Rationale Behind Ethnopharmacological Uses of Blumea lacera (Burmf.) DC., (Asteraceae) for piles/haemorrhoids and anal fissures by Madia-Gond Tribe of Gadchiroli District of Maharashtra State, India

 

V. J. Tiwari

P G Department of Botany, J M Patel College, Bhandara 441 904 M.S., Maharashtra State, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: vijaysstiwari@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The ethnopharmacological survey of Madia-Gond Tribe of Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra State reveals that aqueous extract of leaves of Blumea lacera (BL) are used to cure anal fissure and haemorrhoid/piles. In order to establish rationale behind ethnopharmacological uses online database namely Pub Med, Google Scholar and online journals on medicinal plants were searched thoroughly to know ethnomedicinal, phytochmical and pharmacological profiles of plant. These references were analysed in perspective of different medicinal uses among distant ethnic communities in different regions of India. Ethno medicinal uses were corroborated with chemical and biological activities. An attempt is made to check authenticity and validity of herbal drug on the basis of reported research work.

 

KEYWORDS: Rationale, Ethnopharmacology, Blumea lacera, Madia- Gond Tribe, Pharmacological and Chemical validity

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

The majority of the rural population of India still rely on traditional medicine mostly herbal drug for their primary health care. The use of traditional herbal medicine in most developing countries as therapeutic agents for the maintenance of good health has been widely observed. In India 65% of population depend on ethno medicine which is only source of the primary health care needs. India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity country of the world having rich vegetation with a wide variety of plants with medicinal value. Over 227 ethnic groups of people residing in about 5000 villages of India. In many countries scientific investigation of medicinal plants have been initiated because of their contribution to health care.

 

It is the urgent need of time to collect information about ethno medicinal uses of plants by rural and tribal population. Recently various ethno botanical studies have been conducted to explore the knowledge about medicinal plants from various tribal communities. Documenting the indigenous knowledge through ethno botanical studies is important for conservation of biological resources as well as their sustainable utilization. About 1500 plants with medicinal uses are mentioned in ancient Ayurvedic system of Indian medicine. Ayurveda is a medical system primarily practiced in India that has been known for 5000 years.

 

Most of the existing texts on ethno medicine deal only with medicinal plant and their uses ignoring chemical and pharmacological aspects. Reflecting the current interest in developing ethno medicine the author attempted to fill this gap by supplementing a text of chemical and biological activity. The author discusses the role of scientific evidences in supporting ethno medicinal claims for BL made by other tribes of India. A large number of chemical and pharmacological studies need to be reviewed which will provide substantial evidences in favours of traditional uses of plant species. The increasing evidences in favour of herbal drug authenticate its uses. Thus medicinal claims ascribed to a plant are needed to be validated by modern approach of study, thus providing a scientific rationale to medicinal uses of plants. Sometimes data on the plant is inadequate hence such plants needs urgent attention for further study. In such cases the presence of bioactive principles are being detected which may be responsible for medicinal property of plant. The present study have been undertaken as there are few earlier reports.. Earlier ethnobotanical study of tribe and region have been  by Tiwari and Padhye (1991); Chute and Tiwari (1999);  Jakhi and Kalkar (2012); Chavan and Morgonwar (2015); Koslage et. al. (2009); Chavan (2014); Khonde et.al. (2012).

 

Area Under Study:

Geographic and Populations Features

Location (Administrative Boundaries)

Gadchiroli District, Maharashtra State

Location (Coordinates)

19o21’ - 40o22’ North Latitude 80o91’ - 72o80’ East Longitude

Total Land Area (Sq. Km)

16517.59

Forested Portion (Sq. Km)

12576.20 (~76% of total area)

District Population Total

(2011 Census)

1072942

Tribal Population

(Madia-Gond Tribe)

415306 (~38.7% of total district  population)

Villages in District

1681

Bhamragad Tehsil Tribal Villages of Madia-Gond

128

Villages in Study

15 (having 80% or more Madia Gond)

 

MADIA-GOND TRIBE:

