Study on the effect of seed priming on Physiological and Biochemical changes in seed quality of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

 

Kulsumbi A. K., Sangeeta I. M., N. M. Shakuntala, S. N. Vasudevan, Kisan B.

College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Raichur-584104, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: kulsumbik3@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Seed priming (pre-sowing imbibition treatment) is widely used to enhance seed performance with respect to rate and uniformity of germination. It is a low cost and low risk intervention, used to overcome poor plant stand establishment. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of priming on seed quality parameters of spinach. The experiment was laid down in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The seeds were exposed to different priming agents which include 11 treatments primed for 24 hours with seed to solution 1:2 vol/vol ratio. The results showed KNO3 (1%) to be the best priming treatment to get the maximum seed quality parameters (viz., field emergence (%), germination (%), speed of germination, root length (cm), shoot length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index, germination rate index, peak value of germination, mean germination time, electrical conductivity (dSm-1), dehydrogenase activity (OD Value) and alpha amylase activity (mm)) compared to other treatments and control, where field emergence and germination showed 11 and 10 per cent increase respectively, over control.

 

KEYWORDS: Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.); seed priming; seed quality parameters.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae. It was long considered to be in the family Chenopodiaceae, but in 2003, that family was merged into the family Amaranthaceae in the order Caryophyllales. Within the family Amaranthaceae, spinach belongs to subfamily Chenopodioideae. Spinach is most probably a native of central and western Asia region. It was known in China as early as 647 AD. Spinach, swiss chard and garden beet has a chromosome number 2n=2x=24, indicates their close relationship.

 

Leaves of this crop might have been first used in Bengal and hence it is known as Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis. Spinach is one of the most common leafy vegetables of tropical and subtropical regions. The popular spinach growing states include Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Gujarat. However, spinach is not very popular in South India. It is primarily used as pot herb and is a rich Source of vitamin A and C and also contains appreciable amount of protein, calcium and iron. The leaves contain low oxalic acid.

 

The nutritive value of spinach in 100gm or edible portion is given as moisture 92.1, fat 0.7g, fibre 0.6g, calories 26, magnesium 84mg, phosphorous 21mg, sodium 58.5mg, copper 0.01mg, chlorine 54.0mg, thiamine 0.03mg, nicotine acid 0.5mg, protein 2.0g, minerals 1.70g, other carbohydrates 2.0g, calcium 73 mg, oxalic acid 58mg, iron 10.9mg, potassium 206.0mg, sulphur 30.0mg, vitamin A 9300 I. U., riboflavin 0.07 mg and vitamin C 28.00mg. The spinach fruit as consisting of several dry fruits forming a cluster as a result of fusion of flower parts because of this phenomenon, unprocessed or natural fruit may contain a number of true seeds, most often two or three (Byford, 1963). Therefore, these fruits are known as “multigerm”, i.e. more than one seedling may emerge from each fruit.

 

Cultivation of spinach is carried out in cooler regions as it requires about 15-200C temperature for flowering and seed production. It tolerate frost and high temperature under good irrigation. Under high temperature conditions, early bolting occurs and leaves pass edible stage quickly with poor yield. Though spinach can be grown on a wide range of soils, well fertile, sandy loams soil with good drainage is ideal. Spinach is tolerant to slightly alkaline soils and is highly tolerant to salts also. One of the simple techniques which can improve seedling vigour and establishment is seed priming (Khan et al., 2005). Priming is a pre-sowing seed treatment which permits early DNA replication, increase RNA and protein synthesis, repairs deteriorated seed parts and reduces the leakage of metabolites thus enhances the embryo growth, speed and uniformity of seedlings in field. Primed and dried seeds normally have a more rapid and uniform germination when subsequently re-hydrated, especially under adverse environmental conditions.

