Harshada Jadhav, S. D Mankar, M.S. Bhosale
Pravara Rural College of Pharmacy, Pravaranagar, Loni, Maharashtra.
Number of people affected by nutritional insecurity worldwide. Hence the jackfruit is one of the most benifical (nutritional) plant. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is an ancient fruit that is widely consumed as a fresh fruit. The several parts of jack tree including fruits, leaves, and barks have been extensively used in traditional medicine due to its anticariogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and hypoglycemic effects. The health beneﬁts of jackfruit have been attributed to its wide range of physicochemical applications. Medicinal properties of Jackfruit include anti-asthmatic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, hypoglycemic, antimalarial, anti-diarrheal, anti-arthritic, anti-helmintic, anti-inflammatory, ant carcinogenic, anti platelet, antiviral, anti tubercular, anti atherosclerotic activities. It has also shown wound healing effect and causes decrease in the sexual arousal, libido, performance and vigor in men. The present paper reviews the Introduction, Geographical distribution, taxonomical classification, cultivation, propagation, traditional uses, benefits, chemical composition, jackfruit role in asthma and diabetes, jackfruit seed use as a fast dissolving tablet (FDT). pharmacological activities along with the current trends in research on jackfruit.
The Artocarpus heterophyllus is a species of tree of the mulberry family (Moraceae) is known by other names jackfruit (Eng.), Kathal, Panas (Hindi), Kanthal (Beng.), Palaa (Tamil), Phanas (Guj & Mar) & Chakka (Malayalam). It is native to Western Ghats of India, Malaysia and also found in central and eastern Africa, south-eastern Asia, the Caribbean, Florida, Brazil, Australia, Puerto Rico and many Pacific Island. Jackfruit is alternative to meat. A typical jackfruit product will have 2 gram protein.
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) produces heavier yield than any other tree species, and bear the largest known edible fruit (up to 35kg). The jackfruit tree has several uses. It contain antioxidant properties anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticariogenic, antifungal, antineoplastic, hypoglycemic, wound healing effects and causes a transient decrease in the sexual activity. It is known to be the largest edible fruit in the world. Jackfruit is rich in nutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals.
The Fruit provides about 2 MJ of energy per kg/wet weight of ripe periapt. Jackfruit has been reported to contain high levels of protein, starch, calcium, and thiamine. It is now widely accepted that the beneficial effects of fruit and vegetables for the prevention of certain diseases are due to the bioactive compounds. In addition to its ripe fruit, which has a unique flavor, the jackfruit seed is widely consumed as a dessert or an ingredient in Asian culinary preparations. The jackfruit seeds are used in cooked dishes and its flour is used for baking. Jackfruit seeds are fairly richen starch. Various parts of the jackfruit tree have been used in medicine and its wood as an important source in the timber industries.
It requires a soil which is well drained but moist, with a pH of 4.3 to 8.0 and with medium soil fertility. The optimum temperature is 19 to 290C, altitude at approx. 1600 meters above sea level and the annual rain fall between 1000 and 2400mm. The leaves are broad, elliptic, dark green in colour and alternate. Eye are oden deeply lobed when juvenile on young shoots. Male heads are usually sessile or on short peduncles receptacles and sometimes born on the ultimate twing, while female heads are oblong ovoid receptacle. Artocarpus is used in medicine and also as source of food, influencing agriculture industry. It contains secondary metabolites, which have biological activity, kindling scientific interest. The pulp of ripe jackfruit is eaten fresh and used in fruit salads. It produce high nutritional value.
Jackfruit have several nutritional and health benefits use as a maintain healthy eye and skin, boost energy, control asthma, control blood pressure, maintain healthy thyroid, it prevent anemia, build muscle, prevent cancer.
The aim of this review was to present an overview of the functional, medicinal, and physiological uses of jackfruit.
It is cultivated in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Burma, Srilanka, Indonesia, in parts of USA (Florida and California), Brazil, Pacific islands, Palau, Yap, and Samoa.
It is widely cultivated in southwestern parts of India such as Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Maharashtra.
National fruit of Bangladesh, state tree of kerla.
Kingdom: Plantae—planta, plantes, plants, vegetal
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta -- vascular plants
Division: Magnoliophyta -- angiosperms, flowering plants, phanérogames
Class: Magnoliopsida -- dicots, dicotylédones, dicotyledons
Subclass : Hamamelidae
Order : Urticales
Family : Moraceae -- mulberries
Genus : Artocarpus – breadfruit
Species : Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam
Apart from whole plant, seeds, fruits, bark, root, leaves and latex are also used.
Jackfruit grows in a wide range of tropical to subtropical environments. Hot and humid regions of Asia are suitable for the growth of Jackfruit tree.
Jackfruit tree grows well in low land forests up to the height 250 m (820 feet) but decreases in abundance at height of about 1000 m above sea level. It thrives best in moist tropical environments below 1000 m (3300 feet).
The jackfruit can be grown on a variety of soils as long as they are well-drained, but does best in deep alluvial soils of open texture. The tree can grow in light and medium textured soils (sands, sandy loams, loams, and sandy clay loams). The tree tolerates moderately acid to neutral soils (pH 5.0–7.5).
most common method of propogation of jackfruit by seed.4-5 seeds are planted in situ so that the tap root can grow undistrubed. 70 percent of the seed germinate with 15 days after extraction. Larger seed germinate better. Soaking of the seed in water for 24 hours has been found to improve the germination. Removing outer thin leathery seed coat and soaking in water for 8 hour improve germination. After one or two year the seedling planted in field.
