Mr Avinash B. Thalkari1, Mr. Pawan N. Karwa2, Krushna. K. Zambare3, Mr Vivek. M. Thorat1; Ms. Pallavi. S. Shinde2
1Vasant Pharmacy College, Kaij-431517. Maharashtra
2Gurukrupa Institute of Pharmacy (DEGREE), Near Chatrapatthi Sugar Factory, NH- 222 Gadi Road, Majalgaon-431131, Maharashtra.
3SBSPM’s B. Pharmacy College, Ambajogai – 431517. Dist. Beed. Maharashtra
Dandelion (Taraxacum spp ) has been used since the beginning of early façade in late 90s.It has been marked it’s properties in many traditional and modern herbal medical systems. Theherb is has been enlisted in Asia, Europe, and North America. The various preclinical studies has proved that the Various parts of the plant shows the vital role in the treatment of various diseases. If overall considered dandelion is been considered as a very safe, and effective herb. The current review focus on the various basic information including the chemical composition, it’s pharmacology and also the various uses of the herb dandelion.
Dandelion also called as Taraxacum officinale is a herb belonging to the family of Asteraceae.It is commonly cultivated in theregions with high temperate. It grows to an extent of height of about 12 inches along with it produces spatula-like leaves and yellow flowers which are blossmed though out the year. When tasted the Sesquiterpene lactones it was indeed observed that it has a bitter taste in the plant, which is noticed in the leaf in the root particularly when spring-harvesting is done. After the variouspreclinical research on dandelion herb it has showed an numerous propertiesincluding inflammation modulator, diuretic, digestive stimulant, insulin stimulant, demulcent, prebiotic, immunomodulator, antiangiogenic, and anti-neoplasticalso. The highlighting part i.e, the leaf it has shows various action as will be discussed in later section.(1)
French: Dent de leon, meaning “lion’s tooth.”
Indo European tongues: “lion’s tooth”
Spanish: Diente de leon.(2)
History and Folk Use:
Dandelions is considered as a natural booster among the most recognizable weeds in worldwide. The old reckoned shows that is has showed a tremendous effective action in the last few decades. It was first to be mentioned by the Chinese worker in his writing in the Tang Materia Medicain the past 659 ADand now it is considered as aclassical remedy in Chinese medicine.(3) Although it’s origin has been seenin Asian side of the continental areas.Though few myths and traditional medicinal uses of dandelion herb as been noticed across the Europe regions.(4) Also it has been mentioned in the the Dioscorides’ famous De Materia Medica-Dioscorides.(5) Earlier thought due to its enormous growing range, all parts of the dandelion were eaten as food.
The every herb contains one or more vital chemical Constitutents.SimilarilyAmong the most important compounds in dandelion Conatinslactonesalsowhich is ofenly known as bitter elementPrincipally contains taraxacin and taraxacerin(6) Other known constituents includes the beta-amyrin, taraxasterol, and taraxerol, as well as free sterols (sitosterin, stigmasterin, and phytosterin), phenylpropanoidstriterpenoidsaponins and polysaccharides (primarily fructosans and inulin), smaller amounts of pectin, resin (complex carbohydrates). Three flavonoid glycosides –luteolin 7-glucoside and two luteolin 7-diglucosides – have been isolated from its flowers and leaves. Hydroxycinnamic acids, chicoric acid, monocaffeyltartaric acid, and chlorogenic acid are present throughout the plant, and the coumarins, cichoriin, and aesculin have been identified in the leaf extracts. Dandelion leaves are a high efficient source of vitamins and minerals, including beta carotene, non-provitamin A carotenoids, xanthophylls, chlorophyll, vitamins C and D, many of the B-complex vitamins, choline, iron, silicon, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc, manganese, copper, and phosphorous.(7)
Dandelion leaf and root have both been studied for theireffects on digestion, mostly as bitter digestive stimulants.(1)
The bitter compounds in the leaves and root help stimulate digestion and are mild laxatives(8)
1. Demulcent and Prebiotic Activity:
Dandelion roots have significant demulcent action and also possess andprebiotic properties due to their content of inulin. Sesquiterpenelactones impart a bitter taste to the plant, which is especially observed in the leaf but also in the root (particularly when spring-harvested).(9)
2. Gastrointestinal Complaints:
The use of dandelion leaf for indigestion and also other atonic gastrointestinal complaints is also largely unverified by modern studies.(10)
3. Anti-diabetic properties of dandelion and its components:
