Anogeissus latifolia-An Overview
Ravi Dubey*, Saba Shaikh, Mrs. Swati Dhande, Dr. Y. M. Joshi, Dr. Vilasrao J. Kadam
Anogeissus latifolia Wall. (Combretaceae), is a large or moderate sized tree characteristic of dry deciduous forests and common throughout India. The different part of the plant contains tanins, ellagic acid, steroids, beta-sitosterol, glycoside and flavonoids. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery, snake bite, leprosy, diabetes, wounds and ulcers, skin diseases including hepatopathy. Several workers have reported pharmacological properties including Anthelmintic activity, antiulcer, antimicrobial, wound healing and hepatoprotective.
Anogeissus latifolia(DC.) is medium sized deciduous tree belonging to the family-Combretaceae and it is commonly known as Gahtti. It attains height of about 30-40 feet1. Leaves are opposite or sub-opposite. Bark is smooth with grey- white colour and exfoliating in irregular thin scales2. Flowers are sessile, with dense heads.
Fruit small, compressed, winged with beak, seed ovoid. Flowering and fruiting occur in the month of Sept-March3.
Stem deeply fluted towards the base; bark pale yellowish or pinkish brown, spotted all over with paler greenish or greenish yellow depression, exfoliatingin thin rounded flakes which leaves shallow depression; leaves elliptic-obtuse entire, rounded at both ends, reddish when they first appear, again turning red before falling off 5-7 cm long; flowers minute, greenish yellow in globose heads on short axillary produncles; fruits yellowish brown or reddish brown, small shoning , beaked, winged, single seeded; seed wedge-shaped4. Itscommon names are axlewood (English), balki, dhau, dhawa, dhawra, or dhaora (Hindi).
The tree is found at its best in Madurai, Coimbatore and salem district of Maharashtra and north and south kanara district of Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. In these localities it is capable of growing to 1.2-1.5m in girth with a clear bole of 4-12 m. On dry hills its growth is stundedandgnarlded partly due to fire and maltreatment. It is varies in size from a shrub to small tree according to soil and situation. In old tree the stem is often hollow and unsound and it is seldom that a sound log of a size larger than 30 cm is available6.The plant is common in dry deciduous forest, except E. Bengal and Assam. It is found in Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Ravi to Nepal, Bihar, Chota Nagpur and ascends to south India7.
The tree grows on variety of geological formation including sandstone, limestone metamorphic rocks, trap, and laterite. It, however, grows best in alluvial soil. It avoids swampy and badly-drained soils and requires good drainage. It prefers a maximum shade temperature of 38-470C and a minimum of 0-15C. The annual rainfall in its habitat varies from 625 to 2,250mm8. The is susception to pestalotiopsisversicolor (speg) Stey. Causing pinhead spots on both leaf surfaces and the petioles. Later, these develop into lesions of upto 12mm diameter. The timber is also susceptible to the marine borers, Teredo and Martesia9.The tree is heavily parasitized by dendrophthoefalcata which can be killed by spraying with 2,4-Dichloraphenoxyacetic acid10.
Deshapandeet al11 isolated 3,3’-di-O-methyle ellagic acid-4’-β-D-Xyloside and 3,4,3’-tri- O-methylflavellagic acid-4’-β-D-glucoside from stem bark. Steroid, β-sistosterol and a triterpenoid, 3-β-hydroxy-28-acetytaraxaren were isolated from the ethyl acetate fractions of stem bark of A. latifolia12. A simple and fast method was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of two biologically active flavonoid compounds i.e. quercetin and rutin in bark of Anogeissus latifolia using High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography. The separation was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254. Good separation was achieved in the mobile phase of Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Glacial acetic acid: Water (100:11:11:26, v/v) and densitometric determination of these compounds was carried out at 366 nm in reflection/ absorbance mode. The rutin and quercetin content of hydroalcohol bark extract of Anogeissus latifolia were found to be 0.1617% w/w and 1.875%w/w respectively. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r=0.9997 and r= 0.9942 for rutin and quercetin, respectively. The average recovery of rutin and quercetin was 99.98 % and 100.11%, respectively indicating the excellent reproducibility. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible. This HPTLC method was found to be simple and convenient for rapid screening of active compounds and quantification of the investigated flavonoids in Anogeissus latifolia13.
