmata.



December-January; Habitat: road side, wastelands and open areas in scrub forests in plains; grown as hedge plant, propagated through stem cuttings.



INDIA: Tiruchirappalli, Pudukottati, Thanjavur and Ramanathapuram Districts in Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry. West Africa including Nigeria: Weed of field crops, bush re-growth, roadside and disturbed places in the higher rainfall zones.


Medicinal Uses:

Leaf juice is consumed to reduce hypertension and treated for malaria [9]. Edo people in Nigeria consume the leaves as a vegetable and known as catholic vegetable[10]



Physico-chemical Standards:

Determination of Total Ash:

About 2 to 3 g (accurately weighed) leaf powder was taken in a silica crucible which was previously ignited and weighed. It was incinerated by gradually increasing the heat, not exceeding dull red hot (450°C), until free from carbon, cooled and weighed. The percentage of ash was calculated with reference to the air-dried powder. The procedure was repeated till to get the constant weight[11].


Determination of Water-Soluble Ash:

The total ash was boiled with 25 ml water, filtered through an ash less filter paper (What man 41) and washed with hot water. The filter paper was ignited on the silica crucible, cooled and weighed the water-insoluble matter. The water-soluble ash is calculated by subtracting the water-insoluble ash from the total ash.


Determination of Acid-Insoluble Ash:

The total ash obtained was boiled for 5 minutes with 25 ml of 10% w/v dilute hydrochloric acid and filtered through an ash less filter paper (What man 41). The filter paper was ignited in the silica crucible, cooled and weighed acid-insoluble ash.


Determination of Alcohol-Soluble Extractive:

Five g leaf powder was macerated with 100 ml of alcohol of the specified strength in a closed flask for 24 h, shaking frequently for 6 h and allowed to stand for 18 h. It was filtered rapidly, taking precautions against loss of alcohol. 25 ml of the filtrate was evaporated to dryness in a tarred flat-bottomed, shallow-dish, dried at 105°C and weighed. The percentage of alcohol-soluble extractive was calculated with reference to the air-dried powder.


Determination of Water-Soluble Extractive:

About 5 g leaf powder was added with 50 ml water at 80°C in ash-Stoppard flash, it was shaken well and allowed to stand for 10 min, cooled to 15°C, added 2 g of kieselguhr and filtered. 5 ml of filtrate was transferred to a tarred evaporating basin, 7.5 cm in diameter. The solvent was evaporated on a water bath and drying was continued for 30 min. Finally it was dried in a hot air oven for 2 h and weighed. The percentage of water-soluble extractive was calculated with reference to the air-dried powder.


Leaf Constants:

Palisade ratio is defined as average number of palisade cells beneath each epidermal cell. Vein-islet number is defined as the number of vein islets/mm2 of the leaf surface midway between the midrib and the margin. Vein-termination number is defined as the number of vein let termination/mm2 of the leaf surface midway between midrib and margin. Stomatal number is an average number of stomata/mm2 of epidermis of the leaf.


Vein Islet Number and Vein Termination Number:

A few leaves were cleared by chlorinated soda, and mounted in glycerin. Stage micrometer was focused under 10X. A Camera Lucida was fixed on the eyepiece of the microscope. One mm2 dimension (0.4 mm) was drawn. The stage micrometer was replaced by leaf preparation. The veins in the square were traced.  The number of vein islets and vein termination inside the square were counted. The complete vein islets on any two adjacent sides of the squares were also considered. Ten such counts were performed.


Stomatal Index and Stomatal Number:

The upper epidermis was peeled off and mounted in safranin. Stage micrometer was focused under 45X. A Camera Lucida was fixed on the eyepiece of the microscope. One mm2 dimension (0.4 mm) was drawn. The stage micrometer was replaced by leaf preparation. The stomata and epidermal cells in the square were traced and their numbers were counted. A cell is being counted if at least half of its area lies within the square. Stomatal index is the percentage which the number of stomata forms to the total number of epidermal cells, each stoma being counted as one cell. It is calculated by the following equation:     


S.I.= S/E+S x 100



S.I. = Stomatal Index,

S = Number of stomata per unit area,

E = Number of epidermal cells in the same unit area.


