Proximate Composition Based Enset Diversity Study using Multivariate Analysis in Sheka Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

 

Neim Semman1, Weyessa Garedew2, Tewodros Mulualem1

1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Jimma Agricultural Research Center, Jimma, Ethiopia

2Jimma University, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma, Ethiopia

*Corresponding Author E-mail: tewodrosmulualem@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The study on enset diversity based on its kocho and bulla proximate contents was done in major enset producing areas of Sheka zone in three agro-ecologies of the districts (Yaki (lowland), Andiracha (mid-land) and Masha (highland) Southwest (SW) Ethiopia with the objective to evaluate diversity study of enset based on its nutritional composition. The result of the analysis revealed that there were variations among all concerned clones. Highest dry matters were recorded in bulla of all clones though their amounts varied from 51.64 to 58%. Also ash and crude fat content also ranged between 1.41 and 0.81% of ash and 0.22 and 0.04% in fat respectively in bulla. Of macro-nutrient metals, K and Ca were found to be highest with 0.3 to 0.57% K and 0.01 to 0.28% Ca. Others such as Mg, Fe and P were very few in percent but varied in amount between ranges of trace or 0.01 to 0.06%. In kocho, also dry matter varied from 41.25 to 49.70% and its crude fiber and ash content also ranged between 1.81 to 4.77% and 1.44 to 2.5% respectively. The K and ca compositions of kocho ranged between 0.31 to .93% and 0.05 to 0.965% respectively. Contents of other minerals oscillated between 0.01 to 0.09% for P, Mg and Fe. Moreover, PCA employed for ten bulla and kocho traits were expressed by the first four PC with total variation of 76.6% in which the first two PC explained 48% of variation. Cluster analysis was allowed grouping 14 enset clones in to three clusters. Divergence analysis result also indicated as maximum distances between these clusters with D2 value of ranging from 59.26 between cluster 2 and 3 and 261.77 between cluster 1 nad 3 indicating possibility of cross breeding between landraces of different clusters. So, future research should focus on clones’ collection, conservation and molecular characterization for further breeding works.  

 

KEYWORDS: Enset, Kocho and Bulla Composition, Multivariate analysis

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Ethiopia has long been known as center of origin and diversity for large number of crop plants of which Enset (Ensete ventricosum) is the one having great impacts on local agriculture and food habit. It is a perennial herbaceous monocurpic root crop under genus Ensete.

 

 

 

 

 

The genus ensete is the member of family musaceae and genus musa consisting edible banana and plantains. Within this genus about eight species are recognized but only one species i.e E. ventricosum is economically significant (Tesfaye and Ludders, 2003). The crop is versatile and environmentally supple and serves for 20 percent of Ethiopian population as staple and/or co-staple food (Zeberga et al., 2014). Edible part of enset is achieved from its pseudostem and corm. The major food product obtained from enset is kocho, bulla and corm. Kocho is the bulk of fermented starch obtained from mixture of decorticated leaf sheath and corm. Bulla is the sediment of insoluble starchy product separated from processed enset portion by squeezing and decanting the liquid (Ayalew, 2006).

 

Enset has multipurpose in livelihood of producing societies in Ethiopia. It contributes to indigenous ethno-mtedicinal values in traditional medicine like for strengthening women after delivery, healing bone fractures in human, and very highly fermented kocho also used for stomach cramps, as feed of cows to facilitate placental discharge and some varieties of enset also serve for birth control in human (Temesgen et al., 2014 cited by Hiwot, 2015). The processed enset (kocho, bulla, and corm) are rich in carbohydrate and good sources of minerals. Enset clones are categorized in to two main groups namely the kocho or pseudostem types and the corm types. Variations were observed in qualities (color, texture, aroma, etc.) of the final enset products, which are affected mainly by enset clones and processing skills. Farmers suggest that, enset clones that yield the whitest kocho and bulla color are considered to be the best quality while yield is very important trait for a family food.