 

An important problem encountered in the cultivation of spinach is the poor germination of the seeds when planting is done in extremely warm temperatures, which may delay or inhibit seed germination in the field, reduce uniformity total stand establishment and ultimately reduces the yield. Hence seed priming to obtain better crop stand could be an attractive approach in spinach.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

The research studies were carried out in the laboratory of Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur. Geographically, the station is situated in the North-Eastern dry zone (Zone-2) of Karnataka State at 16° 15' North latitude and 77° 20' East longitude and at an altitude of 389 metre above mean sea level. Fresh seeds of spinach variety “Annapoorna” were obtained from University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot. Spinach seeds were primed with different priming agents with seed to solution ratio of 1:2 and then seeds were dried back to their original moisture content (plate 1). The seeds were used to assess the seed physiological and biochemical parameters. Field emergence was recorded by counting the number of seeds germinated and emerged in the field on 21st day after sowing. The field emergence was calculated by using following formula suggested by Saha and Basu (1981) (plate 2). Germination test was conducted using eight replicates of 50 seeds each in pleated paper towels where seeds were placed in between the pleats of germination paper and incubated in the walk-in seed germination room at 25 ± 2°C temperature and 90 ± 5 per cent relative humidity (ISTA, 2013) (plate 3). Seedling evaluation was done when seedlings have reached a stage with all the essential structures were fully expressed. Also other quality parameters like speed of germination (Maguire, 1962), root length (cm), shoot length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index (Abdul-Baki and Anderson, 1973), germination rate index (Mudaris, 1998), peak value of germination (Gairola et al., 2011), mean germination time (Azimi et al., 2013), electrical conductivity (dSm-1) (Milosevic et al., 2010), dehydrogenase activity (OD Value) (Kittock and Law, 1968) and alpha amylase activity (mm) Simpson and Naylor (1962) (plate 3) were computed and data was subjected to statistical analysis.

 

The mean data of the laboratory experiments were statistically analyzed by adopting appropriate statistical methods as outlined by Panse and Sukhatme (1985). The critical differences were calculated at one per cent level of probability wherever ‘F’ test was found significant for various seed quality parameters under study.

 

Table 1: Different priming treatments

Treatment No.

Treatment type

T1

Control

T2

Hydropriming

T3

GA3 50ppm

T4

GA3 100ppm

T5

Ethrel 100ppm

T6

Ethrel 150ppm

T7

KNO3 1%

T8

Coconut water 50%

T9

Coconut water 100%

T10

Custard apple 3%

T11

Custard apple 6%

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Spinach seeds were subjected to priming with various inorganic, organics and growth regulators at different dosages and were assessed for seed quality parameters. It was noted that during the entire physiological and biochemical tests, various treatments showed significantly different effect on all the seed quality parameters which may be due the different role possessed by the chemicals involved in regulating the seed quality parameters.

 

Spinach seeds primed with KNO3 (1%) showed significantly higher field emergence (87.50%) (Fig. 1), germination percentage (98.50%) (fig. 1) and speed of germination (42.55) followed by GA3 (100 ppm) (85.50%, 97.75% and 41.74, respectively) as compared to control (76.50%, 88.50% and 30.39, respectively). The higher field emergence in the seeds primed with KNO3 could be attributed to increased enzyme activity, vigour of the seeds, reduced membrane injury and repair of DNA damage (Umesha, 2012) and also synthesis of DNA, proteins and enhanced free radicle scavenging enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Demir et al., 2012) is observed in seeds primed with KNO3. Fonseka and Fonseka (2009) observed higher field emergence and vigour in KNO3 (1%) primed seeds of bitter gourd. The present results are in conformity with Amin et al. (2012) in wheat, Kavitha (2007) in chilli and Kumaravelu and Kadamban (2009) in green gram who reported improvement in seedling emergence in seeds primed with KNO3.

 

The increased germination percentage in KNO3 primed seeds may be due to reactivation of metabolic process of seeds which cause biosynthesis of auxin, which ultimately triggers the growth of embryo (Khan et al., 1999) and shortening of imbibition time (Anisa et al., 2017) which leads to enhancement of internal activity during the second germination stage for any subsequent germination process (Sang In Shim et al., 2008). The KNO3 primed seeds have increased metabolic activity which leads to endosperm weakening and mobilization of storage proteins there by increasing the germination rate (De Castro et al., 2000) and during the increased metabolic activity enhanced ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis also leads to accumulation of 4C nuclei in the radicle meristem (Coolbear and Grieson, 1979). The results are in accordance with the findings of Zheng et al. (2012) for tomato, Nascimento (2003) and Nascimento and Aragao, (2004) for muskmelon.

