Assessment of validity of Ethnopharmacological uses of  medicinal plants used by Tribal People of Gadchiroli  District of Maharashtra State, India

 

Vijay Jagdishprasad Tiwari

P G Department of Botany, J M Patel College, Bhandara 441 904, Maharashtra State, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: vijaysstiwari@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The ethnopharmacological  study of Madia-Gond Tribe of Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra State reveals that fourteen ethnomedicinal plants are used to cure various ailments. In order to establish rationale behind ethnopharmacological uses online database namely Pub Med, Google Scholar and online journals on medicinal plants were searched thoroughly  to know  phytochemical and pharmacological profiles of plant. Ethnomedicinal uses were corroborated with chemical and biological activities. An attempt is made to check authenticity and validity of herbal drug on the basis of reported research work.

 

KEYWORDS: Rationale, validity,  ethnopharmacology, medicinal plants, madia-gond tribe.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The World Health Organisation stated that “traditional medicines, of proven quality, safety, and efficacy, contribute to the goal of ensuring that all people have access to care. For many millions of people, herbal medicines, traditional treatments, and traditional practitioners are the main source of health care, and sometimes the only source of care. This is care that is close to homes, accessible and affordable. It is also culturally acceptable and trusted by large numbers of people. The affordability of most traditional medicines makes them all the more attractive at a time of soaring health-care costs and nearly universal austerity. Traditional medicine also stands out as a way of coping with the relentless rise of chronic non communicable diseases”1. It has been estimated that 65% of population of developing countries like India rely on traditional medicine mostly plant drug for their primary health care.

 

The use of traditional herbal medicine in most developing countries as therapeutic agents for the maintenance of good health has been widely observed. Over 227 ethnic groups of people residing in about 5000 villages of India. In many countries scientific investigation of medicinal plants have been initiated because of their contribution to health care. It is the urgent need of time to collect information about ethnomedicinal uses of plants by rural and tribal population. This is possible through ethno pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies. It is stated that ethnopharmacological information is an important tool in drug discovery2,3. Recently various ethno pharmacological studies have been conducted to explore the knowledge about medicinal plants from various tribal communities. Documenting the indigenous knowledge through ethnopharmacological   studies is important for conservation of biological resources as well as their sustainable utilization. India has rich heritage of  most Ancient System of Herbal medicine known as Ayurveda which include many promising medicinal plants. These plants needs urgent chemical and biological investigations to confirm their efficacy. Most of the existing texts on ethnopharmacology/ethnobotany deal only with medicinal plant and their uses ignoring chemical and pharmacological aspects. Reflecting the current interest in herbal medicine the author attempted to fill this gap by supplementing a text of chemical and biological activity. The author discusses the role of scientific evidences in supporting ethnopharmacological claims in few cases. The rationale for ethnopharmacologic uses may be well explained exclusively by making references to published information. A large number of chemical and pharmacological studies need to be reviewed which will provide substantial evidences in favors of traditional uses of plant species. The increasing evidences in favor of herbal drug authenticate its uses. Thus providing a scientific rationale for medicinal uses of plants. Sometimes chemical and pharmacological  data on the plant is inadequate hence such plants needs urgent attention for further study. In such cases the presence of bioactive principles are being detected which may be responsible for medicinal property of plant. The earlier ethnobotanical study of this tribe have been undertaken by different workers4,5,6.

 

AREA UNDER STUDY:

The present ethnopharmacological study has been undertaken in Bhamragad tehsil because this tehsil possesses the maximum population of the Madia-Gond tribe.  For the ethnobotanical study, the following villages were selected: Arewada, Bhamragad, Binagonda, Brahmanpalli, Dhodraj, Golaguda, Hemalkasa, Jijgaon, Kothi, Kukkametha, Laheri, Kuwakodi, Marampalli, Tadgaon, Parmalbhatti.