 

The majority of enset varieties are produced mainly for processing to starch through fermentation, kocho or bulla while some other are produced entirely for their corm. Sheka zone is the home of this indigenous crop upon which almost all residents depend on for food, feed, cultural and prestige expression and as sources of income. On this indigenous crop the diversity study in producing regions were predominantly depend on morphological trait based. Moreover, the agro-ecologies of area is ideal for production of enset plant. Despite suitability of the study area for production and insitu conservation for this crop, the study conducted regarding this crop was poor. Additionally, today considering dramatic climate change and population increment of the world, crop improvement through breeding techniques is paramount. Previous studies related to enset were predominantly based on morphological trait based. Few efforts were exerted on nutritional constituent in other enset producing zones. However, detail nutritional based enset clones variations studies were not undertaken so far except little information on either general enset clones. Therefore, this study emphasized on diversity study of enset based on kocho and bulla biochemical composition of common enset to different agro-ecologies in major enset producing area of Sheka zone, southwest of Ethiopia.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Description of the study area:

The experiment was conducted in southwest part of Ethiopia in Sheka zone which found in South Nation Nationality People Regional State (SNNPRS). Sheka is the well known repository of enset locating 710 km southwest of capital city of Ethiopia. It is situated between latitude of 7024’and longitude 35°13’ to 35°35’E longitude at an altitude ranging from 900 to 2800 m above sea level (Belachew et al., 2016). The study was undertaken within three agro-ecologies; namely Masha highland (1800-2700 masl), Andiracha (midland to highland (1500-2500 masl) and Yaki lowland to mid-land (900-2000 masl) collecting sample data from two farmers’ association from each district; totally within six kebeles (Atesso, Wallo, Yekochichi, Modi, Irmichi and Kubito). Of these farmers’ association, Atesso and Wello were found in highland agro-ecology, Yekochichi and Modi were selected from mid-land agro-ecology where as Irimichi and Kubito were from lowland of the study area with the altitude of, and respectively.

 

Sampling and data collection:

Sample taken for laboratory were bulla and kocho from each clone separately.

 

Bulla is the water insoluble sediment of unfermented processed (pulverized) of pseudostem product.

 

Kocho is the fermented mixture of decorticated corm and pulverized pseudostem.

 

Fourteen enset clones common to the three districts i.e Yaki (low land), Andiracha (mid-land) and Masha (highland) that were mature enough for processing having equal ages and managements were identified. Farmers owing these clones were selected and requested to process for laboratory samples. Bulla of five enset clones were blended to the processed pseudostem during harvesting due to misunderstanding of processing workers to collect bulla separately. Due to that purpose, bulla from nine enset clones each was immediately collected separately. The processed kocho from these 14 enset clones were allowed to ferment. During processing supervision was done not to mix one kocho with the other. Bulla of each landraces also sampled during harvesting and fermented kocho were sampled four weeks later and taken to Agricultural Quality Research of Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute for fat and ash analysis, Holleta Agricultural research center for Ca, P, Mg, K, Fe and to Debre Zeyt Agricultural Research Center for crude fiber and moisture content.

 

Mineral content determination:

For analysis of minerals like Ca, P, K, Mg and Fe content, flat-bottomed flasks (100 mL) fitted with reflux condenser were used in Kjeldahl apparatus hot plate to digest the enset samples. Buck Scientific Model 210 VGP (USA) atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) equipped with deuterium arc lamp background corrector was used for the determination of the metals (Ca, Mg, Fe and K using air-acetylene (99.8%) flame (Ayalew et al., 2012). Samples were prepared for mineral analysis by the wet digestion method using concentrated sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Sample digestion for P determination was carried out using the same procedure as for Kjeldahl digestion, using a block digester. Phosphorus (P) was determined with continuous flow auto-analyzer as in case of Ajebu et al. (2008).

 

Moisture content, crude Fat, crude fiber and ash content determination:

To determine moisture content, from each samples of kocho and bulla 100g samples were taken and oven dried for 24hr at 1050C (Reeb and Milota 1999 and AOAC 2000). Dry matter and moisture content were analyzed in wet bases. Similarly, to determine fat content, 2g dried sample (Ws) of kocho and bulla extraction was made using n-hexane 99% and used 1450C for 55 minutes extraction time using soxhlate extraction by Foss AN 305 method.

 

The crude fiber content of bulla and kocho were also analyzed following procedure of AOAC, (2000). Two grams of samples were taken and digested by 1.25% of H2SO4 and 1.25% of NaOH. The residue was washed, filtered, dried and cooled in desiccators. After cooling the residues were mashed and fiber content was determined.

 

To determine ash content, the samples were first dried at 105oc for an hour and carbonized using Bunsen burner. Then the carbonized samples transferred to muffle furnace and ignited at about 550oc until ashing completed AOAC (2000).

 

Data analysis:

Collected data were subjected to different analysis to evaluate enset clones diversities across study areas. Kocho and bulla chemical composition summarized and the mean, minimum and maximum results were done using Microsoft excel 2007. Additionally, enset diversities of the study area, different multivariate analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and divergence analysis were performed using SAS ver.9, SPSS ver.20 and Statistical Tool for Agricultural Research (STAR) for more check up.

