To Estimate The trend and growth rate of Area, Production and Productivity of Chickpea in dhar District of Madhya Pradesh

 

Bhanwarlal Osari, Bhashkar Sahu, Prof. N.P. Sharma

Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, JNKVV Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sahubhaskar99@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The analysis of growth is usually used to estimate the trend and growth rate of area, production and productivity of chickpea in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh the agricultural situation in India has undergone a rapid change. Indian agriculture, long been viewed as a subsistence occupation and a way of life on the part of the peasant is now rapidly getting commercialized. Indian farmer has come to produce for the market rather than for domestic consumption. With the breakthrough in farm technology, now a days, agriculture has become increasingly capital-intensive interims of augmentation of productivity both land and human labour. Exports of agricultural products enabled us to import machinery and food grains. Chickpea, pigeon pea, moongbean, uradbean, lentil, and field pea are important pulses crop contributing 41.20 per cent, 19.11 per cent, 09 per cent, 13 per cent, 7 per cent and 5 per cent to the total production of pulses in the country (2016-17). Looking the importance of pulses the pulse is internal part of cropping system of most of the farmers, since years, based on the results of the study suitable measures have also been suggested.

 

KEYWORDS: Growth rates, area, yield and production and productivity.

 

 


1. INTRODUCTION:

After our success on “household food security” the agricultural planners have been strived for “household nutritional security”. Pulses are the major source of protein for the vegetarians. Pulses constitute an important component in Indian agriculture since centuries. The role of pulses in Indian the agricultural situation in India has undergone a rapid change. Pulses constitute an important component in Indian agriculture since centuries.

 

The role of pulses in Indian the agricultural situation in India has undergone a rapid change. Indian agriculture, long been viewed as a subsistence occupation and a way of life on the part of the peasant is now rapidly getting commercialized. Indian farmer has come to produce for the market rather than for domestic consumption. With the breakthrough in farm technology, now a days, agriculture has become increasingly capital intensive interims of augmentation of productivity both land and human labour. Self sufficiency in the production of food grains and edible oils is not a small achievement if we consider the steady uptrend in growth of population. The important Chickpea growing states in India are M.P., U.P., Maharashtra, Rajasthan, A.P, Bihar, and Orissa. Madhya Pradesh ranks first in India with respect to chickpea’s area and production. It is also fact that, chickpea is an important pulse crop in Madhya Pradesh stands third amongst the food grains after rice and wheat. The share of Madhya Pradesh in area of chickpea as compared to the country is 43.2 per cent. In Madhya Pradesh the area under chickpea has remarkably increased from 1495 thousand hectare in 1968-69 to 2621 thousand hectares in 2015-16. Similarly production has also increased from 726 thousand tones to 2297 thousand tones during the same period. The average yield of chickpea in the state found to more than 877 kg per hectare.

 

2. METHODS AND MATERIALS:

A scientific research is a systematic method of discovering new facts or verifying old facts through sequences, interrelationship, and causal application and through the natural laws which cover them. A good idea is the key stone of an empirical study but the subject must be of importance. After having statement of the problem researcher outlines the research plan which describes the details what is to be done? What data will be needed? What will be the data gathering device? What mathematical or statistical test will be used for the data analysis? For this, in present study a design has been drawn for classification of research method adopted.

 

The present study is more concern with estimation of trend and growth in area, production and productivity of chickpea and economic analysis of these chickpea varieties desi and Kabuli in terms of productivity and profitability. On the basis of study this chapter involves various steps applied and the material and methods are described in the following sub heads:

1.     Study area

2.     Sampling procedure

3.     The data and method of data collection

4.     Concept used

 

2.1 Study area:

The present study is conducted in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh; hence, an attempt has been made to discuss the background information about the Dhar district. This is essential so that researchers can correlate the characteristics and finding of result with the prevailing conditions under study for further development. Following specific features of the Dhar district found as under:

 

2.1.1 Location:

The Dhar district lies between latitude 21O57” to 23O15’’North and longitude 74O37’’ to 75O37’’ East. Dhar is located towards west of Madhya Pradesh, lying wholly on the Narmada valley. The total geographical area of the district covers 8153 sq. km.

 

2.1.2 Climate and rainfall:

The district has moderate climate. The maximum temperature was recorded to be 31OC to 43OC in summer and minimum 6.00C in winter. The rainy season extends from June to mid September in the area. On an average, 886.20 mm rainfall in district is received during monsoon. Maximum rainfall is recorded in the month of July –August (at a glance District ground water information booklet 2016-17).