Microscopical Evaluation of Leaf and Powder:

Collection of Plant Specimens:

The plant specimens for the proposed study were collected in the vicinity of Pondicherry. Care was taken to select healthy plants and normal organs. The required samples of different organs were cut and removed from the plant and fixed in FAA (formalin –5 ml+acetic acid– 5 ml+70% ethyl alcohol–90 ml). After 24 h of fixing, the specimens were dehydrated with graded series of tertiary-butyl alcohol as per the schedule given by Sass (1940). Infiltration of the specimens was carried out by gradual addition of paraffin wax (m.p. 58-60°C) until TBA solution attained super saturation. The specimens were cast into paraffin blocks.



The paraffin embedded specimens were sectioned with the help of Rotary Microtome. The thickness of the sections was 10-12 mm. dewaxing of the sections was by customary procedure[12]. The sections were stained with toluidine blue as per the method published by[13]. Since toluidine blue is a polychromatic stain the staining results were remarkably good and some cytochemical reactions were also obtained. The dye rendered pink color to the cellulose walls, blue to the lignified cell, dark green to suberin, violet to the mucilage, blue to the protein bodies, etc. Wherever necessary, sections were also stained with safranin and fast-green and fast-green and Iodine-Potassium Iodide (IKI for starch) for studying the stomatal morphology, venation pattern and trichome distribution, paradermal sections (sections taken parallel to the surface of leaf) as well as clearing of leaf with 5% sodium hydroxide or epidermal peeling by partial maceration employing Jeffrey’s maceration fluid [14] were prepared. Glycerin mounted temporary preparations were made for macerated/cleared materials. Powdered materials of different parts were cleared with sodium hydroxide and mounted with glycerin medium after staining. Different cell components were studied and measured.



Microscopic descriptions of tissues are supplemented with micrographs wherever necessary. Photographs of different magnifications were taken with Nikon Lab Photo 2 Microscopic Unit. For normal observations, bright field was used. For the study of crystals, starch grains and lignified cells, polarized light was employed. Since these structures have birefringent property, under polarized light they appear bright against dark background. Magnifications of the figures are indicated by the scale-bars. Descriptive terms of the anatomical features are given following Esau (1964)[15].




J. tanjorensis is a shrub growing up to 3 m high. The leaves are deeply 3-5-lobed, the base is cordate, the margins are serrate, and the serratures are gland-tipped. The leaf apex is sub acuminate. Petioles 6-12 cm long. The leaf has thick and wide midrib and thin lamina (Fig. 3).  The midrib consists of wide shallow adaxial bund and wide semicircular abaxial part. It is 1.4 mm thick.  The adaxial part is 550 µm wide; the abaxial part is 1.4 mm wide.   The midrib comprises thin epidermal layer with small, papillate cells. Three of four layers of cells, inner to the epidermis, are thick-walled and collenchymatous and the remaining ground tissue is parenchymatous, the cells being circular, thin-walled and compact (Fig.4). Thick-walled, fairly wider laticifers with dark cell content of latex (Fig.4) are scattered in the ground tissue. The laticifers are 50 µm wide. The vascular system is in the form of deep V-shaped outline (Figs. 3,4). It consists of several short, parallel lines of xylem elements all along the vascular strand. The xylem rows have mostly three, wide, angular, thick-walled elements. Phloem occurs in more or less continuous zone, outer to the meta xylem elements which are about 50 µm wide.


Lamina (Fig. 5):

The lamina is smooth and even on both surfaces and distinctly dorsiventral. It is 170 µm thick. The adaxial epidermis consists of thick, spindle-shaped cells, which are 20 µm thick. The abaxial epidermis is slightly thin and comprises spindle-shaped, thick-walled, stomatiferous cells. The mesophyll tissue includes a wide adaxial band of palisade cells and 6 or 7 layers of small, lobed cells. The palisade cells are narrow, cylindrical, measuring 60 µm high. The spongy parenchyma cells form wide air-chambers and thin partition filaments. The lateral vein let consists of a single wide circular xylem element and a small cluster of phloem elements. The vascular strand is a thin parenchymatous bundle sheath with adaxial thin extensions (Fig.5).  The epidermal cells, as viewed in paradermal sections, are fairly wide, polyhedral in outline and thin-walled; the anticlinal walls are straight and smooth.  The stomata are paracytic type with two equal subsidiary cells placed parallel to the guard cells (Figs. 6,7).  The guard cells are elliptical with thick walls and narrow stomatal pore (Fig.7). The guard cells are 20 x 30 µm in size. The lateral veins and vein lets are prominent and thick; they are straight and form dense reticulate venation pattern (Figs. 8,9). The veins include dense bundle of vascular elements with parallel laticiferous tubes (Fig.10). The laticifers are narrow, several mm long, non-septate (non- articulated) and unbranched (non-anastomosing). The vein-islets are narrow in area, polygonal in outline (Figs. 8,9). The vein terminations are either lacking, or when present, are short, thick and unbranched. Some of them are branched into dendroid outline (Fig.9). Laticifers run all along the venation system, embedded within the veins, one to many laticifers may be seen with in the veins (Fig.10). 




