Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Leaves of Plumeria Rubra(Linn.)

 

Dhundhwal DK*, KL Senthilkumar, Joshua Samuel L and K Senthilkumar

Padmavathi College of Pharmacy,Periyanahalli -635205, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India

 

ABSTRACT

Antioxidant or inhibitors of oxidation are compounds, which retard or prevent oxidation and in general prolong the life of the oxidizable matter. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body, include superoxidation anion, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen  peroxide. The oxidative damage initiated by these is propagated by lipid peroxidation which may cause further damage to DNA. The body defense system against the oxidation damage consist of energy such as superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxide, catalase and the reducing agent such as glutathions ascorbate and iron. Antioxidant agents of natural have attracted special interest because they can protect human body from free radical. Hence, the present study was aimed at evaluating the free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic and aqueous leaves extract of Plumeria rubra (linn.).

 

INTRODUCTION

Plumeria rubra (Linn.)  Is a deciduous tree with thick, widely distributed in common rather moist garden, in lawns and in open plantation Tree is unusual in appearance. Leaves are alternate, spiral, simple, potiolate, petiole undissected, elliptic or ovate shape, base tapering (narrow attenuate) or oblique, margins entire or undulate, apex acuminate or acute or obtuse. Blade 12 to 18 inches with indumentums, venation pinnate, brachidodrome deciduous in taste. Leaves are useful in inflammation, rheumatism, abortifacient, bactericide, bronchitis, cathartic, cholera, cold, cough, dropsy, dyspepsia, fever, fungicide, flu, gingivitis, herpes, itch, pectoral, piles, poison, purgative, rheumatism, and stimulant.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Homogenate Preparation:

The frozen liver samples were homogenized in Tris-HCl or phosphate buffer solution to give a 20% homogenate. To measure lipid per oxidation levels homogenate was centrifuged at 1700 rpm/min and 4ºC for 10 min. For assay of catalase activity the homogenate was centrifuged at 3000 rpm/min and 4ºC for 15 min, then diluted to 0.5%. after centrifugation at 3000rpm/min for 15 min, the supernatant was again centrifuged either at 10,000 rpm/min for 1 min and diluted to 2% for measurement of glutathione peroxidase activity or at 30,000 rpm/min for 10 min before extraction of tissue superoxide dismutase activity with 20% ethanol.

 

Measurement of tissue lipid peroxidation levels:

The extent of lipid peroxidation was quantified by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS)-malonaldehyde produced during peroxidation of lipids.(Ohkawa et al.,1979).

 

Screening of Antioxidant activity:

Assay of superoxidase dismutase (SOD):

The antioxidant status was measured by the assay of superoxide dismutase (Kakkar et al,1984).

 

 


TABLE: DATA FOR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF PLUMERIA RUBRA(LINN.).

Treatment

Catalase (mg liver protein)-1

Superoxide dismutase (mg liver protein)-1

Glutathione Peroxide (mg liver protein)-1

TBA (mg/liver protein)

Normal CMC

10ml/kg

296.07±17.1

76.91±5.21

0.861±0.020

1.12±0.389

CCl4

1ml/kg i.p

164.75±5.78

31.31±0.57

0.647±0.043

1.69±0.14

Ethanolic extract

(200 mg/kg oral)

258.07*±2.51

84.40*±0.84

0.875*±0.052

1.15*±0.08

Aqueous extract

(200 mg/kg oral)

229.30*±2.5

77.50*±0.70

0.740*±0.046

1.13*±0.08

Silymarin

25mg/kg

270.3*±18.3

73.3*±6.2

0.86*±0.05

1.16*±0.04

Data are expressed mean +  S.E.., n = 6, * P< 0.01 Vs Control by Students t test

 

 

Assay of glutathione peroxidase:

Glutathione peroxidase was assayed by the method of Rotruck et al.,(1973) with some modification.

 
Assay of catalase:

Antioxidant enzyme catalase was assayed by the method of Sinha et al.(1972)

 

Statistical Analysis:

The results are expressed as mean ± SEM of six independent experiments. Statistical significance between group was evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test. A P < 0.001 value was considered as statistically significant.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The result are shown in table, the activities of the enzyme SOD, Catalase and Glutathione peroxide were markedly decreased and significantly increased in lipid peroxidation level in CCl4 treated animals compared to normal control rats. Administration of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Plumeria rubra(linn.) DC. Remarkedly prevented CCl4 induced, increasing the activities of these enzyme and decreasing the lipid peroxidation level.

 

The present study provide significant results regarding antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Plumeria rubra(linn.). It was revealed that the ethanolic and aqueous extract (200 mg/kg) showed significant activity as compared to standard drug.

 

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Received on 02.04.2009

Accepted on 10.08.2009        

© A&V Publication all right reserved

Research Journal of Pharmacognosy  and Phytochemistry. 1(2): Sept. - Oct. 2009, 126-127