Madia-gonds live in bamboo huts plastered with mud and thatched roofs. Madia men and women wear coarse linen cloth which cover lower part of the body; the parts above the waist are bare. The Ghotuls (guest house) in every village is their socio-cultural institution. The madia inhabit the wilder tract. Their villages are usually built very deep in jungle which offer facility for shifting cultivation. They cultivate kodon (Paspalum scrobiculatum); kutki (Panicum miliare); jowar (Sorghum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa) Pulses and wheat are limited in their regular diet. They eat variety of wild edible plants. They drink sap of Toddy (Borassus flabellifer), Gorga (Caryota urens) and liquor prepared  by fermentation of flowers of Mahua (Madhuca indica). They sometime organize group dance known as Rella. They usually visit weekly market at Bhamragad to purchase salt and chillies.The social oragnisation of villages includes a village headman (Patel), medicine man (Bhagat/Vaidu) and priest (Perma).

 

 

They have traditional self managed system of herbal medicine to cure various ailments. Their folk medicine includes various animal and plant products. The medicine man prescribes herbal medicine to cure various diseases. Sometimes he tries to ascertain through divination whether the disease was caused by any evil spirits or a witch. They are superstitious and seek aid of magical practices and religious rituals performed by Perma. Due to small landholdings they depend on forest resources for food, medicine and shelter. They mostly live in remote inaccessible areas of forest. They still practice shifting cultivation. The main aim behind the present study was to record the utilization of plants by the tribal’s for food, medicine and beverages.

 

METHODOLOGY:

The study was carried out among 15 tribal villages of Bhamragad tehsil. During year 2013 & 2014 field visits were conducted by the author. The traditional healers or medicine men locally known as Vaidu were interviewed. Good rapport was established with them in order to reveal their secret knowledge about plants. They were cross questioned to know about real medicinal uses. Help of interpreters was sought for conversation and understanding of Gondi language. Madia-gond tribe is distributed chiefly in Bhamragad, Aheri and Sironcha tehsils of district. The present ethnopharmacological study has been undertaken in Bhamragad tehsil because this tehsil is posses maximum population of  madia-gond tribe  distributed in  128 tribal villages. Madia-gonds speak Marathi mixed Gondi language. During ethnobotanical study fifteen villages were selected where madia-gond population is 80%. These villages are Arewada, Bhamragad, Binagonda, Brahmanpalli, Dhodraj, Golaguda, Hemalkasa, Jijgaon, Kothi, Kukkametha, Laheri, Kuwakodi, Marampalli, Tadgaon, Parmalbhatti. The area under study is indicated in the Map. The herbarium specimen was prepared, identified and deposited in the herbarium of P G Department of Botany, J M Patel College, Bhandara..The photographs of herbarium sheet is attached. The reported medicinal use of plant is accepted because six healers out of eight interviewed and cross-questioned from different villages have narrated the similar information. The main objective of the paper was to establish rationale behind ethnopharmacological use of BL hence a comprehensive literature survey was conducted through e-library facilities on ethno medicinal uses, phytochemical and pharmacological data reported on leaves of BL. This information was corroborated and correlated between medicinal uses, chemical and biological activities of plant . If any kinds of corroboration exist then comments are made in the part of discussion.

 

The specific plant part used as a ethnomedicine and exploring its phytochemical and biological activities have been considered for making comments in the part of discussion of this paper. This approach limits the literature and avoids distraction. The reports of the chemicals and biological activities on unused plant parts have been simply avoided. Likewise uses of leaves of BL by various tribes of India have been presented in the tabulated form. The uses of stem, flowers and  seeds have not been taken into consideration. The author wants to asses validity of uses of leaves for anal fissure and piles/haemorrhoids therefore  focus have been given to analgesic, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. It is observed that drugs available in the market for the cure of piles/haemorrhoids and anal fissure exist in the form of ointment and they contain antibacterial, analgesic, local anaesthetic and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore while dealing with pharmacological profile of plant antibacterial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory  activities have been taken into consideration.