Petiole (Figs. 11-13):

The petiole is circular cross sectional view (Fig.11). It comprises epidermis outer and central ground tissue and circular vascular cylinder. The epidermal layer of the petiole is very thin and not conspicuous; the cells are thin and darkly stained (Fig.13). The outer ground tissue is homogeneous and parenchymatous; the cells are circular to polyhedral, thin-walled and compact. The central tissue is also parenchymatous, similar to the outer zone of cells.  The vascular tissues consist of several segments of arc-shaped xylem and phloem tissues which form a wide, hollow circle (Figs. 11,12). The vascular segments have short, parallel lines of 3 or 4 xylem elements which are circular and thick-walled. Phloem occurs in thick layer along the outer part of the xylem segments (Fig.13).


Crystal distributions (Figs. 14-16):

Calcium oxalate druses are frequent in the lamina (Figs. 14,16) and in the petiole (Fig.15). In the mesophyll tissue of the lamina, the druses occur in wider, specialized cells (Fig.16) and are 50 µm in diameter. The powder of the leaf exhibits the following inclusions.


Glandular trichomes (Figs. 17-19):

Long or short thick multicellular, multiseriate glandular trichomes are common in the powder. The trichomes on the leaf-margins are short with spherical, glandular head (Fig.17). They are 150 µm long; the stalk is 60 µm thick and the head is 110 µm thick. The trichomes on the surface of the lamina are 650 µm long; the stalk is 80 µm thick; the head is 100 µm thick. The glands have darkly stained central core and thin-walled hyaline outer layers (Fig.19). Apart from the glandular trichomes, the leaf-margins bear also non-glandular or covering type of trichomes (Fig.18). They are unicellular, unbranched, thick-walled and pointed.


Druses (Figs. 20,21):

Calcium oxalate crystals, druses are abundant in the leaf mesoplyll tissue. They are located within dilated, wide circular mesophyll cells. The druses are up to 40 µm thick.


Epidermal fragments (Figs. 22,23):

Thin fragments of epidermis of the leaf are frequently seen in the powder. The epidermal fragments are stomatiferous. The epidermal cells are polyhedral, thin-walled and the walls are straight. The stomata are exclusively paracytic type. The stomata have two subsidiary cells lying parallel on either side of the guard cells (Fig. 23).


Laticifers (Figs. 24,25):

Latex secreting structures called laticifers which are invariably seen with in the veins (Fig. 24). They are long, non-septate, unbranched tubular structures and are called non-anastomosing and non-articulated type (Fig. 25). The laticifers have fairly thick-walled and contain granular substance (Fig. 25). The tube is 20 µm wide.




Venation of the Lamina (Figs. 26, 27):

Small pieces of lamina are seen in the powder. They exhibit the reticulate pattern of venation. The vein-islets are distinct; they are polygonal in outline. The vein-terminations are thick, repeatedly branched and dendroid in outline (Fig. 27).






Fig. 1 A part of live fence comprising J. tanjorensis population

Fig. 2. A flowering twig of J. tanjorensis

Fig. 3. T.S. of leaf through midrib and lamina

Abp: Abaxial part; Adp: Adaxial part; La: Lamina; GT: Ground Tissue; VS - Vascular Strand




Fig. 4. T.S. of midrib enlarged

Ep: Epidermis, Lf: Laticifer, PGT: Parenchymatous Ground Tissue;

Ph: Phloem; X: Xylem

Fig. 5. T.S. of lamina

AbE: Abaxial Epidermis; AdE: Adaxial Epidermis; PM: Palisade Mesophyll;

