Pharmacognostic Studies on Roots of Trianthema decandra Linn., Aizoaceae

Veeresh1*, Pramod Kumar2, V Rama Mohan Gupta3

1Depertment of Pharmacognosy, Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Mahabubnagar.

2Department of Pharmacognosy, V. L. College of Pharmacy, Raichur, Karnataka. India

3Department of Pharmaceutics, Pulla Reddy Institute of Pharmacy, Annaram (V), Hyderabad.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: getveereshyadav@yahoo.co.in

 

ABSTRACT:

Trianthema decandra Linn., belongs to family Aizoaceae, commonly known as “Punarnavi” in Sanskrit, “Gadabandi” in Hindi, and “Vellai sharuni” in Tamil . This plant is globally distributed tropical and sub tropical regions. In India it grows in dry-soil lands. It has been known since ancient times for curative properties and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments such as burns and wounds. The roots are aperients, and said to be useful in hepatitis, asthma and suppression of the menses. A decoction of the root-bark is given as an aperient. The juice of the leaves dropped in to the nostrils relieves one-sided headache. In the present investigation, the detailed Pharmacognostic study of Trianthema decandra root is carried out to lay down the standards, which could be useful in future Forensic identification of unknown plant material. The study includes macroscopic, microscopic, preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical evaluation. The objective this was to characterize the unknown plant material. Conclusion: In recent years there has been rapid increase in the standardization of selected medicinal plant of potential therapeutic significance. Despite the modern techniques, identification of plant drug by Pharmacognostic study is more reliable.

 

KEYWORDS: Trianthema decandra root, Pharmacognostic study, Phytochemical screening, Standardization.

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

Trianthema decandra Linn commonly known as Gadabani and vellai sharuni, belonging to family Aizoaceae is considered as a weed herb plant small evergreen tree found in tropical and sub-tropical parts of India[1]. Stems are elongate, prostrate, not much branched, angular ans striate, glabrous. Leaves subfleshy, 2-3.8 by 0.6- 1.6 cm, the opposiet pairs somewhat unequal, elliptic-oblong, rounded and usually apires late at the apex; petioles 6-13 mm. long puberulous much dilated and amplexicaul at the base, but not enclosing the flowers.

 

 

Flowers in dense axillary subumellated clusters; peduncles and pedicels very short, bracteoles thinly membranous. Calyx 4 mm. long, tube very short, lobes much longer than the tube, oblong, obtuse, with scarinum margins and with a distinct long apiculation at the back below the apex. Stamens 10. Styles 2. Capsules not enclosed in the tubeof the calyx, 4-seeded, the cap very truncate, 3mm long, solid, subcylindric with a narrow acute rim round its base, carrying away 2 seeds. Sedds orbicular-reniform, striate, black[2]. In the traditional Indian system of medicine, the ayurveda and various folk system of medicine, Trianthema decandra  possess several medicinal properties such as tooth ache, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and other skin disorders[3]. etc. Chemical studies have shown that, presence of Carbohydrates, Alkaloids, Steroids, Tannins, Fats, Oils and Saponins[4].

 

The current article describes some pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics studied. The main objective of this study is to supplement constructive information with regards to its identification, Characterization and standardization of plant Trianthema decandra Linn.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

COLLECTION OF SAMPLE:

The fresh plant parts of Trianthema decandra was collected and authenticated by Dr. K. Madhava Shatty, Assitant Professor, Dept. of Botany, S.V. University, Tirupathi, A.P.  The plant herbarium was prepared reference. The fresh root parts were used for the study of macroscopical and microscopical characters; whereas the dried root powder was used for determination of powder microscopy and phytochemical analysis. The plant herbarium was prepared (PRIP-01/13) and deposited in the Department of Pharmacognosy, Pulla Reddy Institute of Pharmacy for further reference

 

MACROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION:

The roots of Trianthema decandra Linn. was subjected to macroscopic studies which comprised of organoleptic characteristics viz. color, odour, appearance, taste, shape, texture, fracture, etc. of the drug. These parameters are considered as quite useful in quality control of the crude drug and were evaluated as per standard WHO guidelines [5,6,7].

 

MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS [8,9]:

Fresh roots of Trianthema decandra were used for this purpose. Photographs of different magnifications were taken with Nikon Labphot 2 Microscopic Unit. For normal observation bright field was used. For study crystals, starch grains and lignified cells, polarized light was employed. Magnification of the figures are indicated by the scale-bars. Descriptive terms of the anatomical features are as given in the Standard books (Easu, 1964).

 

DETREMINATION OF POWDER CHARACTERISTICS [10,11]:

1.    POWDER MICROSCOPY:

Shade dried roots were powdered with the help of an electric grinder till a fine powder was obtained. This fine powder of root were subjected to powder microscopy, as per standard procedures mentioned. Powder of root is taken in a watch glass. Equal quantities of phloroglucinol and hydrochloric acid were taken in the watch glass. Slide was prepared with help of a brush. Focused under a microscope.

