Cocciniagrandis: A Mini Review

 

Mr. Pawan N. Karwa1*, Mr. Krushna K. Zhambare2, Miss. Pooja B. Rathod1,  Miss Pallavi S. Shinde

1Student, Gurukrupa Institute of Pharmacy (DEGREE), Near Chatrapatthi Sugar Factory, NH- 222 Gadi Road, Majalgaon - 431131, Maharashtra.

2SBSPM’S B - Pharmacy College, Ambajogai-431517, Maharashtra.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: karwapawan99@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The use of the herbal medicine to cure any ailment or disease has along background. It is a mythological belief among the people to use the herb as a source of medicine. The use of herb was done more in the ancient time. Currently the demand of the society is to get a drug for their disease which must show quick action but on the conrary it must have no or very less side efects. So there have been various studies over the different plants which shows the different pharmacological actions. Amongthse one is the ethno medicinally important plants called Cocciniagrandisbelonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is a dioecious, perennial and herbaceous climber possessing with the glabrous stems and tuberous roots. Traditionally its various parts are beneficial in folklore medicine for various purposes. Inan view to describe the varius medicinal significance of the plant this review is an effort to compile all the information reported on its ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological activities. Also, this work attempts readers to get the knowledge regarding the potential in preventing and treating several common diseases. Many pharmacological studies have reported the ability of this plant to exhibit analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antidyslipidemic, anticancer, antitussive activities.

 

KEYWORDS: Cocciniagrandis, Prophylactic, Cucurbitaceae, rejuvenation, secondary metabolites, pharmacological activities.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The various types of drugs which are procured from the plant origin are termed as as medicinal plants (1). Recently the use of complementary and alternative medicine i.e, (CAM) has expanded rapidly all over the globe. Out of those main five categories which has been identified by the CAM the herbal product category has been used abundantly for the therapypurpse (2). In India from the past primeval time the use of the different parts of medicinal plants has been in vouged for the treatment of the several specific ailments.

 

The physiologic action of plant depends upon the bioactive agents/phytomedicines, which are produced by them. (3) A vast majority of the population living in rural areas rely on the medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. There are nearly about 7000 plant species found across all over the India. According to a study WHO estimates that about 80% of the populations living in the developing countries rely almost on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). Cocciniagrandis was used as a food material by the people lying in the several parts of the continents including the Asia Australia, Pacific Islands, the Caribbean, and southern United States. (11). The family all together comprises of jerky about the 95 genera and 965 species, predominantly distributed in the tropics. (6,12,13). The whole plant of C. cordifolia possesses diversified pharmacological activities like analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, antidyslipidemic, anticancer, antitussive, mutagenic activities. It is also evident that the ethanolic leaf extract of Cocciniacordifolia has strong effect against bacterial strains compared to its root (3). It is used for decoction gonorrhoeae, diabetes, pyelitis, cystitis, strangury, snake bite, urinary gravel and calculi. (14)

 

Nomenclature:

The name is derived from the word coccineus, which indicates scarlet, in co relation to the fruit colour (15)

 

Synonyms:

The various synonyms used for Coccinagrandid are as follows.

·       Cocciniaindica

·       Wight and Arn,

·       Bryoniagrandis

·       Cocciniacordifoliaauct (4)

·       Cephalandra

·       Physedra

·       Staphylosyce (8, 16)

 

Vernacular names:

Marathi:

Tindora, Tondli

Hindi:

Parval, Tindora, Tinda, Kundru, Kundaruki bel.

Danish:

Skariagenagurk

English:

Scarlet, Ivy-gourd

Telagu:

Dondakaya

Kannada:

Tond

Malayalam:

Tendli, ghiloda, kundri, kowai.