SM: Spongy Mesophyl

Fig.6. Paradermal view of abaxial epidermis

EC: Epidermal Cells; St: Stomata; SC: Subsidiary Cells




Fig. 7. A stoma with paracytic guard cells-enlarged

EC: Epidermal Cells; GC: Guard Cells; sc: subsidiary Cells

Fig. 8. Venation pattern showing dense reticulate, thickness

VI: Vein Islet; VT: Vein Termination

Fig. 9. A branched, dendroid type of trichome vein termination

VT: Vein Termination




Fig. 10. Surface section (paradermal section) of the vein showing non-anastamosing and non -articulate laticiferous tubes running parallel to the vascular elements

Lf: Laticifier; Ve: Vein

Fig. 11. T.S. of petiole - ground plan

CGT: Central Ground Tissue; GT: Ground Tissue; VC: Vascular Cylinder

Fig. 12. T.S. of petiole - a sector enlarged

GT: Ground Tissue; Ph: Phloem; X: Xylem




Fig. 13. T.S. of petiole - a sector further magnified

EP: Epidermis; GT: Ground Tissue; Ph: Phloem; X: Xylem

Fig. 14. T.S. of lamina with druse (sphaero crstal) in the palisade tissue

AbE: Abaxial Epidermis; Dr. Druse; Ep: Epidermis; PM: Pallisade Mesophyll

SM: Spongy Mesophyll

Fig. 15. T.S. of petiole with druses in the phloem parenchyma

Dr. Druse; Ph: phloem; X: Xylem





Fig. 16 Paradermal section of the lamina showing a druse inside a modified circular wide parenchyma cell

Dr: Druse; MT: Mesophyll Tissue


Fig. 17. A fragment of the lamina, showing marginal glandular trichomes and non-glandular trichomes

CTr: Covering (Non-glandular) Trichome; GTr: Glandular Trichome;

LM: Leaf Margin

Fig. 18. An isolated glandular trichome

SB: Spherical Body; St: stach




Fig. 19. Upper part of the gland - enlarged

GC: Glandular Cells; SC: Surface Cells

Fig. 20 Leaf - cleared showing the calcium oxalate druses as seen in surface view

Dr: Druse

Fig. 21. One druse - enlarged

Dr: Druse




Fig. 22. Fragments of abaxial epidermis showing stomata

EC: Epidermis Cells; St: Stack

Fig. 23. Stomata

EC: Epidermal Cells; St: Stack

Fig. 24 Vein portion of the leaf showing dark lines thick represent the laticifer

Lt: Laticifer




Fig. 25. An isolated laticifer

Lt: Laticifer

Fig. 26. A piece of lamina showing vegetation pattern

VI: Vein isolet; VT: vein Termination

Fig. 27. A portion of the venation enlarged

VI: vein isolet; VT: vein termination

Physicochemical Standards:

Various physicochemical parameters analyzed were total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble extractive and alcohol-soluble extractive. Their respective percentages were 1.65%, 0.03%, 0.27%, 21.52% and 35.78% w/w.   


Leaf Constant Values:

Average of leaf constant values such as stomatal index, vein islet number and vein termination number was determined as 9.50 µm, 3.10 µm, and 21.50 µm, respectively (Table 1). 


Table 1: Analytical Parameter of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf



Stomatal Index


Vein Islet number


Vein termination numb


Water Soluble Ash


Water Soluble extractive value


Alcohol Soluble extractive value




J. tanjorensis belonging to the family of Euphorbiaceae, subfamily of Crotonoideae, tribe of Cluylieae, is allied to J. glanduliferae Roxb. Ellis and Saroja (1961)[16] published this as new species and provided certain diagnostic characters. Idu et al. (2009)[9] reported comparative morphological and anatomical studies on the leaves and stem of J. curcas and J. tanjorensis. Oboh and Masodje (2009)[17] analyzed the leaves of J. tanjorensis and reported different contents such as moisture (78.77%), protein (2.01%), ash (0.51%), minerals and antimicrobial activity. Prabakaran and Sujatha (1999)[18] surveyed J. tanjorensis and stated that it is a natural interspecific hybrid between J. curcas and J. gossypifolia. Sahai et al. (2009)[19] reported floral abnormalities in J. tanjorensis but they did not report detailed anatomical study. From the present observation, it is evident that certain characters such as the presence of long petiole (Figs. 3,4, 11 - 13); long or short thick multicellular, multiseriate, glandular trichomes, also non-glandular or covering type of trichomes (Figs. 9, 17 - 19); abundant crystals – calcium oxalate druses (Figs. 20, 21); presence of paracytic type stomata (Figs. 22, 23),  along with certain physicochemical constants (Table 1) can provide useful parameters for differentiating J. tanjorensis from other implicated taxa. The standardization of the plant material is extremely important to be used as medicine. The process of standardization can be achieved by step-wise Pharmacognostic studies[20]. Simple Pharmacognostic techniques used in standardization of plant material include its morphological, anatomical and biochemical characteristics[21]. Anatomical study of medicinal plants is significant in pharmacognosy in order to prevent adulteration as well as to evolve specific parameters for authenticity and quality control of raw drugs[22,23]. The physicochemical analysis proves stability, purity and firmness of the plant drug for use and is helpful to standardize them to be used as a potential drug. The ash value indicates the presence of inorganic ions. During the process of ash, organic matter gets oxidized and certain amount of volatile elements are lost[24]. Ash content of leaves was low, indicating a low content of minerals. By acid-insoluble ash, inorganic variables like calcium oxalate, silica, and carbonate content of crude drug affecting total ash value are removed. The water-soluble extractives indicate the presence of water-soluble matters such as sugars, amino acids and vitamins derived from the plants. The alcohol-soluble extractives indicate the presence of polar compounds like glycosides, secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and their glycosides, phenols and tannins. These organic lignins possess promising biological activities, which can be utilized to develop potential drugs.


Drug discovery and development program depends on natural resources especially traditional medicines which can play a major role.  The program is getting global attention because now the human society is being faced problems with drug resistant microorganisms, side effects of modern drugs and emerging diseases, shortage of new lead structures, impressive successes of botanical medicines and there, unacceptable side effects of synthetic drugs, a whole range of new effective drugs for chronic and diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, rheumatism and AIDS, and high costs of modern medicines.


Jatropha species are grown as hedge plant in live fences and are administered to treat various diseases. They are reported to be abortifacient, anodyne, antiseptic, cicatrizant, depurative, diuretic, emetic, hemostat, lactogogue, narcotic, purgative, rubefacient, styptic, vermifuge, and vulnerary, homicide, piscicide, raticide, venereal disease, etc. and its latex to bee and wasp stings and to dress sores and ulcers and inflamed tongues and inhibitory to watermelon mosaic virus.


Several compounds have been reported from different species of Jatropha. Broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity has been reported various solvent extracts. Biological activities such as antileukemia and antinasopharyngeal, antitumor, anti-diarrheal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-coagulant activity, haemostatic, antimalarial, wound healing, etc.


Against this backdrop, a traditional medicine such as Jatropha tanjorensis was chosen for pharmacognostical analysis, phtyochemical, antimicrobial, and pharmacological research to develop standards for crude materials, spectral data for compounds, biological activity for developing scientific evidence to efficacies of traditional origin and leads of both reported efficacies and new efficacies based on research taken up in the present study.


Salient findings of the present study in J. tanjorensis are given below:



Certain characters such as the presence of long petiole; long or short thick multicellular, multiseriate, glandular trichomes, also non-glandular or covering type of trichomes; abundant crystals – calcium oxalate druses; presence of paracytic type stomata;   A low content of minerals ash value; Presence of water-soluble matters such as sugars, amino acids and vitamins .Presence of polar compounds like glycosides, secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and their glycosides, phenols and tannins in alcohol-soluble extractives; and Presence of organic lignins having promised biological activities, which can be utilized to develop potential drugs.



Research on medicinal plants is an important fact of bio-medical research. India is one of the world’s twelve leading biodiversity centers with the presence of over 45,000 different plant species. The herbal drugs used throughout the world have received greater attention in recent times, because of their diversity of curing diseases, safety and well tolerated remedies compared to the conventional medicines. A Perusal of   the available reviews and thousands of published papers/theses/reports revealed that majority of the plants were not studied beyond chemical or preliminary biological screening stage. The activity has, thus, been largely fragmented and generally academic. Our potential herbal drugs are hidden in this group waiting to be developed and commercially exploited.



The authors thank Illayavallal Dr K.Sridharan, chairman, Arulmigu Kalasalingam College of Pharmacy, for providing necessary laboratory facilities for carrying out the present research work.



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Received on 07.08.2018          Modified on 13.09.2018

Accepted on 05.10.2018  ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2018; 10(4): 291-298.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2018.00047.X