 

RESULT:

Ethnomedicinal use of Blumea lacera by Madia-Gond Tribe:

Blumea lacera (Burm.f.)DC., Asteraceae, Local Name: Kukud Dawna, Herbarium Sheet No. VJT -842

When tribal medicine man collect the leaves of BL he did not have discriminating power to identify different species of Blumea. Therefore there is every possibility that he may collect leaves of various species of Blumea growing near the vicinity . However when medicineman collected the leaves authors  were accompanied him. The medicine man collected the  fresh leaves of BL. The medicine man narrated that approximately 200 gm. Of leaves are required for obtaining a single dose. The leaves are pounded in water with pestle and mortar of black stone. One cup extract of leaves is squeeze out with the help of cotton cloth. Every time fresh extract is prepared for a dose. One cup extract is taken after 8 hours for three consecutive days to cure anal fissure and piles/hemorrhoids. The filtrate is the mash of debris leaves. It is highly aromatic. The mash is topically applied to the infected part as local antiseptic and antibiotic. The aroma of mash is inhaled frequently during day and night. During the course of treatment the patient is adviced to take rest. The movements of diseased person are restricted. The oral consumption, topical application and inhalation are the simultaneous process during the therapy. Usually the patient gets cured within three days only. If the severity is more then the dose is repeated for three days again.

 

 


 

 

 

Ethnomedicinal uses of leaves of Blumea lacera  used by other tribes of India:

Ethnomedicinal Uses

Tribe/ Locality

References

Leaf extract on cuts.

Bantar

 Acharya and Pokhrel (2006)

Leaves applied on cuts, boils, wound

Baiga Santhal, Paharia, Oraon, Munda, Kol, Karwar, Ho, Asur

Kumar and Abbas (2012)

Leaf juice is applied on bruises of toe, cuts and wounds.

Gorakhpur  Division, India

Pandey  and Tripathi (2011)

Leaf juice or paste is used on wounds and to check bleeding.

Bhil, Kankanas, Malis

Ahire (2012)

Leaf applied on edema, piles and microbial infections.

Noakhali District,

Bhowmik et.al. (2014),

Leaves used to cure piles

Nashik District

Kakulte, et al (2014)

Warmed up leaves used to cure rheumatic pain

Mog, Reang

Debnath et.al. (2014)

Leaf juice is used to treatment of ear ache, fever and killing worms in children.

Gond, Korku

Quamar and Bera (2014)

 


Phytochemistry:

Rastogi (1990) & Pal et. al (1972)    - Campesterol has been isolated from aerial parts along with 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,3’,4’-pentamethoxy flavone and 5,3’.4’-trihydroxy-flavone.

 

Bheemasankara et.al. (1977) – Various types of  flavonoids isolated  from leaves of  plant are 5-Hydroxy-3,6,7,3’,4’-pentamethoxy flavones and 5  5,3’,4’-trihydroxy-3,6,7-trimethoxy flavone.

 

 Asolkar et.al ( 1992)   -  Various parts of plant yielded essential oil containing cineol 66%, d-fenchone 10%, citral 6%  and blumea camphor its main constituent is Thymoquinol-dimethyl-ether.  Leaves contain coniferyl alcohol derivatives, campesterol and flavones. Ethanolic extract of aerial part contain hentriacontanol,  α-amyrin, lupeol and its acetates and β-sitosterol. Root and bark contain triterpene  and sterols.

 

Agarwal et. al. (1995) – Triterpenoid and prenylated phenol glycosides isolated.19-α-hydroxyurs-12-ene-24,28-dioate-3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside and phenol glycoside-2-isoprenyl-5-isopropylphenol-4-O-β-d-xylopyranoside present.Coniferyl alcohol diangelate, thymol-3-O-β-glucoside, β-sitosteryl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Stigmasteryl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside isolated.