Chinese:

Hong Qua

Japanese:

Yasai, karasuuri

Malayalam:

Pepasan, Kovakka, Kovai,

Spanish:

Pepino, cimaron (4)

Sanskrit:

Tundika

Assam:

Kawabhaturi

Bengal:

Bimbu

Punjab:

Kanduri

Tamil:

Kovai

Urdu:

Kunduru

Gujrat:

Ghilodi

Oriya:

Parwal, Kundru, Tondi (4,5,8,14,15,16)

 

Taxonomical Classification:

Kingdom:

Plantae

Division:

Magnoliopsida

Class:

Magnoliophyta

Order:

Violales, Cucurbitales

Family:

Cucurbitaceae

Sub family:

Cucurbitoideae

Tribe:

Benincaseae

Sub tribe:

Benincasinae

Genus:

Coccinia Wight andArn

Species:

Coccinia Grandis L Vight, Cocciniaindica (4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 16, 17)

 

Nutritional values:

Carbohydrates 12.62%

Total protein 15%

Water-soluble protein 11.25%

Lipid 4.00%

Total Phenol 61.92mg/100g

Vitamin C 25.55mg/100g

β- Carotene 70.05mg/100g

Potassium 3.3mg/100g

Phosphorous 1.15mg/100g

Sodium 0.95mg/100g

Iron 2.23mg/100g

Calcium 3.79mg/100g. (5,6,18)

 

Geographical location:

Cocciniagrandis (Ivy gourd) is occasionally cultivated as a garden vegetable in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It is believed to be native to central Africa, India, and Asia. Its long history of usage, cultivation, and transportation by people has obscured its base. Florida (US), Hawaii (US), the Philippines, the Caribbean, Papua, and New Guinea, Vanuatu, Fiji, Guam, Marshall Islands, and the Solomon Islands (5) and distributed in Australia (4,17) China, India, Bangladesh, Tropical Asia and Africa. It is one of the medicinal herbs in the traditional practice of Bangladesh as well as Indian medicine (14) Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Eastern Papua, New Guinea and Northern Territories (15). In India this plant grows in large quantities and widely distributed from upper genetic plains to Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Lakshadweep. Trationally C. Indica is useful for various diseases. (9)

 

Plant profile:

Leaves:

Leaves have bright green upper surface and pale-green underneath, with charactersticodour and astringent taste. (16) Leaves are simple, sub flashy, alternate, ovate, palmately (5) lobed with obtuse apex, ranging from 8.0 Its leaves are arranged alternately along the stems; the shape of the leaves varies from heart to pentagonshaped. (Up to 10cm wide and long) The upper surface of the leaf is hairless, whereas the lower is hairy. There are 3-8 glands on the blade near the leaf stalk. Tendrils are simple. Cocciniagrandis is dioecious. (4)

 

Flower:

Flowers are large, white and star-shaped. (16) Flowers from June to August (13). The calyx has five subulate, recurved lobes, each 2-5mm long on the hypanthium; peduncle 1-5cm long. The corolla is white, campanulate, 3- 4.5cm long, deeply divided into five ovate lobes. Each flower has three stamens. The ovary present within the flower is inferior and the staminate flowers solitary are with the axillary clusters of 2-3. The pedicels is 15-50mm long, furthermore calyx consiste if the lines which are subulate, and recurved, 2-5mm long, corolla lobes being are ovate, white, long about 15-20mm; pistillate flowers solitary on stalks 10-30mm long, hypanthium 10-15mm long (4)

 

Fruit:

It is slimy in touch (16) which is red, ovoid to elliptical, 25-60mm long, 15-35mm in diameter, glabrous, hairless on stalks. (4) Cylindrical, slightly beaked, marked when immature with white streaks, bright scarlet when fully ripe; seeds oblong-ovoid, much compressed, smooth, yellowish-grey. (13)

 

Seeds:

The Seeds are about 6-7mm long, these are tan-colored, margins thickened. (4) Seed is ovoid rounded at the apex, slightly papillose, muchcompressed (16)

 

Chemical constituents:

 