 

LIFE STYLE OF GOND TRIBE:

Gonds live in thatched houses, walls plastered with mud. Few better ones live in concrete houses. The cattle sheds, earthen wares, utensils, hunting, fishing and agriculture equipments are their materialistic possessions. They are animistic. Many parts of the forest and hills are their sacred groves. Still they practice magico-religious beliefs. Most of them are known for their skills in handicraft and wood design work. Their staple food is seeds flour of kodon (Paspalum scrobiculatum); kutki (Panicum miliare);  jowar (Sorghum vulgare) and rice. Pulses and wheat are limited in their regular diet. They eat variety of wild edible plants. Their women wrap a sari around waist and adorn their neck with number of black beaded necklaces. They wear choli or blouse. They tattoo their forehead and arms. Men wear dhoti which is loin piece of cloth wrapped around waist passing through legs.

 

Geography and Population-

Location

Gadchiroli District, Maharashtra State, India

Cordinates of Gadchiroli District

19o21’ and 40o22’ North Latitude

80o91’ and 72o80’ East Longitude

Cordinates of Bhamragad Study Area

Latitude 19.25

Longitude 80.35

Avergae Elevation

231 meters.

Prominent Hills

Bhamragad, Tipagad, Palasgad, Surjagad

Total Land Area

16517.590 sq.kms.

Total Forest Area

12576.202 sq.kms.  (  approx.76% of total forest)

Total Population (2011 census)

1072942

Total Tribal Population( 2011 Census)

415306 (approx. 38.17% of total population)

Total Administrative Divisions

Eleven viz., Wadsa, Kurkheda, Armori, Dhanora,Gadchiroli,Etapalli,Bhamragad,Aheri, Sironcha, Mulchera, Chamorshi,

Total Number of Villages

1681

Total Number of Tribal villages in Bhamragad tehsil

128

 Tehsils inhabited by 80% tribal villages

Etapalli, Bhamragad, Aheri,Sironcha

Number of villages selected for study

Fifteen (having 80% or more Madia Gond)

Wild Life Sancturies and Reserved Forest

Chaprada and Tadoba

Forest

Mixed Dry Deciduous Type wherein Teak and Bamboo are predominant elements.

 Rivers

Wainganga, Indravati, Pamul Gautam, Pranhita, Godavari,Pearl Kota, Gadhavi, Khobragadi, Kathani, Siwani, Darshni

Wild Life

Tiger, Leopard, Deer, Bear, Bison, Wild Dogs, Monkey etc.

Nearest Major City

Nagpur 500 kms.

Distance from Bhandara

400 kms

 

METHODOLOGY:

The present study was carried out among 15 tribal villages of Bhamragad tehsil. During year 2013 and 2014 field visits were conducted in the tribal villages. The tehsil is located at 210 04” N latitude and 800 22” E longitudes. The area under study is indicated in the Map. The traditional healers or medicine men locally known as Vaidu were interviewed. Good rapport was established with them in order to reveal their secret knowledge about plants. They were cross questioned to know about real medicinal uses. Help of interpreters was sought for conversation and understanding of Gondi language. The herbarium specimen was prepared and voucher specimens are deposited in the herbarium of P G Department of Botany, J M Patel College, Bhandara. The plants were identified using the floras. Questions about the use of medicinal plants were asked using classical means of ethnobotanical analysis7,8. The photographs of plant in its natural habitat were taken from Nikon Camera. The reported medicinal use of plant is accepted because six healers out of eight interviewed and cross-questioned from different villages have narrated the same information. The main objective of the paper was to establish rationale behind ethno pharmacological uses of medicinal plants hence a comprehensive literature survey was conducted on phytochemical and pharmacological data. These medicinal uses were corroborated with chemical and biological activities of plant. If any kinds of corroboration exist then comments are made in the part of discussion. The specific plant part used as a medicine and finding out its phytochemical and biological activities has been considered because such approach limits the literature and avoids distraction. The reports of the chemicals and biological activities on unused plant parts have been simply avoided.