 

Laasko et. al. (2006) – From whole plant extract 19α-hydroxy-12-ene-24,triterpenoid glucoside, 28-dioate-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, Phenol glucoside 2-isoprenyl-5-isopropyl-phenol-4-O-β-xylopyranoside,β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, E-β-farnesene, Thymolquinol dimethyl ether   and   precocene isolated. Agarwal et. al. (2007) – Triterpenoids and prenylated phenol glycosides present.

 

Ragasa et.al. (2007) - Monoterpene Glycoside and Flavonoids present. Stem and leaves yieldedβ-caryophyllene; thymol hydroquinone; dimethyl ether;    caryophyllene oxide; α-humulene ; E-β-farnesene ; 19-α-hydroxy-urs-12-ene-24,28-dioate-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside; 2-isoprenyl-5-isoprophylphenol-4-O-β-D-xylopyranoside; 5-hydroxyl-3,6,7,3’.4’-pentamethoxy flavones; 5,3’,4’-trihydroxy-3,6,7-trimethoxu flavones and a conferyl alcohol derivative isolated. Mishra  et.al (2015)- β-caryophyllene,   α-humulene,  E-β-farnesene, precocene isolated

 

Akter et.al.(2015) – Steroidal glycoalkaloid(SGA) isolated by using C18 SPE and HPLC along with β-solamarine; α-solanine; β-solamargine; α-solasonine;  Khasianine, solasodine; tomatidine HCl. The structure of SGA is (25R)-3β-(O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[O-α-rhamopyranosyl-(1→2)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-22α-N-spirosol-5-ene  Satyal et. al. (2015) – Chemical composition of essential oil is (Z)-lachnophyllum ester (25.5%); (Z)-lachnophyllic acid (17.0%); Germacrene D (11%);   β-farnesene (10.1%);    bicyclogermacrene (5.2%); (E)-caryophyllene (4%);     (E)-nerolidol (4.2%); (E)-lachnophyllic acid (3.3%); (E)-lachnophyllum ester (1.7%); (Z)-lachnophyllum ester.

Akter et. al. (2016) – Diterpenoid Glycoside isolated from leaves. 6E, 10E, 14Z-(3S)-17-hydroxygeranyllinalool-17-O-β-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[-α-I-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6) -β-D-glucopyranoside and two flavonoid glycosides were newly reported. Other important chemicals are borneol, 2-tridecyl-4-(1h)-quinolene; α-carotene;  β-carotene;  1-tridecene-3,5,7,9,11-pentyne; coniferyl diangelate, thiophene derivative, carbohydrates , blumeatin flavonoids present

 

 

Pharmacological Data –

Anti-inflammatory Activity:

Asolkar et.al. (1992) – Alcoholic extract exhibited anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin and bradykinin induced inflammation in rats. Essential oil from leaves is antimicrobial and insect repellant.

 

Analgesic Activity:

Rastogi (1990) – Essential oil showed analgesic, hypothermic and tranquilizing activites.

 

Antimicrobial activity:

Bhatnagar et.al. (1975) – Essential oil exhibited antimicrobial activity.Dabur et.al.(2009) -  invitro antimicrobial activity.Singh et.al. (2010) – Antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens and Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis. Tiwari et.al.(2012) – antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis & Escherchia coli. Khandekar et. al. (2013) - antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus typhii & Psuedomonas aeuroginosa.Jahan et. al. (2014) – Evaluated MeOH extract of plant for  antimicrobial activity against Staphyococcus aureus, Escherchia coli, Candida albicans  organisms.Khair et. al (2014)- crude extract exhibit antimicrobial property.Salisu et. al.(2015) – antibacterial activity against Escherchia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus

 

DISSCUSION:

The main objective of the present discussion is to establish rationale for ethno pharmacological uses of BL by various tribes of India. The reported phytochemical and pharmacological findings are useful as a supporting evidence to interpret ate validity of uses of BL. A plant which is used in one area in the treatment of disease whether similar plant is used in the different area in the treatment of same disease. Use in other area presumably increases likelihood that the plant is active against the illness. The ethno medicinal uses reported from other areas support the folk use, the plant is ranked as possessing highest degree of confidence. The use of BL for anal fissure and piles/hemorrhoids is corroborated with its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic property and also with ethno botanical reports of its use on cuts, wounds, injury, bleeding etc. Madia-gond uses leaves to cure anal fissures and piles/haemorrhoids. However similar use have been reported by inhabitants of Noakhali and Nashik districts by Bhowmik et.al. (2014) &  Kakulte et.al. (2014). Ghosh (1988) reported that in homeopathy  tincture of plant is useful for piles. Therefore the use of BL get support from earlier reports of ethnobotanical work.