 

Similarly, PCA for proximate compositions of kocho from 14 enset clones and bulla from nine clones which were dominant and common to the study districts were carried out. The analysis was performed using SAS, SPSS and Statistical Tool for Agricultural Research (STAR) for more check up. Cluster analysis for 14 enset clones based on 10 proximate compositions was employed. Genetic divergences between two clusters were also analyzed using Mahalanobis (1936) generalized distance (D2) statistics using the following equation. Value of D2 was compared with chi-square chart to determine significance level of the result.

 

D2ij= (xi-xj) S-1(xi-xj) --------------------------- equation 9

 

Where

D2ij=distance between two clusters i and j. Xi and Xj are the two vectors mean the traits for ith and jth genotypes. S= is the inverse of pooled covariance

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Proximate composition of kocho and bulla:

The results of different biochemical compositions such as dry matter (DM), moisture content (MC), crude fat (CFt), crude fiber (CFr), Mg, K, Ca, Fe, P and ash were summarized as in table below.

 

Dry matter and moisture content of bulla and kocho:

The analysis of the result showed that the maximum dry matter (DM) and the minimum moisture content (MC) of bulla were 58.10% and 41.90% with the clones Kekaro and maximum moisture content and minimum dry matter was recorded from Shuri with 58.6% and 51.64% respectively however, the maximum DM (49.70%) and minimum MC 50.30% of kocho were recorded from Barasho and minimum dry matter 41.40% and maximum moisture 58% content of kocho were found from Shuri. As observed from the table the moisture content of bulla and kocho were the inverse of dry matter contents (Table 1). Based on the results for all clones the dry matter content of bulla was more than that of kocho detecting low water content than kocho (Table 1). The content values of these two parameters oscillated between these ranges in the other clones. Aklilu and Solomon (2016) conducted research on enset composition in relative to faba bean. Accordingly, moisture content of kocho in dry weight base was found to be 9.74±0.92/100g. Additionally, according to Ajebu (2008) the dry matter of sampled enset pseudostem of ten enset clones ranged from 46.6% to 52.9% detecting significant difference which might be due to clonal variation which has close agreement with present studies.

 

Similar result was reported by Melesse (2012) from his study conducted on two enset varieties (Kinnare and Astare) from which different physicochemical analysis were done. From the result the moisture content of enset seems very high and varies revealing that there were variations in composition among enset varieties and its large moisture content trait is the implication of drought resistant habit of enset. He suggested that, probably moisture compositional variation which might be the result of difference in varieties in moisture containing ability of the varieties.


 

Table 1. Summary of percentage proximate composition of Bulla and Kocho and its mean indicating variation of clones

Enset clone

%DM

%MC

%Ash

% CFr

%CFt

Bula

Kocho

bula

kocho

bula

kocho

bula

kocho

Bula

Kocho

Barasho

53.20

49.70

46.80

50.30

0.87

1.98

0.58

2.93

0.22

0.03

Mataqo

55.10

48.15

44.90

51.85

0.94

1.56

0.19

3.93

0.18

0.20

Shuri

51.64

41.40

48.36

58.60

1.31

1.44

0.11

4.77

0.13

0.20

Yeqo

56.50

42.00

43.50

58.00

1.41

2.06

0.11

3.21

0.16

0.15

Yebo

53.35

49.60

46.65

50.40

0.89

1.86

0.03

2.72

0.13

0.24

Chekaro

56.10

44.85

43.90

55.15

0.85

2.12

0.06

2.60

0.11

0.24

Nobo

57.40

44.85

42.60

57.40

1.01

1.96

0.23

3.60

0.14

0.20

Kekaro

58.10

48.36

41.90

51.64

0.81

1.48

0.38

1.81

0.04

0.22

Gudiro

54.50

48.10

45.50

51.90

0.92

1.65

0.42

3.23

0.10

0.13

Shisho

-

44.40

-

55.60

-

2.50

-

3.44

-

0.33

Shimmo

-

48.80

-

51.20

-

2.10

-

3.48

-

0.24

Baradi

-

47.25

-

52.75

-

1.80

-

3.49

-

0.29

Gemo

-

44.41

-

55.59

-

2.02

-

3.46

-

0.27

Arako

-

45.24

-

54.90

-

1.90

-

2.87

-

0.18

Max. (%)