 

2.1.3 Soil and crops:

The main soil type developed in the area black cotton soils, loamy soils and lateritic soils. This soil is quite suitable for growing soybean, cotton, jowar, maize, arhar, moong, groundnut, wheat, gram and lentil etc. The major crops of the area are, soybean, groundnut, maize, jowar and arhar in kharif and wheat and gram in rabi season. Vegetable cultivation is also one of the important income generation activities in the district.

 

2.1.4: Map of Dhar District:

 

Chickpea cultivation in the area:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the largest produced food legume in rabi season among the cropping pattern of Dhar district. The Dhar district is one of the important chickpea producing area occupied 108 thousand hectare of land, producing 113 million tonne with the productivity of 1042 kg per hectare in the year of 2015-16. The yield level of chickpea at the farm of progressive farmers in the area found to more than general farm condition. It is observed that good quality genetically pure seed of high-yielding varieties is a critical input in crop production for obtaining high yields. Inadequate availability of seed of improved cultivars has been a major bottleneck in adoption of improved cultivars by the farmers. Some of the farmers are producing kabuli chickpea and reaping higher market price.

 

2.2 Sampling Procedure:

Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh has been selected purposively for the study as this district has sizable area under chickpea crop.  the size of the sample for the data collection. A multi stage random sampling technique was used for drawing a sample for the present study. Selection of block in the district, villages in selected block and respondents in selected villages are the samples of the study.

 

Selection of block:

Dhar district consist of 13 blocks, the name of blocks with area under chickpea is prescribed as i.e. Badnawar (36745 ha.), Dhar (27042 ha.), Sardarpur (18784 ha.), Nalchha (10193 ha.), Tirla (8669 ha.), Manawar (2073 ha.), Dharampuri (1057 ha.), Bagh (998 ha.), Gandhwani (945 ha.), Umarban (787 ha.), Nisarpur (732 ha.), Kukshi (330 ha.) and Dahi (316 ha.). At first stage, Badnawar block of Dhar district was selected purposively due to highest area under chickpea.

 

2.2.1 Selection of villages:

At second stage, a list of main chickpea producing villages was prepared with the help of Office of Rural Agriculture Extention Officer. Out of these villages, 5 villages were selected randomly. Name of villages are: Borali, ghadgara, pidgara, saktali and baloda.

 

2.2.2 Selection of chickpea growers:

At the third stage of selection, a list of randomly selected chickpea growers cultivating the desi and kabuli chickpea varieties of these selected villages was prepared separately. These chickpea growers were differently arranged in order of their size of holding.  From consolidated list the total chickpea growers was divided into three groups i.e. small (up to 2 ha.), medium (2.01 to 4 ha.) and large farmers (above 4 ha.). From each size group 20 chickpea growers (10 Desi and 10 Kabuli Chickpea) were selected randomly.  Thus, total 60 chickpea growers producing desi and kabuli chickpea was considered for detail investigation to fulfill the objectives of the study.

 

2.3 The data and method of data collection:

Nature of data:

For present study, both primary and secondary data were collected.

 

2.3.1 Primary data:

Primary data were collected from sample chickpea growers. The primary data were recorded regarding socio economic information of the chickpea growers, farm resource structure and resource use pattern in chickpea cultivation of different varieties of chickpea etc. The specific and detail information on cost incurred and returns obtained in the cultivation of chickpea were also collected from the sample respondents. The primary data pertains to agricultural year 2016-17.

 

2.3.2 Secondary data:

In order to get comprehensive picture of trend and growth in area, production and productivity of chickpea in Dhar district, time series secondary data for the period of 11 years (From 2005-2006 to 2015-16) were collected. The source of the data was secondary in nature and mainly collected from Agriculture Statistics of district Dhar.

2.3.3 The data collection:

The data of the study were primary in nature; hence, an interview schedule (Appendix 1) was prepared. This interview schedule had all the information about the sample farmers and cost of production with return of chickpea growers. The prepared interview schedule was pre-tested for its reliability. The primary data were collected from the individual sample respondents using this pre-tested interview schedule through survey method with personal contact.

 

Concept of desi and kabuli chickpea:

Desi chickpea:

Chickpeas with colored and thick seed coat are called desi type. The common seed colors include various shades and combinations of brown, yellow, green and black. The seeds are generally small and angular with a rough surface. The flowers are generally pink and the plants show various degrees of anthocyanin pigmen tation, although some desi types have white flowers and no anthocyanin pigmentation on the stem. The desi types account for 80-85% of chickpea area. The splits (dal) and flour (besan) are invariably made from desi type.

 

 

Desi chickpea

 

Kabuli chickpea:

The kabuli type chickpeas are characterized by white or beige-colored seed with ram’s head shape, thin seed coat, smooth seed surface, white flowers, and lack of anthocyanin pigmentation on the stem. As compared to desi types, the kabuli types have higher levels of sucrose and lower levels of fiber. The kabuli types generally have large sized seeds and receive higher market price than desi types. The price premium in kabuli types generally increases as the seed size increases.