 

Similarly significantly increased seedling dry weight was recorded in the seeds primed with KNO3 (1%) (21.38mg) which may be attributed to increased root length (7.00cm) and shoot length (8.39cm) followed by GA3 (100ppm) (6.82cm, 8.00cm 20.71mg, respectively) as compared to control (5.76cm, 6.44cm and 17.07mg, respectively. Similar results were obtained by Jagadish et al. (1994) in tomato, capsicum and onion and Muruli (2013) in onion and capsicum. The increase in root and shoot length with KNO3 primed seeds might be due to the fact that, priming induced nuclear replication in root tips of seeds (Stofella et al., 1992). The higher seedling length in seeds primed with KNO3 might be attributed to enlarged embryos, higher rate of metabolic activities and respiration, better utilization and mobilization of metabolites to growing points and higher activity of enzymes. The results corroborates with the findings of Hussaini et al. (1988) in tomato, Ramamoorthy et al. (1989) in coriander and Shahazad, (2003) in wheat.

 

However, seedling vigour index (SVI) was significantly highest in seeds primed with KNO3 (1%) (1515) (Fig. 2) followed by GA3 (100 ppm) (1447) and significantly lowest was observed in control (1079). The increase in the seedling vigour index may be attributed to higher germination, seedling length and dry matter, also priming with KNO3 was found to increase enzyme activity which leads to increased metabolic activity. The KNO3 primed seeds had beneficial effect to improve seedling vigour index in tomato. These results are in accordance with Kavitha (2007) in chilli, Ghassemi et al. (2010) in lentil, Mirabi and Hasanabadi (2012) and Srimati et al. (2013).

 

Highest germination rate index, peak value of germination and low mean germination time was observed in the seeds primed with KNO3 (1%) (4276.76, 24.69 and 1.58, respectively) followed by GA3 (100 ppm) (4107.90, 23.54 and 1.64, respectively) than compared to control (T1) (3184.40, 18.14 and 3.18, respectively). The probable reason for early germination of primed seed may be the early completion of pre-germinative metabolic activities making seed ready for radicle protrusion and seed germination (Basra et al., 2005 and Abdi and Arefi, 2001). This reduction was attributed to KNO3 regulated enzymes, which reduce mechanical restraints to the embryo. Similar reduction in mean germination time in seeds primed with KNO3 were recorded by Tzortzakis (2009) in chicory, Sadeghi et al. (2011) in soybean and Anese et al. (2011) in osmo primed seeds of tomato.

 

Generally, electrical conductivity (EC) indicates the membrane integrity and quality of the seeds. Lower the EC, higher the membrane integrity and seed quality. The electrical conductivity of the seeds was significantly lowest in KNO3 (1%) (T7) (0.231 dSm-1) (Fig. 4) followed by GA3 (100 ppm) (T4) (0.283 dSm-1) and control recorded highest electrical conductivity (0.767 dSm-1). Significantly lowest electrical conductivity by priming with KNO3 might be due to enhanced repair of membrane, which is disrupted during maturation drying. Since electrolyte leakage is in part a result of damage cell membranes. However, electrolytes may leak out during priming, resulting in lower levels of electrolytes in KNO3 primed seeds than in control (Chiu et al. 1995). In the present, study the differential EC values which were recorded among the seed priming treatments indicate the nature and extent of membrane protection offered, which may not be the same for all seed priming treatments, thus resulting in difference in EC values as stated by Kurdikeri (1993) and Sandyarani et al. (2002) in cotton. Similar results were also reported in soybean (Sung and Chiu, 1995), carrot (Maskari et al., 2003) and turnip (Khan et al., 2005).

 

Significantly highest dehydrogenase and alpha amylase activity were reported in KNO3 (1%) (0.443 OD value and 8.31mm, respectively) (Fig. 3) followed by GA3 (100ppm) (0.416 OD value and 7.35mm, respectively). However, lowest activity of dehydrogenase enzyme (0.295 OD value) and alpha amylase (5.20mm) were observed in control. The increased enzymatic activity may be due to the chemicals involved in metabolic activity which stimulates the synthesis of enzymes for reserve food mobilization in seeds. The activities of these enzymes were found significantly correlated with standard germination and seedling establishment. Lowest electrical conductivity and higher enzymatic activities in seeds primed with KNO3 was observed by Hareesh (2014) in sugarbeet and Shankarayya (2012) in lettuce. This may be attributed to enhanced rate of respiration, energy production and food supply to the germinating seeds. Similar results were reported by Narwal (1995) in okra, Verma et al. (2003) in mustard and Pallavi et al. (2003) in sunflower.