The bioactive components in dandelion have demonstrated a series of anti-diabetic effects, which are due to the pharmacological actions of components such as sesquiterpene lactones, triterpenes/phytosterols (taraxasterol), phenols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids(11)
4. Anti-inflammatory action:
Taraxacum officinale has been used to cure liver and gallbladder disorders, which is attributable to its content of terpenoidand bitter sterol components such as taraxacinand taraxacerin.(12) Extracts of T. officinale has inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from rat astrocytes(13)
5. Action of dandelion on digestion, glycolysis, and Krebs cycle:
Mitochondria plays another critical role in theonset of insulin resistance as they are the site atwhich the Krebs cycle and fatty acid oxidation takeplace. Their dysfunction may cause the accumulationof fat in muscle tissue and subsequently thedecrease of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in membrane transport(14)
The pathways involved are the glycolytic cycle and Krebs cycle, in addition to other pathways involved in the release of insulinfrom β-cells.(15)
6. Antioxidant Effect
Oxidative stress is a common feature observed in a wide spectrum of chronic liver diseases including viral hepatitis, alcoholic, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.(16) Hydro-alcoholic acid of T. officinale roots demonstrated antioxidant activity in rats(17)
7. Anticancer Activity:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, which accounts for 90% of primary liver cancer(18) In a very recent study it was found that relevant cytotoxic effect in T. lacistrumextract over HeLa and HepG2 cell lines(19)
8. Cholretic activity
Bile secretion was doubled in dogs by a decoction of fresh root (equivalent to 5g dried plant); similar activity has been observed for rats(20)
Dosage and Sustainability:
The recommended doses of the crude dried root or leaf Taraxacum varies from 4 to 10g daily in divided doses. Fresh root or leaf can be consumed as food at levels of 50g or greater per day according to traditional knowledge. Based on our experience, typical doses of root or leaf tinctures in the United States are 3 to 5mL 3 times/day. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (BPH) recommends 0.5 to 2g of root or 4 to 8mL of root tincture, both 3 times/day.(21) The German Commission E Monographs recommend doses of 3 to 4 g of root twice daily or 10 to 15 drops of tincture 3 times/day. 36BPH recommends 3 to 5g of leaf or 5 to 10mL of leaf tincture, both 2 times/day. 35 Commission E recommends 4 to 10 g of leaf or 2 to 5mL of tincture, both 3 times/day. Dandelion is a prolific weed that has naturalized in temperature regions around the globe. As a result, it is not environmentally threatened in any way. The widespread use of herbicides to kill dandelions suggests that they should not be harvested from urban settings without first determining if they have been sprayed(22)
Safety and Drug Interactions:
Dandelion is a commonly taken with various food with a long history of human use and as such poses little risk of harm. Dandelion extracts are listed on the US Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) list for foods and supplements. Allergy to dandelion can occur but is rare. Patients sensitized to other members of the Asteraceae plant family are sometimes cross-sensitized to dandelion.(23) .Dandelion doses up to 6g/kg in rabbits have shown no toxicity. Consumption of diets containing 33% dandelion for months produced no toxic effects in rats.(24) No negative effects in humans have been reported during pregnancy or lactation, in children, or in combination with pharmaceutical drugs. One study in rats found that 2 g/kg body weight taken with the drug ciprofloxacin greatly impaired absorption of this antibiotic, presumably due to the mineral content of dandelion leaf, as minerals are known to chelate ciprofloxacin and block its bsorption and activity.Because it is a bitter, dandelion should be used with caution in patients with acute gastrointestinal inflammation or obstruction or in those with nonatonic reflux esophagitis. Bitters can potentially stimulate or aggravate these conditions.(23)
Dandelion is widely used in traditional and natural medicine systems around the world yet has received surprisingly little research attention. Given that some preclinical and clinical research has suggested this gentle, safe remedy may have significant activity, further research is clearly essential.
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Received on 11.01.2020 Modified on 05.02.2020
Accepted on 18.02.2020 ©A&V Publications All right reserved