 


 

RESULT:

Table No 1

Sr.No

Botanical Name, Family,Local Name and Herbarium Number

Ethnomedicinal Uses

Phytochemical Data

Pharmacology

1

Bryonopsis laciniosa(Linn.)Naud., syn. Diplocyclos palmatus L.

Cucurbitaceae,

 Shivlingi

VJT-356

Seed powder taken for 21 days by women to help in conception.

Punicic acid and Triterpene glycosides present9.Leaves contain p-coumaric acid, ferulic, syringic, caffeic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol), n-hentriacontane, n-triacontane and α and β amyrin and sitosterol 10. GC/MS analysis of fruit extract reported oleic acid,hexanoic acid, 2-ethylcyclohexane, 2-methyltetracosane, 2-undecenal, 1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, ascorbic acid, 26-dihexadeconoate; Octadeconoic acid, (2E)-2-Decenal, sulfurous acid, n-nonaldehyde, 2-Hepten-3-ol, Decadienal, 3-Octenoic acid, Oxooctyl acid11. Goniothalmin present12.

EtOH extract of seeds show androgenic activity and its effect on hyphothalamic pituitary gonadal axis13.

antimicrobial activity14.

Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of Goniothalmin15.

2

Caesalpinia bonducella Flem. syn. C. bounduc (L.)Roxb., C. crista L., Caesalpiniaceae, Sagargoti,

VJT- 132

 

Kernel powder mixed with coconut oil is applied on skin warts..

Seeds contain furanoditerpene's: α-caesalpin, β-caesalpin, γ-caesalpin, δ-caesalpin, ε-caesalpin, and caesalpin –F; fatty acids(palmitic, stearic, octadeca-4-enoic, octadeca-2, 4-dienoic, lignoceric, oleic and linoleic acids) phytosterinin,  β-sitosterol, homoisoflavone bonducellin; amino acids( aspartic acid, arginine, and citrulline) carbohydrates(starch and sucrose); β-carotene, glycoside-bonducin, gums, and resins16.

Seed chloroform extract yielded L-γ-ethylidene glutamic acid and cassane type diterpene Thirty different fatty acids of various classes were extracted from the non-polar fraction of seed. 8 among them was found to be saturated and 22 unsaturated acids which include 9 monoenoic, 5 dienoic and 7 trienoic and 1 polyenoic acid. Hexadecadienoic acid occoured in highest proportion (21.27%)17. Twenty types of cassane and nor cassane diterpene were isolated from chloroform extract of seeds18.

EtOH extract yielded 2 homoisoflavonoids, hematoxylol, stereochenol, acetylloganic acid19.

Seven new cassane diterpenoids along with three known compounds were isolated from the seed kernels20.

Antitumor and antioxidant activities21;

Antidiabetic activity22;Antioxident acitivity23;Anti-inflammatory, Antipyretic, Analgesic activities of seed oil 24;  Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity25.One cassane diterpene shows cytotoxic activity and two cassane furanoditerpenoids shows antimalerial activity against Plasmodium falciferum26.

Cassane-type diterpenoids shows neuroprotective effects27.Hepatoprotective activity 28;Antifilarial activity29, Antimicrobial activity 30,

Antifungal and antispasmodic activity31,  Antipsoriasis activity32.

3

 

Cansjera rheedii J.Gmelin

,Opiliaceae, Haradphali,

VJT – 331

 

 

 

 

One cup aqueous leaves extract taken for 21 days as antidiabetic agent.

EtOH extract of aerial part yielded spasmol ,two phenyl propenoic acid and three flavonols glycosides.