 

Table 2. Effect of priming treatments on field emergence (%), germination (%), speed of germination, root length (cm), shoot length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg) and seedling vigour index of spinach

Treatment

Field emergence

Germination

Speed of germination

Root length

Shoot length

Seedling dry weight

Seedling vigour index

T1

76.50

88.50

30.39

5.76

6.44

17.07

1079

T2

81.50

93.75

36.98

6.55

7.63

19.54

1329

T3

83.25

95.25

39.74

6.73

7.90

20.04

1394

T4

85.50

97.75

41.74

6.82

8.00

20.71

1447

T5

79.75

91.75

33.55

6.44

7.02

18.72

1233

T6

80.50

93.00

34.58

6.46

7.25

19.02

1275

T7

87.50

98.50

42.55

7.00

8.39

21.38

1515

T8

77.25

90.00

31.55

6.02

6.69

18.22

1144

T9

79.50

91.50

32.66

6.30

6.74

18.45

1192

T10

80.75

93.50

35.69

6.51

7.55

19.29

1313

T11

82.75

95.00

38.74

6.79

7.84

19.94

1390

MEAN

81.40

93.50

36.19

6.49

7.40

19.30

1301

S.Em±

0.614

0.557

0.419

0.080

0.09

0.360

14.10

CD @ 1%

1.774

1.611

1.210

0.230

0.25

1.041

40.75

 

Table 3: Effect of priming treatments on germination rate index, peak value of time, mean germination time, electrical conductivity (dSm-1), dehydrogenase enzyme activity (OD value) and alpha amylase enzyme activity (mm) of spinach

Treatment

Germination rate index

Peak value of germination

Mean germination time

Electrical conductivity

Dehydrogenase activity

Alpha amylase activity

T1

3184

18.14

3.18

0.767

0.295

5.203

T2

3764

20.40

1.98

0.341

0.364

7.10

T3

3938

22.83

1.81

0.296

0.391

7.35

T4

4107

23.54

1.64

0.283

0.416

7.37

T5

3510

18.90

2.52

0.395

0.334

7.02

T6

3644

18.91

2.22

0.364

0.345

6.85

T7

4276

24.69

1.58

0.231

0.443

8.31

T8

3208

19.07

2.85

0.489

0.321

5.62

T9

3320

19.44

2.76

0.425

0.322

5.95

T10

3698

19.56

2.05

0.352

0.356

6.73

T11

3766

21.18

1.87

0.322

0.383

7.12

MEAN

3674

20.61

2.22

0.388

0.361

6.80

S.Em±

56.44

0.410

0.053

0.006

0.006

0.096

CD @ 1%

163.10

1.185

0.152

0.016

0.016

0.277

 


 

Fig. 1 Effect of seed priming treatments on field emergence (%) and germination (%)

 

Fig. 2 Effect of seed priming treatments on seedling vigour index

 

Fig. 10 Effect of seed priming treatments on alpha amylase enzyme activity (mm)

 

 

Fig. 11 Effect of seed priming treatments on electrical conductivity (dSm-1)

 

CONCLUSION:

Therefore, seed priming with KNO3 1 per cent is found to be ideal for obtaining highest physiological and biochemical parameters viz., field emergence (%), germination (%), speed of germination, root length (cm), shoot length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index, germination rate index, peak value of germination, mean germination time, electrical conductivity (dSm-1), dehydrogenase activity (OD Value) and alpha amylase activity (mm).

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Abdul-Baki, A. A. and Anderson, J. D., 1973, Vigour determination in soybean seeds by multiple criteria. Crop Sci., 13: 630-633.

2.      Abdi, N. M. and Arefi, H., 2001, Study of variation and seed deterioration of Bromus tomentellus germplasm in natural resources gene bank. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research. 11: 249-256.

3.      Amin, R., Khan, A. Z., Khalil, S. and Khalil, I., 2012, Effect of osmo priming sources and moisture stress on wheat.  Pakistan Journal of Botany. 44(3): 867-871.

4.      Anese, S., Silva, E. A. A., Davide, A. C., Faria, J. M. R., Soares, G. C. M., Matos, A. C. and Toorop, P. E., 2011.  Seed Science and Technology. 39(1): 125-139.

