Anti-Lipidemic Effect of Alternanthera sessilis Linn in Diabetic Rats

 

 

A Rohini and D Victor Arokia Doss*

Department of Biochemistry, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore- Pin 641014, Tamil Nadu, INDIA

 

 

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases are becoming an increasing problem worldwide. Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated as the major cause for Coronary Heart Diseases. Based on its high Flavonoid content of the herbal plant Althernanthera sessilis was tested for antihyperlipidemic property. It showed significant decreases in the levels of serum Total Cholesterol(TC), Triglyceride(TG), Low density lipoprotein(LDL), Very low density lipoprotein(VLDL) and significant increase in the level of High density lipoprotein(HDL) when administered orally for 28 days to alloxan induced hyperlipidemic rats at a dose of 150,300,450 mg/kg

 

KEYWORDS:

 

1. INTRODUCTION

Hyperlipidemia has been ranked as one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of coronary heart diseases (Grundy, 1986). Cardiovascular diseases with an incidence of approximately 50% are the main cause of death in most advanced countries (Murray and Lopez, 1997) and it is increasing alarmingly in the developing countries also. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that every year 12 million people die worldwide due to cardiovascular diseases, with most of them being from the developing countries (Kmietowiez, 2000).

 

Herbs are mines of medicinal agents and need for screening and isolation of hypolipidemic agents from the plants which would be more efficacious and less cheaper (Sharma et al., 1990).

 

2. MATERIAL AND METHOD:

2.1 Procurement of Animal:

Male Albino rats of Wistar strain (130 20 gm) were procured from the laboratory animal house, PSG Institute of Medical Science and Research, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The animals were allowed to get acclimatized to standard laboratory diet and filtered water ad libitum and kept at constant room temperature between 22C - 24C with 12 hour day and night cycle. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC) constituted for the purpose and care of laboratory animals under the guidance of the committee for the purpose of control and supervision on experimental on animals (CPCSEA), Ministry of Social justice and empowerment, Government of India (CPCSEA No: 158/1999/CPCSEA).

 

2.2 Induction of Diabetes:

Diabetes mellitus was induced in the Albino rats by administering alloxan monohydrate. Animals were allowed to fast for 13 hours, and injected with freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg body weight i.p) in sterile normal saline (Vigyavargia et al., 2000). After 72 hours of alloxan injection, the diabetic rats with glucose level >250mg/dl were selected for the study (Perfumi et al., 1996).

 


Table : 1 Hypolipidemic effect of A. sessilis in Diabetic rats

 

Total

cholesterol (mg/dl)

Triglyceride

(mg/dl)

HDL

(mg/dl)

LDL

(mg/dl)

VLDL (mg/dl)

Gp I : Control

147.509.60

151.167.02

85.502.4

32.831.72

29.831.72

Gp II: Diabetic Control

221.1615.79

262.2929.25

41.502.42

127.606.06

48.508.26

Gp III: Alloxan +A Sessilis(150mg/kg)

161.16962a*

191.6611.63 a*

65.504.72 a*

57.004.24 a*

38.002.60 a*

Gp IV: Alloxan + A Sessilis(300 mg/kg)

150.168.7 a*

161.009.4 a*

74.34.08 a*

42.002.60 a*

31.831.72 a*

Gp V: Alloxan +A. Sessilis (450 mg/kg)

146.167.02 a*

156.007.88 a*

80.166.04 a*

34.832.04 a*

29.831.72 a*

 

 


2.3 Preparation of plant extract:

The leaves were shade dried and subjected to successive solvent extraction. The extraction was carried out with 50% Ethanol. The solvent was then distilled, evaporated and vacuum dried as per stands and procedure.

 

2.4 Experimental design:

The experimental rats were divided into five groups of six animals each

Group I : Normal healthy control

Group II : Untreated diabetic control

Group III : Diabetic rats administrated with leaf extract of Althernanthera sessilis (150 mg/kg p.o)

Group IV : Diabetic rats administered with leaf extract of Althernanthera sessilis (300 mg/kg p.o)

Group V : Diabetic rats administered with leaf extract of Althernanthera sessilis (450 mg/kg p.o)

 

2.5 Collection of serum:

The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation under mild chloroform anesthesia. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and serum was separated by centrifugation at 2500 rpm.

 

2.6 Determination of serum lipid level:

The amount of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylgylcerol (TG), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and Low density lipoprotein (LDL C) in albino rats were assayed by enzymatic kit.

 

2.7 Statistical Analysis:

All results are expressed as mean S.D. Statistical evaluation was done using Students t test.p <0.001 was considered as statitstically significant.

 

3. RESULT:

In this study, serum lipid profile of the treated animals Total cholesterol (TC) Triglyceride (TG), Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and Very low density lipoprotein(VLDL) levels were significantly reduced by different concentrations of 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg in dose dependent manner.

 

3.1 DISCUSSION:

As large increase in plasma Cholesterol and Triglyceride in diabetes results mostly from an increased secretion of VLDL secretion from the hepatic cells, there is an accompanying increase in LDL catabolism (Otway and Robinson, 1967) occurs. For the conversion of nascent VLDL to VLDL and secretion into the blood, apoprotein C is taken up by transfer from the HDL. This reduces the concentration of HDL and increases the concentration of Triglyceride (Table 1).

 

Present study clearly shows that the ethanolic leaf extract of A. sessilis at a dose of 150, 300, 450 mg/kg significantly lowered both Total cholesterol and Triglyceride (Table 1). The hypocholesterolemic action of A.sessilis in diabetes could be due to stimulation of hepatic Cholesterol-7-Hydroxylase which brings about the rapid catabolism of LDL cholesterol through its hepatic receptor for final elimination in the form of bile acid (Khanna et al ., 2002).

 

The Flavanoid or other secondary metabolites are reported to interfere with absorption and enteric hepatic circulation of cholesterol and found to increase its fecal excretion (Johns, 1995) also. Hypertriglyceridemia is due to flux of free fatty acid in the liver and conversion of it to triglyceride when the oxidative pathway is inhibited (Mc Garry 2002). By decreasing free fatty acid generation there would be decreased production of TG. The hypolipidemic effect A. Sessils may control the glycosylation of HDL, resulting in the reduced catabolism of HDL level. Normalization of serum lipid levels by A. Sessilis treatment could be due to the induction of hepatic lipase resulting in improved HDL level (Grundy et al, 2002) as well. By decreasing the percentage glycosylation of LDL, and increasing its clearance, A.sessilis reduces the deposition of VLDL in blood vessels.

 

Treatment with triterpenes lupeol and lupeol linoleate decreased the myocardial cholesterol, triglycerides and phopholipid levels and thus showed anti-atherosclerotic activity (Varatha rajan et al., 2007). Thus this study shows the hypolipidemic activity of A.sessilis and warrants the isolation and purification of hypolipidemic components from it for further validation.

 

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Received on 15.02.2010

Accepted on 24.03.2010

A&V Publication all right reserved

Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2(2): March -April 2010, 169-170