 

2.    PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS[12-14]:

The qualitative chemical tests carried out for the identification of the different phytoconstituents present in the powdered crude drug by using methods of Kokate (1996) and Khandelwal (2005).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

MACROSCOPIC  DESCRIPTION:

Trianthema decandra is a prostrate weed with branches up to 2m long, distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The macromorphological evolution of Roots showed thin, slender, tapering, and tortuous, with lateral branching fibrous root, 4–12 cm in length; 0.2–1.8 cm in diameter, light yellow externally, creamish white internally, fractures fibrous. odour  is strong and characteristic and taste is bitter and disagreeable.

 

 

Fig.1. Trianthema decandra plant

 

 

Fig.2. Trianthema decandra root

 

MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERS:

Transverse section of root:

 

 

Fig.3. Transvers section of root.

Rth: Root hairs; Ep: Epiderms; Pr: Periderms

 

Fig.4. Cr: Cork cells; Mr: Medullary rays;

 

Fig.5. Mtx: Metaxylem; Prx: Protoxylem; Prp: Primary phloem.

 

 

Fig.6. Cr: Cork Cells;  Mr: Medullary rays.

 

 

Fig.7.  Cr: Crystals.

 

Fig.8. Sc: Sclerides

 

DETREMINATION OF POWDER CHARACTERISTICS:

1.    POWDER MICROSCOPY:

The microscopic examination of the powder shows fragments of fibrous layer, Root hairs, Epidermal cells, Sclerenchyma, Xylem vessels, cortex, Parenchymatous mass, Calcium oxalate crystals, Phloem fibers and other cell contents. Fig-9


 

Fig.9. POWDER MICROSCOPY: Fibrous Layer Covering Trichomes Epidermal cells

 

 


2.    PHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION:

The results of the physicochemical constants of raw material lie within the limit which is mentioned in Table No.-1. This signifies that the quality and purity of raw material was good enough. (table-1).

 

3.    PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS:

The crude drug is extracted by hot soxhlet extraction process by increasing order of solvent polarity. The extracts obtained from the pilot scale extraction were subjected to phytochemical screening, the results show the presence of Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Flavonoides, Alkaloids, Steroids, Saponins, etc. Table No.02.

 

Table No.1.  PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS:

PARAMETERS

RESULTS

Total Ash

 5.5%

Acid insoluble Ash

0.8%

Water Soluble Ash

2.5%

Sulphated ash

1%

Alcohol Soluble Extractive

2.8%

Water Soluble Extractive

2.32%

Loos on drying

8.25%

Crude Fibre Content

0.5%

 


Table No.2. Phytochemical screening of different extracts of Trianthema decandra linn.

S.No

Constituents

Extracts

Pet. Ether

Chloroform

Acetone

Methanol

Ethanol

Aqueous

1

Carbohydrates

+

+

+

+

+

+

2

Glycosides

+

+

_

+

_

_

3

Flavonoids

+

_

+

_

_

_

4

Alkaloids

_

+

+

+

+

+

5

Steroids

+

_

_

+

+

_

6

Fats and oils

+

+

+

+

+

_

7

Saponins

_

_

+

+

+

+

 


4.    FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS:

The results of fluorescence analysis were expressed in table No. 3. Fluorescence study is an essential parameter for first line standardization of crude drug. In fluorescence the fluorescent light is always of greater wave length than the exciting light. Light rich in short wave length is very active in producing fluorescence and for this reason uv light produces fluorescence in many substances which do not visible fluorescence in day light.

 

 

Table No. 3: UV. FLOURESENCE ANALYSIS:

Extract

Sun light

UV light

254 nm

365nm

Pet. Ether

Green

Golden green

Brown

Chloroform

Green

Brown

Dark Brown

Acetone

Dark Green

Light Brown

Dark Browns

Methanol

Light brown

Green

Dark green

Ethanol

Light brown

Green

Dark green

Aqueous

Brown

Light green

Light brown

 

CONCLUSION:

The present investigation is essential for standardization of quality, purity and sample identification of Trianthema decandra. These studies revealed the presence of various important bioactive compounds and proved that the plant roots are also medicinally important. Hence detailed screening may be done to isolate the active constituents so that it may be scientifically proved to access the pharmacological responses of the plant ascertain its folklore use.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT:

The authors are thankful to the Dr. P. Balraj Garu, Chairman and Ms. P Ushasree, Director of Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Mahabubnagar for providing necessary facilities to carry out the research work. The authors are also thankful to Dr. K Madhava Chetty, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Botany, Sri Venkateshwara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. for identifying and authentication of the plant Trianthema decandra Linn.

 

REFERENCES:

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4.     Gopalakrishnan S and Venkataraman R. Comparative Pharmacognostic studies of Genuine and Commercial samples of Trianthema decandra Linn. Ancient Science of life. 20(1-2); 2000: 33-43.

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9.     Kailasnath Sarma, Rama Krishna, Sai Siva Ramakrishna V, Gourinath A, et al. Intermediate First Year Botany. Telugu Academic Publication. Hyderabad. 2004.

10.   Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. Vallabh Vrakashan. Delhi. 2008.

11.   Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. Nirali Prakashan, Pune. 36th ed: pp. 2006.

12.   World Health Organization. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. WHO/PHARM/92.559; 1998: 4-46.

13.   J B Harborne, Phytochemical methods. Second edition, Chapman and Hall. London and New York. ISBN 0-412-25350-2.1984:288.

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Received on 30.12.2015       Modified on 08.01.2015

Accepted on 27.01.2016      ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2016; 8(2): 60-64

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2016.00011.X