58.10

49.70

48.36

58.6

1.41

2.50

0.58

4.77

0.22

0.33

Min. (%)

51.64

41.40

41.90

50.30

0.81

1.44

0.03

1.81

0.04

0.03

Mean±S.E

55.4±

0.98

46.2±

0.724

45±

0.98

53.95±

0.76

0.071

1.89±

0.02

0.27±

0.1

3.25±

0.92

0.14± 0.02

0.21± 0.014

NB: DM=dry matter, MC=moisture content, Ash=Ash content, Cft= crude fat, CFt = Iron, SE=standard error, min= minimum, max.= maximum

 


Ash, crude fiber and crude fat content of bulla and kocho:

Biochemical composition analysis summarized in (Table 1) indicated that there were variations in all contents. For example, in clones based, the highest ash, crude fiber and crude fat content of bulla were found from Yeqo (1.41%), Barasho (0.58%) and Barasho (0.22%) respectively whereas the lowest content values of ash (0.81%), crude fiber (0.03%) and crude fat (0.04%) were recorded from Kekaro, Yebo and Kekaro in that order. Similarly, the maximum values of kocho components such as ash, crude fiber and crude fat were recorded 2.50% from Shisho, 4.77% crude fiber from Shuri and 0.33% crude fat from Shisho. These revealed that there were variations among these clones as well as between kocho and bulla.

 

Besides, in relative comparisons of Bulla and Kocho contents, the values of all kocho contents were more than that of bulla (Table 1). For instance, the average value of bulla content of ash was 1±0.071% whereas for kocho was 1.89±0.02, fiber for bulla was 0.27±0.1% and for kocho was 3.25±0.92% and crude fat for bulla was 0.14±0.02% and for kocho was 0.21±0.014%.

 

Similarly, the content of kocho for investigated attributes revealed great variations. Accordingly, ash content ranges from 1.44 to 2.50%. Crude fiber and fat content were also varied from 1.81 to 4.77% for fiber and 0.03 to 0.33% for fat (Table 8). The result is in parity with the achievement of Aklilu and Solomon (2016), who cited Ash, fiber and fat content of kocho were recorded to be 1.92%, 2.15% and 0.39% respectively. The result also agreed with the statement of Minaleshewa and Chandravanshi (2008) who cited the value of 0.2–0.5 g fat, 2.3–6.2 g fiber and 1.7g of ash.

 

Proximate composition analysis of enset was also conducted by Solomon et al. (2008) indicated 0.53 to 6.7 of crude fat, 5.83 to 23.24 of crude fiber and ash of 3.07 to 5.64 in g/100gm. Biochemical content of enset (fermented (kocho) and unfermented) were assessed comparative to other crops for crude fat, fiber, ash, and 1.39% of crude fat, 3.83% crude fiber and 1.96% of ash, mineral like K (0.62%) and micron-elements were observed (Sirawdink et al., 2013).


 

Table 2. Summary of percentage proximate composition of Bulla and kocho and its mean indicating variation of clones

Enset clone

%P

%Fe

%K

%Mg

%Ca

Bula

Kocho

Bula

Kocho

Bula

kocho

Bula

Kocho

Bulla

Kocho

Barasho

0.04

0.079

0.01

0.02

0.22

0.70

0.02

0.07

0.03

0.133

Mataqo

0.04

0.073

0.01

0.02

0.18

0.54

0.02

0.01

0.17

0.079

Shuri

0.06

0.07

0.03

0.02

0.13

0.57

0.02

0.01

0.20

0.27

Yeqo

0.04

0.063

0.01

0.01

0.16

0.67

0.01

0.05

0.03

0.076

Yebo

0.05

0.092

0.01

0.01

0.13

0.46

0.023

0.02

0.01

0.125

Chekaro

0.05

0.052

0.02

0.01

0.11

0.37

0.02

0.01

0.08

0.052

Nobo

0.04

0.054

0.02

0.01

0.14

0.64

0.01

0.02

0.28

0.11

Kekaro

0.05

0.053

0.01

0.01

0.04

0.62

Trace

0.01

0.05

0.053

Gudiro

0.05

0.067

0.02

0.01

0.10

0.32

0.02

0.03

0.12

0.161

Shisho

-

0.09

-

0.02

-

0.61

-

0.02

-

0.104

Shimmo

-

0.09

-

0.01

-

0.73

-

0.02

-

0.12

Baradi

-

0.058

-

0.01

-

0.93

-

0.09

-

0.65

Gemo

-

0.058

-

0.01

-

0.56

-

0.02

-

0.97

Arako

-

0.043

-

0.02

-

0.31

-

0.02

-

0.14

Max. (%)