 3, 4-dihydroxy cinnamic acid (1), 4-hydroxy 3-methoxycinnamic acid (2), 3, 5, 7, 3’, 4’-pentahydroxy flavone (quercetin) (3), 5, 7, 3’, 4’-tetrahydroxy -3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl flavones (quercetin-3-O-ß-glucoside)(4) and 5, 7, 3’, 4’-tetrahydroxy-3-O-(6-O-a-L-rhamnopyanosyl)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (quercetin-3-O-ß-rutinoside) (5) 34,35

Anti-nociceptive activity36Anthelminthic Activity37;

Cytotoxic38 and anti-inflammatory activity39.Toxicity of EtOH extract33

Diuretic40. Antipyretic41, antihepatotoxic activity42. Leaves EtOH extract 200 mg./kg and 400 mg./kg of extract shows antidiabetic activity43

4

Careya arborea, Roxb.,Lecythidiaceae, Kumbhi,VJT- 1372

Bark powder mixed jaggery. Pills are taken regularly for three months to cure tumor and cancer.

Taraxerol and sapogenins44

Leaves contain hexacosanol, quercetin, ellagic acid, taraxerol, β-sitosterol and α-sitosterol and valoneic acid dilactone as its Me derivative; also ellagic acid-4,4-di-Me-ether, triterpenoid, ester, careaborin and β-amyrin 45

Cytotoxic46 Antioxidant47 Gastroprotective48

antileishmenial49,

Antidiarrhoeal50

5

Desmodium velutinum (Willd)DC., syn. D.lasiocarpum DC., syn. D.latifolium DC., Fabaceae,

Chikna,

 VJT-804

Whole plant extract given to cure diarrhea and dysentery.

Tryptamine, Bufotenine, Gramine alkaloids51

Sterols isolated52

EtOH extract anticancer45,

 Hepatoprotective53   antiplasmodial activity54

Antipyretic55 Antidiarrheal56

6

Dillenia pentagyna Roxb., Dilleniaceae,

Michud,

VJT- 366

 Fruits mashed with salt  as chutney. It is eaten to cure stomach troubles like gastritis, indigestion, acidity and flatulence

Stem yielded α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-3-OH-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid and a flavonone glycoside. Bark extract contain lupeol, betulin, betulinic acid and morolic acid45

Dillenetin, dipoloic acid, myricetin, quercetin derivatives, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, phenolics, Two new flavonoid glycosides, naringenin 7-galactosyI( 1 + 4)glucoside and dihydroquercetin S- galactoside, Rhamnetin 3-glucoside and Diterpene dipolic acid57,58

 

α-L -rhamnopyranosyl-3 beta- hydroxyllup20(29)-en-28-oic acid59

Antimicrobial property of fruit extract against Coliforms sp, Vibrio sp., and Helicobacter sp.60

antibacterial, antioxidant activity62

Anticancer activity61

7

Gardenia gummifera L.f., Rubiaceae ,

Dikamali

,VJT-  321

One spoon aqueous mixture of gum  is given to children for healthy teeth and to cure dentition problems.

 

Oleo gum resin.Gum  is highly aromatic and it contain flavones including gardenin, De-Me-tangeretin and nevadensin; 3-wogonins, isoscutellarin, apigenin and de-MeO-sudachitin63. Stem bark gave oleanonic aldehyde, sitosterol, erythrodiol and its derivatives10 Eight new cycloartane triterpene from gum resin reported. Six new cycloartane triterpenes, dikamaliartanes (A-F) together with known flavonoid isolated64

 Antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Mycobacteria sp64 The essential oil of the oleo gum resin of  is a CNS depressant and anticonvulsant with central muscle relaxant  properties69

8

Kickxia ramosissima Wall.

syn Linaria ramosissima

(Wall.)Janch., Scrophulariaceae,

Dhanota          

VJT- 561

Whole plant aqueous decocotion taken for seven days as antipyretic to cure malerial fever

Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, phlobatannins,phenols present.MeOH extract yield 7-O-[4-O-Acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1       6)-β-D-glucopyranoside present (Buckingham and Manasinghe 2015).Flavone glycoside, acetylated pectolinarigenin-7-rutinoside, pectolinarin, mannitol present65,66

 

MeOH extract shows antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities67.