It is important timber and the leave and bark are used for tanning. The bark is effective in anemic conditions and urinary discharges, piles14. Stem bark is astringent, haemostatic, constipating, depurative and useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata. According to Jain15 stem bark is useful in diarrhea, dysuria, cough, colic, liver complaints, snakebite and skin diseases. Tribals in Udaipur district of Rajasthan, use the bark of this tree in the treatment of fever16. Bark is remedy for chronic cough called ‘Dangya Khokala’17. Tribal people residing in the forest of Gundlabranhmeswaram wild life sanctuary apply paste of stem bark on scorpion sting18. Decoction of bark, two spoons daily is useful as remedy against cough and leaf decoction is effective in epileptic fits19. Gum is used as tonic and generally consumed after delivery19.
HPTLC chromatogram of quercetin
HPTLC chromatogram of Rutin
Shekhawat et al. studied the micropropagation of Anogeissus latifolia using cotyledonary node and epicotyl explants from one month old seedlings germinated on half strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 2% sucrose. They have inoculated cotyledonary segments on MS medium containing additives, 25mg/L each of adenine sulphate, arginine, ascorbic acid, citric acid and 1mM aspargine and 0.5mg/L BAP and noticed to produce 4-5 shoots than epicotyl explants producing 2 shoots only. With increasing concentration, number of shoots per plant also increased and at 1mg/L BAP, seven shoots were emerged while epicotyl produced only 3. They observed that MS medium containing additives (adenine sulphate, arginine, ascorbic acid, citric acid and 1mM aspargine) and 1.5mg/LBAP + 0.1mg/L IAA produced 9-10 shoots from cotyledonary node. Addition of 86mg/L (200μM) Fe-EDTA salt to this medium produced the maximum number of shoots per explant and higher concentration 300μM was found inhibitory to shoot induction20. Bhatt 21 improved the gum tapping method by ethephon treatment in trunk by injecting a syringe into holes made by increment borer. Gummosis is enhanced by ethephon application and 466 fold increases in gum yield was recorded in plants treated with 1600mg of active ethephon substance during April- May when plants becomes leafless. The ethephon application leads to ‘schizo-lysigenous’ formation of gum cavities in the axial parenchyma of sapwood and these results in the clogging of vessels of secondary xylem with gummy material.
The diuretics potential of methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaf parts was assessed in albino rats using in-vivo Lipschitz test model. The volumes of urine, urinary concentration of sodium and potassium ions were the parameters of the study. Furosemide was used as standard. The results indicate that methanol and aqueous extract at 500mg/kg body weight shows a significant (p<0.05) increase in the urine volume and electrolyte excretion (p<0.05) when compared to control. Both the extracts show significant diuretic activity. From the present study it was concluded that the constituents present in methanol and aqueous extracts may be responsible for diuretic activity22.
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY-
Anogeissus latifolia accelerates the wound healing process by decreasing the surface area of the wound and increasing the tensile strength. Nitrofurazone ointment was used as a positive control. Complete epithelization was observed within 15 days with Anogeissus latifolia. Measurements of the healed area and the hydroxyproline level were in agreement23.
In vitro: primary hepatocyte monolayer cultures were treated with CCl4 and extract of Anogeissus latifolia. A protective activity could be demonstrated in the CCl4 damaged primary monolayer culture. In vivo: Hydroalcoholic extract of Anogeissus latifolia (300 mg/kg) was found to have protective activity in rats with CCl4-induced liver damage as judged from serum marker enzyme activity24.
3-β-hydroxy-28-acetyltaraxaren and β-sitosterol were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Anogeissus latifolia. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts when subjected to antimicrobial screening showed significant inhibitory activity to microbial growth25.
Antioxidant potential of 50% ethanolic extract of A. latifolia was evaluated by Govindrajan et al.26 and reported dose dependent inhibition of nitric oxide, DPPH radical, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radicals.