(4, 5, 6, 9, 14, 16, 19)

Pharmacological actions:

Antibacterial activity:

The evaluation was done for the aqueous extract of leaves of Cocciniagrandis for antibacterial activity againstShigellaflexneri NICED, Bacillus subtilis Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Shigella dysenteries, and Shigellaflexneri, (4,14) These investigated the In vitro antibacterial activity of leaves and stem extracts of Cocciniagrandis against gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogene and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Shigellaboydi (5,13). The leaves of Cephalandraindica in aqueous and organic solvent extract showed effective antibacterial activity against the salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Baciilus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterobacteraerogenes by broth dilution method and agar well diffusion method (9).

 

Antimicrobial Activity:

The aqueous extracts of seeds of Cocciniaindica did not show much significant activity, while the organic extracts (petroleum ether and methanol) showed the highest activity against staphylococcus aureus. (4,14). The antibacterial properties of Cocciniagrandis was investigated via in vitro approach (6)

 

Anthelmintic activity:

Methanolic extract of Cocciniagrandis posses the anthelmintic activity. The study revealed the worm pheretimeposthuma were used for this study. (4,13,14)

 

Antihepatotoxic Activity:

When the fruit and leaves of C. cordifoliawere treated with the ethanol indicated the presence of saponins. The purified fraction Ci from ethanolic extract when observed under the column chromatography using silica gel in the dose concentration of 25mg/kg (Ci-1) and 50 mg/kg (Ci-2) (p.o.) showed an dose dependent reduction in SGPT, SGOT, bilirubin, total protein, liver weight and lipid peroxide levels with reference to the standard, silymarin (25mg/kg, p.o) (4,6,14)

 

Antioxidantactivity:

The Ethanol extract of root of Cocciniagrandis contain flavonoids which are responsible for antioxidant activity. (4,13,14) (Tapan Kumar Chatterjee et.al,) investigated the effect of the fractions of Cocciniagrandis leaf extract by the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in oxonate-induced Hyperuricaemic mice. The albino mice of either sex were used here. (5) Different parts of Cocciniagrandis such as leaves, fruits and roots are used for several medicinal purposes like jaundice, diabetic, wound healing, ulcer, antipyretic and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities of the various fractions of the hydromethanolic extract of the roots of C. Grandis was investigated. (6).

 

Antiulceractivity:

The anti-ulcer activity aqueous extract of leaves of Cocciniagrandis was investigated in pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models in experimental rats. (4, 14) ulcer was induced by pylorus ligature. Rats were divided into 8 groups with six each. Drugs were administered in two different dose levels (200mg/Kgbwt, and 400mg/Kgbwt) (5). Antiulcerogenic effects of Cocciniagrandis (Linn.) Voigt leaves powder, its methanol and aqueous extracts were investigated on Aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats, on the basis results, the leaf powder showed a significant increase in mucus secretion and decrease in level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. (13) Anti-ulcer activity of the three extracts was studied in rats by using pylorous ligated ulcer model. (6) The effect of methanol and aqueous extract of C. indica leaves on gastric ulcer induced by aspirin in rats were investigated (9)

 

Antimalarial activity:

Extract of Cocciniagrandis shows excellent antiplasmodial activity against the Plasmodium falciparum (4,6,14). Aqueous leaf extract of Cocciniagrandis decreases the SGPT, SGOT, ALP, total protein, blood urea nitrogen concentration (13).

 

Anti inflammatory activity:

The evaluation of the aqueous extracts of Cocciniagrandis leaves and stem for the anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde-induced paw edema in rats. (4) Deshpande et al., carried out a study on the Anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf and stem aqueous extracts of cocciniagrandis (13). Both post- and pre-treatment anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Cocciniaindica were evaluated in rats at various dose levels using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method. Both post- and pre-treatment anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Cocciniaindica were evaluated in rats at various dose levels using the carrageenan-induced paw oedemamethod. The leaves extract of the C. indica shows anti inflammatory and analgesic activity (9).