Diuretic activity of leaves in albino rats68

 

9

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.)Merrill., Anacardiacee,

Mowai,

 VJT- 761

One cup aqueous extract of bark taken for two times daily for 21 days as a general tonic

 

Flavonoids present . Five dihydroflavonols isolated from stem bark70. Dihydroflavonols -(2R,3S)-(+)-3',5-dihydroxy-4',7-dimethoxydihydro¯avonol and (2R,3R)-(+)-4',5,7-

trimethoxydihydro¯avonol were isolated from the stem bark of Lannea coromandelica, along with the known (2R,3R)-(+)-4',7-di-O-methyldihydroquercetin, (2R,3R)-(+)-4',7-di-O-methyldihydrokaempferol and (2R,3R)-(+)-4'-O-methyldihydroquercetin isolated73

Anticancer activity71.Antioxidant activity of MeOH extract72 Antinociceptive effect70

10

Lepidagathis cristata Willd.,

Acanthaceae

Kolheche And

VJT -102

Burning herb fumigation purify air in their houses

An immunosuppressive, tryptophan-derived alkaloid Cristatin A (1), and two known compounds, cycloartenol and stigmasta-5,11(12)-diene-3 beta-ol, were isolated from the whole plant73  6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-apioside isolated74

The major bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester was isolated from the inflorescence. The bioactive compound was tested for antifungal potentials against human pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata ; Microsporum canis75 Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities76.Antipyretic activity77.Anti-inflammatory  and analgesic activity78

11

Operculina turpethum

(L.)Silva.Manso.   

Convolvulaceae,

Bhoigongal,

VJT – 902

Aqueous extract of  root,stem and leaves taken to cure gastric ulcers.

 Extract yielded resin glycosides, three glycosidic acids,turpethic acid A-C, turpethosides A and B, 12-hydroxypentadecanoic acid aglycones, 12-hydroxypentadecanoic acid, 12-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid reported79 Bioactive dammarane-type saponins, operculinosides A-D isolated80

Hepatoprotective Effect81, 82 Anticancer activity83,85

Antidiarrhoeal, antispasmodic, Bronchodialator activities84

 Antibacterial activity86

Antiulcer activity87

 

12

Rhinacanthus nasutus          Acanthaceae,

 Gajkarni,

 VJT -811

Whole plant extract applied on skin diseases – ringworm, scabies, itch, eczema

Rhinacanthin A to D, two new dimethyldihydropyranonapthoquinone ester, eight new 2-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone esters, rhinacanthin G to N belong to 2-hydroxy-3(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl propyl)-1,4-napthoquinone ester isolated88

Cytotoxic and antitumor activity90 antimicrobial activity91,92.

 Cytotoxic property89

Antifungal napthoquinone derivative isolated93

 

13

Smilax zeylanica

Smilacaceae,

 Sehdire,

VJT - 732

Roots  and young shoots are cooked as vegetable.This vegetable is used to cure veneral diseases like leucorrhoea,gonorrhea and syphilis.

Steroidal saponins, phytosterol, starch, sarsapic acid, minerals, diosgenin present. Root contain large amount of tannin, saponin, 31-norcycloartenol and β-sitosterol, heteroside, parillin, potassium nitrate.The saponins on hydrolysis gives sapogenins, sarsasapogenins, aspergenin and another steroidal sapogenin.The root contain coumarin, smilaspermic acid, volatile oil and a crystalline hemidesmine and rutin10

Hepatotoxic activity94 Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities95

Antibacterial activity96)

14

Soymida febrifuga A.Juss.,

Meliaceae

Rohan

VJT - 097

One cup aqueous decocotion of bark extract given cure periodic fever like typhoid.

