Priyanka Mule1, Mohini Upadhye2, Poonam Taru3, Shashikant Dhole4
1Department of Pharmacognosy, PES Modern College of Pharmacy (For Ladies), Moshi, Pune
2HOD, Department of Pharmacognosy, PES Modern College of Pharmacy (For Ladies), Moshi, Pune
3Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacognosy, PES Modern College of Pharmacy (For Ladies),
4Principal, PES Modern College of Pharmacy (For Ladies), Moshi, Pune
Bryophyllum pinnatum is widely used in Ayurvedic system of the medicine as astringent.the plant is widely use in traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments and well known for its haemostatic and wound healing properties.it is an indigenous and exotic plant. plant is found naturally throught the country. It is succulent,herb,leaves are variable size and leaflets are elliptic.the leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum has been reported to possess antihypertensive,antiulcer properties.readialy available and easy to cultivate.secondary metabolites are obtained from different parts of plant alkaloids,flavenoids,tannin,phenolic compound etc.although there are few toxicological reports on extract these have not been sufficiently extensive.Bryophyllum pinnatum also known as air plant cathedral bells,life plant.it is native to Madagascar and popular houseplant has become naturalized in tropical and subtropical areas. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various toxic and pharmacological aspect of the Bryophyllum pinnatum.
Bryophyllum pinnatum also called as life plant widely distributed perennial medicinal herbs.native to Madagascar but has been natutalized in several other region of asia,Australia and newzealand.also called as panfuti(12).secondary metabolites obtained from the various part of the plants.many pharmacological activities of plant known antihelminthetic, anticancer, antihypertensive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory. The species of these is thought to be poisonus to livestock as it contain cardiac glycosides.(12)
Native to Madagascar and South Africa.
Bryophyllum pinnatum is a succulent herb 0.3-1.2m high. Stems obtusely four angled, older one pale coloured and younger ones are reddish with white. Leaves are usually simple/compound, upper ones are 3-5/7 foliolate with long petioled.(12) The bell-shaped (i.e. tubular), drooping (i.e. pendulous), flowers (up to 7cm long) are arranged in branched clusters at the terminal of the stems (i.e. in terminal inflorescences). Each flower is present on a stalk (i.e. pedicel) 10-25mm long. that are partially connected to the tube (i.e. calyx ) and streaked with pink or reddish colored blotches.(13) The yellowish-green to dark red coloured petals (3-6cm long) are also partially fused into a tube (i.e. a corolla tube) that differentiate into four petal lobes (i.e. corolla lobes) near the tip.(15) Flowers are produced mainly during winter and spring.
3. Common Name:
Air plant, good luck leaf, green mother of millions, leaf of life, live leaf, Mexican love plant, sproughting leaf.
Figure 1: Bryophyllum pinnatum
Bryo means to sprout and phyllon is leaf that is ability to propagate via leaf cutting pinnatum is from latin feathered wing.
5.Habit and Habitat:
A long live (perennial), fleshy that is erect stem usually grow 30-120cm tall.
Bryophyllum pinnatum also called as a life plant.it is succulent and perennial plant.it has been found to contain bufadienolide cardiac glycosides and phenanthrene these can cause cardiac poisoning particularly in grazing animals.(12)
Crude extract contain tannin which produce anthelmentic activity, chloroform, methanoic and aqueous extract of plant root cause paralysis and death of worms shows antihelmentic activity.(16) shows the presense of alkanes, sterols, triterpenoids, flavenoids, alkaloids and lipids.
Juice of the leaves is also used for kidney stone root extract are used as laxative as a diuretic for liver, tuberculosis and mental disorder. The wound healing activity was evaluated using excision and incision(20). it has been use for treatment of variety of condition including body pain, skin problems. The plant is particularly known for its effective detachment of umbilicus of infants. it has antiinflamatory, antimicrobial, antitumour, antiulcer, insecticidal, antidiabetic, antioxidant properties.(13) Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves were boiled in water extract obtained used to treat fever,headache,stomach pain.this plant is mostly effective against the kidney stone or the stomach problems.
The importance of flavenoids for the antileishmanial activity was demonsrated by isolation of quercitrin which separated by methanolic extract of plant. Presense of three (quercitrin, quercetin, ofzelin)) flavenoid shows Antileishmanial Activity(14).
Bryophyllum shows the anticancerous activity against the cancer cell.