It is a most reliable method of propagation. Jackfruit seedling may serve as rootstocks. It takes 6-12 months to get the root stock ready for grafting. Grafted trees will bear fruits in 2-3 years after planting. Jackfruit grafting is now becoming a viable method of propagation. Today, grafted cultivators are common in India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand and increasingly in South Florida. It needs less plant materials and treatments than the other methods.
The effective method for irrigation of jackfruit plants is drip irrigation.
Mean annual rainfall of about 1000–2400 mm (40–94 in) is ideal for the growth of Jackfruit tree.
Fruits mature 3 to 8 months from flowering. If the fruit is within the reach, it can be cut with a sickle or twisted. In tall trees, a sack is placed on the fruit with a rope tied on the peduncle. After cutting, the fruit is gradually lowered to the ground.
The jackfruit should be stored at 85-90% relative humidity and at 11-130C. At this temperature, jackfruit can stay fresh for the longest duration. A ripe jackfruit can stay fresh for 3 to 10 days.
Chemical composition of jackfruit:
140 g (1 serving) of jackfruit provides 133 calories % (RDA).
10% magnesium, 7% Omega-3, 13% potassium, 5% vitamin A, 21% vitamin c, 12% vitamin B1, 3% calcium, 6% fiber, 4% iron, 35% vitamin B6.
The leaves are useful in fever, boils, wounds and skin diseases. The young fruits are acrid, astringent, and carminative. The ripe fruits are sweet, cooling, laxative, The seeds are, diuretic, and constipating. The wood is nervine, antidiabetic, sedative and is useful in convulsions. The latex is useful in dysopia, ophthalmic disorders and pharyngitis and also used as antibacterial agent. The ash of Jackfruit leaves is used in case of ulcers. The dried latex yields artostenone, convertible to artosterone, and a compound with marked androgenic action. The root is a remedy for skin diseases and asthma. An extract of the root is taken in cases of fever and diarrhoea. The bark is made into poultices. Heated leaves are placed on wounds. The wood has a sedative property and its pith is said to be abortifacient. Latex is used as an anti-inflammatory agent.
Among the chemical constituents jackfruit contains useful antioxidants, which prevent many human diseases. Antioxidants’ are substances that neutralize free radicals or their actions. Nature has endowed each cell with adequate protective mechanisms against the harmful effects of free radicals.
The pulp of ripe jack fruit is eaten fresh and used in fruit salads. It possesses high nutritional value; every 100g of ripe fruit pulp contains 18.9g carbohydrate, 1.9g protein, 0.1g fat, 77% moisture, 1.1g fiber, 0.8g total mineral matter, 20 mg calcium, 30 mg phosphorus, 500mg iron, 540 I.U. vitamin A, 30mg thiamin, and 84 calories.
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam is a large evergreen tree cultivated throughout Southeast Asia for its fruits. Its leaves and roots have been used for medicinal purposes. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects.
Jackfruit is also known for its antifungal properties. Trindade found a chitin-binding lectin named jackin, which has the ability to inhibit the growth of Fusarium moniliforme and Saccharomyces cerecerevisia
The crude methaolic extracts of the stem and root, barks, stem and root heart-wood, leaves, fruits and seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus and their subsequent partitioning with petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol gave fractions that exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.
*Jackfruit play important roles in Asthma and Diabetes:
jackfruit root has been found to help those suffering from asthma. Boiling the root of the jackfruit and extracting and consumming it with its high nutritional content have been found to control asthma. Jackfruit root has also been used to treat skin problem.
Jackfruit is Loaded with vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, potassium, iron, magnesium, manganese and many other essential nutrients, jackfruit is healthier option for diabetics. Jackfruit also improves insulin resistance in diabetic people. It promotes better blood sugar control.
The major storage carbohydrate in plant is starch the annual Worldwide production of starch is 66.5 million tons. Jackfruit seed cotyledons are fairly reach in starch and Protein. The recent investigation show that the jackfruit seed starch has potential in pharmaceutical industry. The starches extracted from jackfruit seed are used as super disintegrates for the formulation of fast dissolving tablet FDT.
The FDT technology make tablets dissolve or disintegrate tablet in mouth without additional water intake. FDT formulations is defined by food drug administration (FDA) as “A solid dosage from containing medical substance which disintegrate rapidly, usually within a seconds, when place upon tounge”. Jackfruit could be considered a functional fruit because it has valuable compound in different part of the fruit that display functional and medicinal effect.
· Strengthen immune system
· Protect again cancer
· Health digestion
· Maintain healthy eye and skin
· Boost energy
· Control asthma
· Strengthen the bone
· Prevent anemia
· Maintain healthy thyroid
Jackfruit is a tropical fruit, which is a rich source of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, vitamin, mineral, dietary fiber and phytochemicals is an excellent plant due to its multifaceted medicinal properties like antiasthmetic, Antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory. Considering the easy availability of jackfruit in our country and the almost all part of the plant, including wood & latex posses curative properties. This review is as effort to compile all major information on its chemical as well as pharmacological profile.
Jackfruit is a multi beneficial to human beings and that's why it is use as Protective fruit.
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Received on 02.12.2020 Modified on 11.12.2020
Accepted on 17.12.2020 ©AandV Publications All right reserved