Leaves extract yielded β - Sitosterol, Lupeol, Quercetin, Quercetin-3-O-galactoside, Quercetin-3-O-xyloside and Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside97 ;Methyl angolensate isolated from bark98; Quercetin Glycoside from leaves99

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities100,101 

Anticancer activity101  Antiplasmodial activity103

Cytotoxic activity102

 


 

DISCUSSION:

The use of seed powder of Bryonopsis laciniosa for conception by tribal women appears to be valid as Chauhan and Dixit (2010) reported that EtOH extract of seeds show androgenic activity and its effect on hyphothalamic pituitary gonadal axis. This important activity may be due to androgens. It must be noticed that androstenedione, produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads (ovary and testicles), is the common precursor of all sexual hormones (see Steroidogenesis pathway). In females, androstenedione is produced by theca cells and exported in granulosa cells for estrogen production. Whether chemical composition of seed influences the level of sex harmone? The answer to this question need to be investigated further.

 

Caesalpinia bounducella kernel powder mixed with coconut oil applied on warts. The cytotoxic property of cassane diterpene and anti-inflammatory properties helped to explain the rationale behind its indigenous use. cassane diterpene shows cytotoxic activity Pudhom  et. al. 2007); antitumor property (Gupta 2004) Anti-inflammatory. activities of seed oil-  Shukla et. al. (2010) Kannur et.al. (2012) In addition, C. bonduc was evaluated for antiproliferative properties using a model of epidermal hyper proliferation in psoriasis. To assess the cytotoxic effect of the plant, human keratinocyte HaCaT cells with rapid proliferation were used by Muruganantham et.al. (2011). These studies validated  the use of C.bonduc against wart.

 

The use of leaves of Cansjera rheedii as antidiabetic agent  may be corroborated with its antidiabetic activity  reported by Ramjith et. al. (2013) that leaves EtOH extract 200 mg./kg and 400 mg./kg of extract shows antidiabetic activity.Further the plant contain flavonoids, especially quercetin, has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity.Vessal et al ( 2003)reported that quercetin brings about the regeneration of pancreatic islets and proprably increases insulin release in strptozotocin-induced diabetic rats41. Also in another study, Hif and Howell reported that quercetin stimulate insulin release and enhanced Ca2+ uptake from isolated islets cell which suggest a place for flavonoids in noninsulin-dependent diabetes(Hif and Howell 1984, 1985)

 

Bark powder of Careya arborea is used as a anticancer agent in the form of pills by tribals. This plant contain sapogenins. Sapogenins/ steroid saponins are oxygenated C-27 steroids with an hydroxyl group in C-3 for example Spirostanol (diosgenins, sarsapogenin). Use of saponins as antitumor agents has been under the scientific scanner for more than 40 years, no single clinically relevant saponin with sole status as a pharmaceutical agent has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. An interesting utilization of saponins, which was first reported by Hebestreit et al. (2006) was their ability to enhance the toxicity of certain ribosome-inactivating proteins synergistically at submicellar concentrations. The ability for target-cell specific enhancement was then illustrated for a targeted toxin consisting of the epidermal growth factor as the targeting moiety and the ribosome-inactivating protein, sapornin, as the toxic moiety. The use of C. arborea as anticancer agent may be correlated with its cytotoxic activity reported by Senthilkumar et. al. (2007). The chemical work is insufficient to make comments on the use of this plant.

 

Desmodium velutinum plant extract is used to cure diarrhea and dysentery. The rationale behind this usage become evident when one consider the antidiarrheal activity reported by Ezike et. al. (2014).

 

Dillenia pentagyna fruits mashed with salt  as chutney. It is eaten to cure stomach troubles like gastritis, indigestion, acidity and flatulence. Whether these complaints occur due to any kind of bacterial infection? The specific answer to this question is not known. However it is very much interesting to note that antibacterial activity of plant is reported by   De et.al. (2014); Singha et.al. 2013. Myricetin is chemically known as 3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavone It possesses both prooxidative and antioxidative properties depending on the context of the system it is in. It is one of the more hydroxylated flavanol structures.