0.06

0.092

0.03

0.02

0.22

0.93

0.02

0.07

0.28

0.97

Min. (%)

0.04

0.043

0.01

0.01

0.04

0.31

Trace

0.01

0.01

0.052

Mean±S.E

0.048±

0.01

0.067±

0.0042

0.02±

0.01

0.013±

0.004

0.14±

0.02

0.57±

0.16

0.02±

0.01

0.03±

0.007

0.13±

0.01

0.22±

0.091

NB: P= phosphorus, Fe = Iron, Ca=calcium, Mg= magnesium,  SE=standard error, min= minimum, max.= maximum

 


Mineral content of bulla and kocho:

The analysis result of mineral compositions of bulla and kocho showed great variations among clones (Table 2). The values of bulla minerals compositions varied from 0.04 to 0.06 for P, 0.3 to 0.57% for K, 0.01 to 0.28% for Ca, trace to 0.023% for Mg and 0.007 to 0.031 for Fe for different clones whereas compositional values of kocho were 0.01-0.09%, 0.053-0.965%, 0.043-0.093%, 0.01-0.02% and % for Mg, Ca, P, Fe and K respectively. The result revealed that there were variations in their constituents among all clones tested. The results of this study agreed with the achievement of Sirawdink et al. (2013) who tested nutritional values of fermented and unfermented bulla and recorded 0.32% K, 0.075% Ca, 0.35% P and 0.02% Mg. There were clonal variations observed in macro and micro nutrient content and trace mineral content in different plant parts (Ajebu et al., 2008). Additionally, the starch yield and nutrient compositions vary among enset clones.

 

Besides, Fekadu (2009) and Tadessa and Masatoshi (2016) in their study proved the mineral elemental contents of bulla were 0.091g of Ca, 0.044 g of P, 0.0058 g of Fe and 0.02mg of thiamine; 30 mg P, 6.99 mg Fe, 58.7 mg Ca, 357 mg K and 11.9 mg of Mg per 100 g respectively. Additionally, Minaleshewa and Singh (2008), collected samples of bulla and kocho from Wolisso and Welkite and analyzed for nutritive levels of Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, K and other micro nutrients. Accordingly, they reported 422±4 µg/g of Na, 792±4 µg/g of K, 416 ±4 µg/g of Ca, 74±1 µg/g of Mg and 48.2±1.3 µg/g of Fe. Furthermore, Mohammed et al. (2013) tested enset physiochemical composition of each enset parts and summarized the K, P, Ca and Mg levels in pseudostem to be 3.07%, 0.12%, 0.4% and 0.15% respectively.

 

The percentage mean and its standard error of these minerals were 0.028±0.0065 for Mg, 0.22±0.07 of Ca, 0.065±0.004 of P, 0.013±0.0012 of Fe and 0.55±0.045 of K percent. The results detected that there were variations among clones tested. The result of the study showed that kocho has larger concentration of K>Ca>P with least concentration of Fe (Table 2). Irrigated and drought stressed enset variety were evaluated for elemental mineral composition; and recorded value were ranged from 0.30 to 0.88% of P, 0.52% to 0.96% of N, 3.62 to 5.15% of K, 1.25% to 3.4% of Ca and 0.68% to 1.05% of Mg in drought and irrigated enset (Solomon et al., 2008). Furthermore, Minaleshewa et al. (2008) conducted nutritional analysis and level of metal content in kocho and bulla. Thus, 3.567±16 of K, 0.541±7 of Ca, 0.235±10 of Mg and 0.114±5 of Fe in mg/100gm were reported. These results all detected variations among clones and showed possibility for cross breeding of these clones to improve nutrient contents of clones with other good traits clones. The results of present study analysis showed that considerable compositional variations in all tested traits detecting variability among all enset clones.

 

Moreover, Ayalew, (2006) conducted research to determine macro and micro mineral content of enset from two locations viz., Welkite and Wolliso. The result analysis for the two samples detected that Ca (0.036-0.0391), K (0.014-0.0322) and Mg (0.0249-0.026) of g/g and Fe (18.2-54.4μg/g) which had close relative to current research results. 

 

In both bulla and kocho, the maximum minerals recorded were K and Ca which was in parity with the result of Ayalew (2006); Solomon et al. (2008); Minaleshewa et al. (2008) portrayed on Kocho and Fikadu (2009), Tadessa and Masayoshi (2016) and Mohammed et al. (2013) on bullacomposition respectively. The concentration of Ca, K and P in enset may be related to kocho and bulla health benefit of enset and its ability in amending bone fracture which agreed with the view of farmers.