Govindrajan et al.27 studied the antiulcer potential of Anogeissus latifolia against aspirin induced, cold resistance stress induced, pylorus ligated and ethanol induced ulcers. They observed that 50% ethanolic extract (200mg/Kg body weight) inhibited the ulcer formation induced by cold resistant stress and also reduced the lipid peroxidation and activity of superoxide dismutase along with increase in catalase activity in cold resistant stress induced ulcers.
Parvathi et al.28 studied the hypolipidemic potential of Anogeissus latifolia in albino rats with respect to serum lipid levels. They noticed that treatment with gum ghaati significantly reduced the total cholesterol and triglyceride level at 500 mg and 750mg/kg of body weight in hyperlipidemic induced rats and dose of 750mg/kg of body weight also increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
OTHER USES OF PLANT-
The tree is the main source of ghatty or ghatti or Indian gum. Ghatti is extensively collected and sold for use in the pure state in calico printing and in confectionery. It is also eaten after frying, in Maharashtra. It is administered as a tonic to women after child-birth. It is used as an emulsifier, stabilizer and thickener in ceramics, foods and pharmaceuticals. The gum in a concentration of 0.5-0.6 per cent proved to be a good stabilizer for ice-cream, giving it a satisfactory flavour. It is an efficient binder for making compressed tablets. It can used in hair setting agent29.The bark is bitter and astringent. It is particularly useful in chronic diarrhoea. The leaves are used as fodder30.
Anogeissus latifolia, (Combretaceae), locally known as Dhava, available throughout India. The bark, leaves, heartwood and roots of the plant is traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery, snakebite, leprosy, wounds and ulcers, skin diseases including diabetes and jaundice. The bark is reported to have potent antioxidant activity and possess several biological activities like antiulcer, antimicrobial, wound healing, chemoprotective and hepatoprotective activity. A variety of chemical constituents which contributes to various therapeutic activities have been identified in the plant. The bark of A. latifoliais reported to contain phenolic compounds like gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulic acid and flavonoids like rutin and quercetin, which are potential antioxidants, which result in the hepatoprotective potential of the plant. The reported phytochemical and pharmacological studies support its traditional uses and may prove to be useful for clinical evaluation and development of commercial drugs.
1. P. V. Orwa, Agroforestry database 2006; 4.0,1-5
2. P. K.Warrier. Indian medicinal plants: A compendium of 500 species. 1994; 4:381
3. S. R. Yadav, M. M. Sardesai. Flora of Kolhapur District. 2002;451
4. Troup, II, Joshi J Indian bot Soc,1962,41,278.
5. Available on-http://plants.backyardgardener.com/l/4173/ Anogeissus-latifolia
6. Troup, II Pearson and Brown,I,539;krishnamurti Naidu,41, 538.
7. R. N. Chopra, Nayar, I. C. Chopra Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. Council of scientific and Industrial research, New Delhi, 1956;158
8. Troup, II, Joshi, Loc. Cit; 539.
9. Agarwal and Ganguli, CurrSci, 1959,28,295; Kalyanasundaram and Ganti, J Timb Developm Assoc India,1975,21(2),15.
10. Singh, Loc.Cit.; Seth, Sci and Cult,1957-58,23,424.
11. V.H. Deshpande, A. D. Patil, A.V. Rama Rao, et al. 3, 3'–di- O-methyl ellagic acid–4'-ß D-Xyloside and 3,4,3'-tri-omethylflavellagicacid-4'-ß-Dglucoside from the Anogeissus latifolia bark. Indian J. Chem., 1976; 14:641–643.
12. M. S. Rahman, M. Z. A. B. Rahman, M. Ahad Uddin, et al. Steroid and Triterpenoid from Anogeissus latifolia. Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 2007; 6(1):47-50.