The study shows the presense of antihypertensive activity of bryophyllum aqueous and methanolic leaf extract (50-800mg/Kg) on heart rate of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rat. The hypertensive effect was more pronounced in the hypertensive than Normotensive rat(12)
Bryophyllum shows the antiulcer activity.
Bryophyllum shows the presense of Antidiabetic activity. ojeaoles was studied the antidiabetic effect of aqeous extract of plant produce hypoglycemia in rat by streptocotocin induce diabetics mellitus.(13)
Pet ether, chloroform, methanol extract also isolated fraction such as flavenoid, alkaloids fraction of leaves was given in dose of 50mg/Kg.Methanolic extract of leaves shows more significant inhibition of formaldehyde induce edema as compare to standard drug.(5)
Lavender scallops (Bryophyllum fedtschenkoi), mother of millions (Bryophyllum delagoense), (bryophyllum proliferum). these species can be distinguish by following differences.
Shape, size, colour and height of the plants(12)
The study of Bryophyllum pinnatum revealed that the plant shows different chemical constituents such as flavenoids, tannin, glycosides and alkaloids, plant shows different pharmacological activities. Bryophyllum pinnatum as a multipurpose medicinal plant.(15)
1. Vaidhya B. Some controversial drugs in Indian Medicine. Edn 3, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2010, 3-5
2. Chunekar KC, Pandey GS. Editor. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu of Bhavamishra, Chaukambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, 2010, 101-105.
3. Tripati ID. Dwivedi V. Editor. Raja Nighantu. Edn 1, Krishnadas academy, Varanasi, 112.
4. Gaind K. and Gupta R et.al., Alkanes and alkanols, triterpenes, sterols from kalanchoe pinnata. Phytochemistry. 1983,11:150-1502
5. Seema V.P. Kalanchoe pinnata Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research 2012; 3(4):993-1000.
6. Nayak BS, Marshall JR, Isitor G. Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. leaf-A preliminary study. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 2010; 48:572-576.
7. Khare CP, Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants, New York: Springer 2004:276
8. Chauhan MG, Pillai AP, Wijaay asriwardana C et.al. Microscopic Profile of powdered drugs used in Indian System of Medicine. Institute of PG, Training and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat, 2007; 2: 251.
9. Agoha RC. Medicinal Plants of Nigeria, Offset Drakkerij. Faculfcitder Wiskunde in Naturwetenschappen, The Netherlands 1974; 33:41.
10. David M, Hamann C, Chen F, Bruch L, Lichtenegger L. Comparison of the relaxation effect in vitro of nitroglycerin vs. fenoterol on human myometrial strips. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 2000; 28:232 –42.
11. Almedia AP, Costa SS. 1-octane3-O-α-Larabinopyranosyl-(16)- glucopyranoside, Aminor constituent from leaves of kalanchoe pinnata. Brazillian Journal of pharmacognosy 2006; 16(4):485- 489.
12. Kalanchoe pinnata: In: urs: eggi(ed): Succulent lexicon. Crassulaceae (thick leaf) PIU.Eugen umer, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN.3-800/3998-7, p175. Article in Pharmaceutical Biology.5(3).203-217.
13. A comperehensive review on parnabeeja (Bryophyllum pinnatum (lam. oken). Asian Journal of Chemistry 25(9):4991-4993 Aug2013.
14. Kanika P. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves. J Adv Sci Res 2011;2;42-9.
15. Nguelefack TB, Nana P, Atsamo AD, Dimo T, Watcho P, Dongmo AB, et al. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of extracts from the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) haworth (Crassulaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 106:70-5.
16. Okwu DE, Josiah C. Evaluation of the chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr J Biotechnol 2006; 5:357-61.
17. Nielsen AH, Olsen CE, Moller BL. Flavonoids inflowers of 16 Kalanchoe blossfeldiana varieties. Phytochemistry 2005; 66:2829-35.
18. Pal S, Sen T, Chaudhari AK. Neuropsychopharmacological profile of the methanolic fraction of Bryophyllum Pinnatum leaf extract. J Pharm Pharm 1999; 51:313-8.
19. Adinike K, Eretan OB. Purification and partial characterization of lectin from the fresh leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (And.) Haw. J Biochem Mol Biol2004; 37:229-33.
20. Nguelefack TB, Nana P, Atsamo AD, Dimo T, Watcho P, Dongmo AB, et al. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of extracts from the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth (Crassulaceae). J Ethnopharmaco
Received on 12.02.2020 Modified on 14.03.2020
Accepted on 09.04.2020 ©AandV Publications All right reserved