5.      Anisa, R., Wanchai, C., Pitipong, T. and Damrongvudhi, O., 2017, Effect of seed priming with different concentration of potassium nitrate on the pattern of seed imbibition and germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 16(3): 605-613.

6.      Azimi, R., Feizi, H. and Hosseini, M.  K., 2013, Can bulk and nanosized titanium dioxide particles improve seed germination features of wheat grass (Agropyron desertorum). Notule Scientia Biol., 5(3): 325-331.

7.      Basra, S. M., Farooq, A. M. and Tabassum, R., 2005, Physiological and biochemical aspects of seed vigour enhancement treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Science and Technology. 33: 623-628.

8.      Byford, W. J., 1963, Field emergence and laboratory germination of sugar‐beet seed. Plant Pathology, 12(4): 174-177.

9.      Chiu, K. Y., Chen, C. L. and Sung, J. M., 1995, Effect of priming temperature on storability of primed sh-2 sweet corn seed. Crop Sci., 2: 1996-2003.

10.   Coolbear, P., Grierson, D. and Heydecker, W., 1979, Osmotic presowing treatments and nucleic acid accumulation in tomato seed (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill.). Seed Science and Technology. 8: 289-303.

11.   De Castro, R. D., Van Lammeren, A. A. M., Groot, S. P. C., Bino, R. J. and Hilhorst, H. W. M., 2000, Cell division and subsequent radicle protrusion in tomato seeds are inhibited by osmotic stress but DNA synthesis and formation of micro tubular cytoskeleton are not. Plant Physiology. 122: 327-335.

12.   Demir, I. and Okcu, G., 2005, Effect of post-harvest maturation treatment on germination and potential longevity of pepper (Capsicum annum L.) seeds. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 75(1): 19-22.

13.   Fonseka, H. H. and Fonseka, R. M. 2011, Studies on deterioration and germination of bitter gourd seed (Momordica charantia L.) during storage. Acta Horticulturae. 898: 31-38.

14.   Gairola, K. C., Nautiyal, A. R. and Dwivedi, A. K., 2011, Effect of temperatures and germination media on seed germination of Jatropha curcas. Adv. Biores., 2(2): 66-71.

15.   Ghassemi-Golezani, K., Aliloo, A. A., Valizadeh, M. and Moghaddam M. 2008, Effects of different priming techniques on seed invigoration and seedling establishment of lentil (Lens culinaris M.). Journal of Food Agricultural Environment.  6: 222-226.

16.   Hareesh, K. K., 2014, Studies on seed priming in pigeonpea and chickpea. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Uni. Agric. Sci., Bangalore (India).

17.   Hussaini, S. H., Ahmed, Z. A. and Dhanrai, A., 1988, The effect of accelerated ageing on germination, vigour and yield of maize. Seed Research. 16: 68-75.

18.   ISTA, 2013, International Rules of Seed Testing. Seed Sci. Technol., 27: 25-30.

19.   Jagadish, G. V., Prasanna, K. P. R. and Ranganathaiah, K. G., 1994, Influence of storage conditions and containers on seed storability in onion (Allium cepa L.). Seed Tech. News, 24: 15.

20.   Kavitha, M., 2007, Seed quality enhancement and storability studies in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Uni. Agric. Sci., Dharwad (India).

21.   Khan, A. A., 1999, Pre plant physiological conditioning. Horticultural Review. 13: 131– 181.

22.   Khan, A., Khalil, S. K., Khan, S. and Afzal, A., 2005, Priming effects on crop stand of turnip. Sarhad J. Agric., 21:535-538.

23.   Kittock, D. L. and Law, A. G., 1968, Relationship of seedling vigour, respiration and tetrazolium chloride reduction by germination of wheat seeds. Agron. J., 60: 286-288.

24.   Kumaravelu, G. and Kadamban, D., 2009, Panchagavya and its effect on the growth of the green gram cultivar K-851. Int. J. Plant Sci. 4(2): 409-414.

25.   Kurdikeri, M. B., Aswathaiah, B. and Rajendra Prasad, S., 1993, Seed quality of invigourated seeds of maize hybrids. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science, 27: 237-242.

26.   Mirabi, E. and Hasanbadi, M., 2012, Effect of seed priming on some characteristic of seedling & seed vigor of tomato. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology, 3(3): 278-282.