13. Pradeep Hulikare Ananth, Saleemulla Khan, Raghu Chandrasekhar and Mohammed Ibrahim, Development of validated HPTLC method for simultaneous quantification of rutin and quercetin from bark of Anogeissus latifolia, Int J Pharm 2012; 2(1): 33-38
14. K. R. Kirtikar, B. D. Basu. Indian Medicinal Plants, Jayad press Delhi, 1975; Vol.2,236
15. S. K. Jain. Dictionary of Indian folk medicine and ethnobotany. Deep publication, New Delhi, 1991;225
16. A. Nag, P. Galav, S. S. Kateva. Indigenous animal health practices from the Udaipur district, Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 2007; 6(4):583-588.
17. M. V. Patil. Ethnobotany of Nasik District. 2006:54
18. K. Venkata Ratan, R. R. Venkata Raju. Folk remedies for insect bite from Gundlabrahmeswaram wild life sanctuary, Andra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 2008; 7(3): 436-437.
19. S. Pawar, D. A. Patil. Ethnobotany of Jalgoan District, Maharashtra. 2008;166
20. N. S. Shekhawat, J. Yadav , Arya, V. and. Singh, R. P. (2000). Micropropagation of Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. Ex DC.) Wall, ex Guill. and Perr.- A Tree of Fragile Ecosystems. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 11(4): 83 – 96
21. J. R. Bhatt. Gum tapping in Anogeissus latifolia (Combrataceae) using ethephon. Current Science, 1987; 56(18):71.
22. K. Hemamalini, K. Om Prasad Naik and Peddi. Ashok, Study of phytochemical and Diuretic potential of Methanol and aqueous Extracts of leaf parts of Anogiessus latifolia; International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences
23. Raghavan Govindarajan, Madhavan Vijayakumar, Chandana Venkateshwara Rao, Annieshirwaikar, Shanta Mehrotra, Palpupushpangadan, Healing potential of Anogeissus latifolia for dermal wounds in rats; Acta Pharm. 54 (2004) 331–338
24. Hulikere Ananth Pradeep, Saleemulla Khan, Karamkonda Ravikumar, Mohommed Fazil Ahmed, Meesala Srinivasa Rao, Mandavakiranmi, Dachani Sudharshan Reddy, Shaikh Rasheed Ahmed, Mohommed Ibrahim, Hepatoprotective evaluation of Anogeissus latifolia: in-vitro and in-vivo studies, World Journal of Enterology ISSN 1007-9327.
25. Mohammad S. Rahman, Mohammed Z. Rahman, A. B. M. Ahad Uddin and Mohammad A. Rashid, Steriod and Triterpenoid from Anogeissus latifolia.
26. N.S. Shekhawat, J.Yadav, Arya, V. and. Singh, R. P. (2000). Micropropagation of Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. Ex DC.) Wall, ex Guill. and Perr- A Tree of Fragile Ecosystems. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 11(4): 83 – 96
27. R. Govindrajan, M. Vijaykumar, M. Singh, et al. Antiulcer and antimicrobial activity of Anogeissus latifolia. J Ethnopharmacol, 2006; 106(1):57-61.
28. K. M. M. Parvathi, C. K. Ramesh, V. Krishna, et al. Hypolipidemic activity of gum ghatti of Anogeissus latifolia. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009; 5:11-14.
29. Hows, 1949, 56; Vartak, J Bombay Nat Hist Soc, 1959, 56, 8; Malhotra and Moorthy, Buli Bot Surv India, 1973, 15,13; Roja, Econ Bot, 1966, 20, 17; Fleischer in Whistler and Biol Abstr, 1973, 56, 54492; Patel and Shah, Indian J Pharm, 1965,27, 76; Basu et al, ibid, 1962, 24, 256; Shuklaand Ansari, J Indian Chem. Soc, 1976, 53, 146; Chem abstr, 1964, 60, 8500.
30. Chopra et al,1958,495; FI Saurashtra, 220; Joshi, Indian Vet J, 1976, 53, 873; Sardana and Gupta ,Proc Indian Sci Congr,1953, pt III, 247; Sawhney and Kehar, Ann Biochem, 1961, 21, 111; Majumdar et al, Indian J Vet Sci,1967, 37, 224.