 

Antipyretic activity:

Aggarwal (2011) evaluated methanolic extract of Cocciniagrandis for antipyretic activity at the doses of 100 and 200mg/kg in yeast-induced fever. Scientist (13,14). Evaluated methanolic extract of C. Grandis for antipyretic activity at the doses of 100 and 200mg/kg in yeast-induced fever (6)

 

 

Analgesic activity:

Acetic acid induced writhing, Tail immersion and Hot plate methods were implemented to evaluate the analgesic activity. Acetic acid induced analgesia is treated by using a methanol extract of Cocciniagrandis. (4,13,14)

 

Hypoglycemic activity:

Mallick (2007) evaluated combined extracts of Musa paradisiaca and Cocciniaindica aqueous extract of leaf for antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetes rats. (4,14) Saikat Ghosh et al., evaluated the antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract of Cocciniaindica leaves in streptozotocin (65mg/kg) i.p induced adult Wistar strain albino diabetic rats. (13)

 

Antihyperglycemicactivity:

Antihyperglycemic activity study of leaf extract Cocciniagrandis was done through oral glucose tolerance tests in glucose-loaded mice and it showed high activity at an extract dose of 400mg per kg body weight of mice (14) The methanol extract of the leaf when injected to mice at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400mg extract per kg body weight demonstrated significant dose-dependent antihyperglycemic activity. (6)

 

Antifungal activity:

Bhattacharya (2010) evaluated the antifungal activity of the Cocciniagrandis leaves extract against the Candida albicans-II, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus Niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis II, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans ATCC. (4,14) Evaluated the antifungal activity of the Cocciniagrandis leaves extract against the Candida albicans-II, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus Niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis II, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans ATCC (13)

 

Hepatoprotective activity:

Vadivu (2008) evaluated the alcoholic extract of the fruit of cocciniagrandis for Hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced Hepatotoxicity in experimental rats, Treatment with 250mg/kg ethanolic extract of fruit significantly reduced the SGPT, SGOT and bilirubin level (4,6,13,14). Vadivu et al., evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic extract of the fruits of Cocciniagrandis using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (13)

 

Antidyslipidemic activity:

Singha (2007) evaluated chloroform extract of Cocciniagrandis leaves for antidyslipidemic activity by lowering the triglycerides and cholesterol level in hamsters. (13,14). Golden syerianhamsters (Mesocricetusauratus), male, 12- week-old, (110-120g) body weight were used for the investigation of antidyslipidemic activity. (6)

 

Antihyperlipidemic activity:

Dewan Md. Sumsuzzman et al., studied the Antihyperlipidemic activity of cocciniagrandis leaf extracts on high-fat diet induced Wistar albino rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Groups I normal control; Group II HFD control; Group III HFD + C. grandis extract (2mg/gm), Group IV HFD + Olive oil (2mg/gm). (5) The leaves extract of Cephalandraindicagrandis exhibit C60 polyprenol significantly decreased serum triglyceride, glycerol and cholesterol and in high fat diet fed dyslipidemic hamsters at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight. (9)

 

Anticancer activity:

There are a number of vegetables occurred to reduce the risk of cancer. One of them is Cocciniagrandis. The anticancer activity of the Cocciniagrandis is due to the antioxidant nature. (14,13,14) Bolay Bhattacharya et al., carried out the In vivo and in vitro anticancer activity of Cocciniagrandis on Swiss albino mice. (13)

 

Antitussive activity:

The methanol extracts of the fruit of cocciniagrandis is used for analgesic activity. Cocciniagrandishas extensively used to get relief from asthma and cough by the indigenous people of India. (3,13,14) the In vivo antitussive activity of Cocciniagrandis fruit against irritant aerosol and sulfur dioxide-induced cough model in rodents. (5)

 

Mutagenic effect:

Aqueous extract of leaves of Cocciniagrandis showed inhibition of growth and mutagenesis on Neurosporacrassaby agradual decrease of growth of mycelia. (6,14)

 

Alpha-amylase inhibition:

Jaiboon (2011) evaluated the methanolic extract of Cocciniagrandis for alpha amylase inhibitory activity (1,6)

 

Larvicidal Activity:

SI Mohammed et al., carried out the Evaluation of Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil from the leaves of Cocciniagrandis against three Mosquito Species. (5) Leaf extracts of plant is effective against malaraial par-asites. Plants are known to exert antiplasmodial activi-ty either by causing RBC oxidation or by inhibiting pro-tein synthesis depending on their phytochemical con-stituents.(10)

 

 

 

Mast Cell Stabilizing, Antianaphylactic, and Antihistaminic Activity:

Dnyaneshwar J Taur et al., conducted a study on the Mast Cell Stabilizing, Antianaphylactic and AntihistaminicActivity of Cocciniagrandis Fruits in Asthma. Ethanol extract of C. (5)

 

Antinociceptive Activities:

Antinociceptive activity tests were conducted in acetic acid-induced gastric pain writhing in a mouse modelThe number of writhings was induced by intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid in mice. (1,4)

 

Medicinal uses of different parts

1.     Leaf: Antidiabetic, antioxidant, larvicidal, GI disturbances, cooling effect to the eye, gonorrhoea, hypolipidemic, skin diseases, urinary tract infection.

2.     Fruit: Hypoglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, tuberculosis, eczema and anti-inflammatory.

3.     Stem: Antispasmodic effect, expectorant, useful in Asthma, and bronchitis, cure diabetes and intermittent glycosuria, gastrointestinal disturbances and diseases, Skin diseases, Urinary tract infection, and related troubles.

4.     Root: Remove pain in joints, aphthous ulcers, wheezing, and phlegm, cure diabetes, and intermittent glycosuria, Skin diseases, skin lesions (Tenia). (5)

 

Medicinal uses:

For Diabetes:

Decoction is prepared with 120 gm fresh leaves or entire creeper of C. grandis plant and 120 ml is given twice a day. 20g of leaves of Cocciniagrandis which were mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt.

 

Laxatives:

The root bark powder of plant is given in dose of 2 teaspoonfuls before going to bed with hot water.

 

Sore on tongue:

Chewing fruits helps to get relief from tongue sores.

 

Itches, skin abscesses, insect stings:

The leaves are grinded to make paste and applied externally on affected area.

 

Excess body heat:

In case of excess body heat, extract 5 teaspoon juice of ivy gourd leaves and drink with glass of water, thrice a day for three days.

 

Urine blockage:

Take 2 teaspoon root and boil in 150 ml water till volume reduced to half. Filter and drink.

C. grandis in Siddha Medicine:

In the Siddha text of KunapadamPorutpanpiyal says it is under the Cucubitacea family Sanskrit name is Bimbi, tamil name is Kovai Scientific name is Cocciniagrandis (Linn) Voigt.

 

This is climber. Inippukovai and kaippukovai are the two variety of kovai and karunkkovai it is another variety also available. It is divided in to three groups according to shape and colour of the kovai, there are

1.     Mooviralkovai

2.     Iviralkovai

3.     Namakkova

 

Leaves, Unripe fruit, Stem, Tuber are used for medicinal purpose (13).

 

CONCLUSION:

The review survey revealed that Cocciniagrandis has been much investigated for its pharmacological activities and frequently used in indigenous systems. Cocciniagrandis is therefore an important source of many pharmacological and medicinally useful chemicals. From this study, it isclear that the medicinal plants play a fundamental role against various diseases. The various parts possess various roles in the herbal use.

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

None.

 

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Received on 29.10.2020         Modified on 18.11.2020

Accepted on 30.11.2020  ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2021; 13(1):27-32.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2021.00005.4