27.   Muruli, C. N., 2013, Studies on seed priming and primed seed longevity in onion (Allium cepa L.) and capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Univ. Agric. Sci., Bangalore.

28.   Mudaris, M. A., 1998, Notes on various parameters recording the speed of seed germination. Der Tropenlandwirt, 99: 147-154.

29.   Narwal, A. K., 1995, Studies on seed viability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Ph.D. thesis submitted to CCS HAU, Hisar.

30.   Nascimento, W. M., 2003, Muskmelon seed germination and seedling development in response to seed priming. Scientia Agricola. 60: 71-75.

31.   Nascimento, W. M. and Souza de Aragao, F. A., 2004, Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor. Sci. Agric., 61:114-117.

32.   Pallavi, M., Sudheer, S. K., Dangi, K. S. and Reddy, A. V., 2003, Effect of seed ageing on physiological, biochemical and yield attributes in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) cv. Morden. Seed Res., 31(2): 161-168.

33.   Panse, V. G. and Sukhatme, P. V., 1985, Statistical methods for agricultural workers. ICAR Publication, New Delhi, p. 359.

34.   Ramamoorthy, K., Kalavathi, D., Thiagarajan, C. P. and Jayakumar, G., 1989, Evaluation of maize inbreds and their hybrid for vigour viability and storability by accelerated ageing. Seeds and Farms.15: 31-32.

35.   Sadeghi, H., Fardin, K., Leila, Y. and Saman, S., 2011, Effect of seed osmo priming on seed germination and vigor of soybean (Glycine max L.). Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 6: 39-43.

36.   Sandyarani, G. M., 2002, Influence of seed treatment with chemicals and botanical on storability and field performance of fresh and aged hybrid cotton seeds. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis. University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.

37.   Saha, R. and Basu, R. N., 1981, Maintenance of soybean seed viability by hydration dehydration treatments. Indian Agric., 25(4): 275-278.

38.   Sang In Shim, Jun-Cheol, M., Paul, R. and Wook, K., 2008, Effect of potassium nitrate priming on seed germination of Seashore paspalum. Hort. Sci., 43(7): 2259-2262.

39.   Shahazad, H. M., Ahmad, B., Imtiaz, A. P. and Irfan, A., 2003, Pre-sowing seed treatments to improve germination and seedling growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum). M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis. Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad–38040, Pakistan.

40.   Shankrayya, 2012, Studies on the effect of organic seed treatment on seed quality of cereals during storage. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Univ. Agric. Sci., Raichur (Karnataka) India

41.   Simpson, G. M. and Naylar, J. M., 1962, Dormancy studies in seeds of Avena fatuva and a relationship between maltase, amylases and gibberellins. Can. J. Bot., 40: 1959-1673.

42.   Srimathi, P., Mariappan, N., Sundaramoorthy, L. and Paramathma, M., 2013, Efficacy of panchagavya on seed invigoration of biofuel crops. Scientific Research and Essays, 8(41): 2031-2037.

43.   Stofella, P. J., Lipucci, D. P., Pardossi, A. and Tognoni, F., 1992, Seedling root morphology and shoot growth after seed priming or pregermination of bell pepper. Horticultural science, 27: 214–5.

44.   Sung, J. M. and Chiu, C. C., 1995, Lipid peroxidation and peroxide scavenging enzymes of naturally aged edible soybean seeds. Pl. Sci., 110: 45-52.

45.   Tzortzakis, N. G., 2009, Effect of pre-sowing treatment on seed germination and seedling vigour in endive and chicory. Hort. Sci., 36: 117-125.

46.   Umesha, 2012, Studies on seed viability and vigour during seed ageing and priming in onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds. M.Sc.(Agri.) Thesis, Univ. Agric. Sci., Raichur (Karnataka) India.

47.   Verma, S. S., Tomar, R. P. S. and Verma, U., 2003, Loss of viability and vigour in Indian mustard seeds stored under ambient conditions. Seed Res. 31(1): 90-93.

48.   Zheng, M. Y. W. H. S., 2012, Osmo priming improves tomato seed vigour under ageing and salinity stress. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11: 6305-6311.

 

 

Received on 20.04.2020         Modified on 05.05.2020

Accepted on 18.05.2020  ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2020; 12(2):65-70.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2020.00012.6