 

 

Kabuli chickpea

 

 

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The present study entitled “Economic Analysis of Different Varieties of Chickpea in Dhar District of Madhya Pradesh” has been undertaken to evaluate the Desi Chickpea and Kabuli Chickpea production. The data collected for the present study was primary in nature. The data was analyzed and tabulated as per the objectives of the study and results are presented in this chapter under the following heads.

 

3.1.   Trends for area, total production and productivity of Chickpea in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh

Linear equation was used for estimation of trend & simple growth rates and details are given in Table 3.1

 

Table: 3.1.-Trend and SGR in area, total production and productivity of Chickpea in Dhar

Particular

Constant (a)

Reg. Coefficient (b)

SGR (%)

Area

(“000” Ha)

37.42

7.33***

9.01

Total Production

(“000” Qt)

206.66

124.97***

13.06

Productivity

(Qt/ha)

7.90

0.58***

5.13

*** shows 1 percent level of significance.

 

It revealed from the Table that the trend coefficient for area, total production and productivity of Chickpea were observed positive and highly significant at 1 percent level in Dhar district.

 

Thus it could be concluded that the area, total production and productivity of Chickpea in Dhar district shows increases during study period.

 

Thus it could be concluded that the area, total production and productivity of Dhar in district shows increases during study period

 

 

Fig.3.2: Linear trend in area of chickpea.

 

Figure: 3.3: Linear trend in production of chickpea.

 

 

Figure: 3.4: Linear trend in productivity of chickpea.

 

4. REFERENCES:

1.        Basu PS. 2011. Vision 2030 pulse production. Report Indian Institute of Pulse Research.

2.        Chouhan K. 2009. Impact of improved agriculture technology on production, employment and income in Rewa district of Madhya Pradesh. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, Submitted to College of Agriculture, Rewa, J.N.K.V.V. Jabalpur (M.P.).

3.        Bera BK and Nandi AK. 2011. Variability in Pulses Production of West Bengal. Economic Affairs. 56:197-202.

4.        Gupta SK. 2001. Economics of pulses production and identification of constraints in raising their production (a consolidated report of AERC studies). Ad hoc Study Agro. Economic Research Centre for Madhya Pradesh. 79:177.

5.        Islam QMS, Karim MR, Ali MO and Rahman MM. 2002. Adoption of HYV chickpea and the profitability of chickpea cultivation in the High Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Economic Affairs (Calcutta). 47(2):100-107.

6.        Joshi PK, Ashokan M and Bantilan MCS 1999. Silent Chickpea revolution in Non-traditional areas-some evidences from Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agriculture Economic. 54(4):533-544.

7.        Kaur Mahal Amrit, Sekhon MK and Kaur Manjit 2012. Pulses and Food Grains in Punjab: Growth and Instability. Journal of Research. 48:58-62.

8.        Kiran B, Bankar 2008. Constraints and strategies in pulse production. Agrobios News Letter. 7(7):25.

9.        Kumar, Sunit and Bourai VA. 2012. Constraints a case study of sample villages of Assan Valley Of Uttarakhand, India. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 1:41-53.

10.      Kangali Sarita 2012. A study on impact of frontline demonstration of chickpea in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh. M.Sc. (Agri) Thesis submitted to the Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior.

11.      Kumari M and Bairwa SL. 2016 Socioeconomic Assessment of pigeon pea Growers in selected districts of Bihar. The Annals of Agri Bio Research. 21 (1): 101-108.

12.      Mayda Susila 2011. An Economic Analysis and Marketing of Chickpea Production in Alirajpur District of Madhya Pradesh. M.Sc. (Ag) Thesis submitted to Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior.

13.      Narayan, Prem and Kumar, Sandeep 2014. Changing scenario of pulses in India-an analytical view. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika. 28:192-194.

14.      Patel Savan. 2015. Economic analysis of chickpea production under different technological status of farms in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh. M.Sc. (Ag) Thesis submitted to Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior.

15.      Patel S. 2009. An Economic Analysis of Growth Rate of Chickpea Production in Vindhyan Plateau of Madhya Pradesh.M.Sc. (Ag) Thesis Submitted to Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior.

16.      Patidar Vijay. 2012. An economic analysis of production constraints of major rabi crops in tribal area in Badnawar block of Dhar district in Madhya Pradesh. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis Submitted to the Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior.

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 21.01.2020         Modified on 10.02.2020

Accepted on 18.02.2020  ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2020; 12(1):. 14-18.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2020.00003.5