 

Gardenia gummifera oleo gum resin aqueous mixture is given to children for healthy teeth and to cure dentition problems. The validity of this use need to be investigated further.However chemical and biological data is insufficient to comment on its use. During dentition children get irritated hence gum is prescribed to have a deep sleep as CNS depressant activity and muscle relaxant property of gum is reported by Shareef et. al. (2013)

 

Kickxia ramosissima aqueous decocotion taken for seven days as antipyretic to cure malerial fever does not find any relevance with phytochemical and pharmacological work.Till now antiplasmodial activity is not reported. Antipyretic and analgesic activity of MeOH extract was reported by (Jan et.al. 2016).

 

The use of bark of Lannea coromandelina as a general tonic may be corroboratd with its anti-oxidant activity  of MeOH extract reported by Kumar and Jain (2015). The additional support to usage comes from its flavonoid content. Flavonoids possess many biochemical properties, but the best described property of almost every group of flavonoids is their capacity to act as antioxidants. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids depends upon the arrangement of functional groups about the nuclear structure. The configuration, substitution, and total number of hydroxyl groups substantially influence several mechanisms of antioxidant activity such as radical scavenging and metal ion chelation ability (Kelly et.al 2012)

 

The burning and fumigation of whole plant of Lepidagathis cristata to purify air in tribal houses does not get any evidence. The plant is neither aromatic nor fragrant. Therefore it appears to be magico-religious belief of tribals.

 

Operculina turpethum root,stem and leaves aqueous extract of  taken to cure gastric ulcers. This use is validate because antiulcer activity  was reported by Ignatius et al.(2013).

 

Rhinacanthus nasutus is used in the treatment of skin infections like eczema, ringworm and psoriasis The active principle is the napthoquinine known as plumbagin.Naphthoquinones display very significant pharmacological properties--they are cytotoxic, they have significant antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory properties.The plant shows cytotoxic activity (Horii et.al. 2011); antimicrobial activity(Puttarak et. al.2010; Prajuabjinda et.al. 2012);  Antifungal napthoquinone derivative isolated (Kudama et. al. 1993). Thus the use of plant for skin diseases is rationalized.

 

Smilax zeylanica roots  and young shoots are cooked as vegetable. This vegetable is edible to cure venereal diseases like leucorrhoea, gonorrhea and syphilis. The rationale behind this ethnopharmacological uses is present because antibacterial activity has been reported by Azad et.al.2015.  Chemical analysis reveals presence of steroidal saponins known to posses anti-inflammatory property (Shao et. al. 2007)

 

Soymida febrifuga bark extract given to cure perodic fever like typhoid. This medicinal claim validate because antimicrobial activity is reported by Reddy et.al. 2008;  Chiruvella et.al. 2007 and Raizunissa et.al.2013.

 

Due to paucity of phytochemical and pharmacological research it is not possible to establish rationale behind medicinal uses of plants. Therefore urgent chemical and biological investigations are needed on these plants.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

In this paper validity of ethnopharmacological uses of medicinal plants is assessed on the basis of earlier reports of chemical and biological studies. The interpretation of uses on the basis of this approach is  helpful to check  validity and authenticity of herbal drugs used by tribal people. It  is the urgent need of time to undertake extensive phytochemical and pharmacological analysis so as to confirm authenticity of herbal drugs.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The author is thankful to Dr. Vikas Dhomne, Principal, J M Patel College, Bhandara for providing basic infrastructure to carry out this research work. The author extend his deep sense of gratitude to  Dr. Mrs. Amal Akour, Assistant Professor, Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan for examining the present manuscript. The author is thankful to Dr.Abhay Ittadwar, Principal,Guru Nanak College of Pharmacy, Nari, Nagpur for providing library facilities.

 

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Received on 01.12.2016          Modified on 12.01.2017

Accepted on 15.02.2017      ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2017; 9(1): 08-16.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2017.00002.4