 

This uses get supporting evidences as antibacterial, antimicrobial property is reported by Bhatnagar et.al. (1975), Dabur et.al.(2009), Singh et.al. (2010), Tiwari et.al.(2012), Khandekar et. al. (2013), Jahan et. al. (2014)Salisu et. al.(2015) and anti-inflammatory activity is reported by Asolkar et.al . (1992) and analgesic activity reported by Rastogi (1990). Satyal et. al. (2015) reported the presence of Lachnophyllum ester which  posses antibacterial and  antifungal properties Many bioactive phytochemicals are present in BL and its allied species. These chemicals are also present in the plants belonging to different taxa. These phytohemicals are showing promising pharmacological activities therefore it is necessary to record their biological activities so as to evaluate medicinal value of BL. Citral (Gernial) is present in the oil extracted from BL. It is used as a flavoring agent in confectionary, soft drink and cosmetics such as after shaves and body lotions. Germacrene (C15H24) are a class of volatile organic hydrocarbons specially sesquiterpenes have been reported to have antimicrobial.β-farnesene is present in BL . Thalita et. al. (2013) detected β-farnesene from essential oil from Drimys angustifolia (Winteraceae) reported to have antibacterial property.β-caryophyllene is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene abundantly found in essential oil from various spices, fruits, medicinal plants and as well from BL. It is approved by US Food and Drug Administration and European agencies as food additive, taste enhancer and flavouring agent and termed as phytocannabinoid. Sharma et. al. (2016) reported its  anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activites.. Khandekar et.al.(2013), Salisu et. al. (2015) and presence of important chemicals such as α-carotene, β-carotene and phenolic glycosides from BL. α-amyrin is a pentacyclic triterpene present in this plant has been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity reported by Singh et. al.(2015). BL yields borneol camphor which is probably a mixture of camphor, borneol and related compounds. The main constituents of essential oil is thymoquinol-dimethyl-ether. Essential oil contains interesting components such as (-)-borneol and (-)-camphor which is used in perfumery. The oil posses antibacterial, antifungal activity. The plant and its defatted extract exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. (+)-borneol exerted remarkable antihyperalgesic effects in a mouse model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain.

 

The review of phytochemicals bioactivity of BL indicate that in addition to ethnopharmacological uses the plant posses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities which support wound healing property which is prominent feature of disease like anal fissure and piles/haemorrhoids. The therapeutic efficacy of BL is to established by experimental and clinical studies. The medicinal effect ascribed to this plant are validiated by modern studies, thus providing a scientific rationale to their traditional usage.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

It is observed that traditional medicinal claims of BL leaves for the diseases like anal fissure and hemorrhoids/piles found direct supporting evidences from antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities reported by different workers. Due to paucity of phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical trials research it is difficult to authenticate this use. Looking into the medicinal potential of the plant the author feels that there is immediate need to focus on on further study of this plant.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The author is thankful to Dr. Vikas Dhomne, Principal, J M Patel College, Bhandara. for providing basic infrastructure to carry out present research work and Dr. Abhay Ittadwar, Principal, Guru Nanak College of Pharmacy, Nari, Nagpur for providing  library facility. Special thanks to Dr. Shrikant Tillo, Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacognosy, Guru Nanak College, Nagpur for constructive criticism and valuable suggestions.

 

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Received on 01.10.2016       Modified on 14.10.2016

Accepted on 30.10.2016      ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2016; 8(4): 235-241.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2016.00035.2; 8(4): 53-59