 

Farmers suggest and consider that bulla provide more than kocho in nutrition constituent related to health benefit and has a role in recovering body, amending bone and strengthening women who gave birth and person with broken bone. The comparative compositional results of kocho and bulla contrast the farmers’ suggestion in which mineral content of kocho showed more than bulla in all tested traits except DM and MC which were inverse result (Tables 1 and 2). These results agreed with the report of Minaleshewa and Singh (2008), Solomon et al. (2008) and Tadessa and Mesayoshi (2016). This calls for further investigation on these minerals and protein content of bulla and kocho.

 

Multivariate based data analysis:

Principal component analysis (PCA):

The results of principal components analysis for the tested traits revealed that there were great variations among clones where the first four PCA alone showed maximum cumulative variations of 76.60%. In this case, PC-1 alone contributed 26.50% for the total variation. For this amount of variability, dry matter and moisture content contributed more with loading value of 0.55 and -0.55 respectively.

 

Table 3. The summary of eigen value, variance explained (%) and cumulative (%) values of the first four principal components of bulla

No

Traits

PC-1

PC-2

PC-3

PC-4

1

DM

0.55

-0.22

 0.18

-0.14

2

MC

-0.55

-0.22

-0.18

 0.14

3

CFr

-0.27

0.33

0.016

-0.58

4

Ash

0.13

0.39

-0.39

 0.43

5

Mg

0.16

0.27

0.50

 0.37

6

Ca

-0.09

0.36

0.32

-0.08

7

P

0.35

0.29

-0.18

 0.15

8

Fe

0.21

0.02

-0.33

 0.15

9

K

0.11

0.44

0.40

 0.10

10

Ft

0.29

0.40

-0.35

 0.02

Eigen value

2.65

2.15

1.77

1.08

Variance (%)

26.5

21.5

17.7

10.80

Cumulative (%)

26.5

48.0

65.8

76.60

NB:  DM=dry matter, MC=moisture content, CFr=crude fiber, Mg= magnesium, P= phosphorus, Ca= calcium content, Ft= crude fat, Fe = Iron, K= potassium,

 

Similarly, PC-2 contributed 21.50% for total variability. In this PC the attributes contributed large load to the variability were K (0.044) and fat (0.40) content of the kocho (Table 3).

 

Similarly, PC-3, PC-4 and PC-5 each contributed 15.25%, 12.01% and 9% each for total variation respectively (Table 3).

 

 

Table 4: The summary of eigen vectors, eigen value, variance explained (%) and cumulative (%) values of the first four principal components of kocho proximate content.

No.

Traits

PC-1

PC-2

PC-3

PC-4

1

DM

0.55

-.22

-.18

0.14

2

MC

-.55

0.22

0.18

-.14

3

Ash

-0.28

0.33

-.02

0.58

4

P

0.13

0.38

0.39

-.43

5

K

0.15

0.27

-.50

-.37

6

Ca

-0.08

0.36

-.32

0.11

7

Mg

0.35

0.29

0.18

0.51

8

TFe

0.21

0.02

0.33

-.15

9

Ft

0.10

0.43

0.40

-.10

10

Fr

0.29

0.40

0.35

-02

Eigen value

2.65

2.15

1.77

1.08

Variance (%)

26.52

21.51

17.74

10.83

Cumulative (%)

26.52

48.03

65.77

76.60

NB:DM=dry matter, MC=moisture content, Mg= magnesium, P= phosphorus, K= potasiumCa= calcium content, Ft= crude fat, TFe = Total Iron, TFr=total fiber

 

In principal component-3, fat, Ca, Mg content contributed more to existed variability with 0.46, 0.39 and Mg 0.37 loading value respectively. Potassium and fiber content contributed maximum loading value of 0.53 and 0.49 loading values in PC-4. Similarly, in PC-5, Ash content (0.7) contributed more value to existed percentage variation (Table 3).

 

Similar analysis for kocho contents revealed great variability among the clones in which the system reduced ten traits in to the first four principal components contributing 76.60% for total variation (Table 4).  PC-1 contributed 26.52% to total variability in which DM and MC contributed maximum loading value of 0.55 and -0.55 respectively. PC-2 explained 21.51% of variation in which P, Ca, Ft and Fr factors contributed 0.38, 0.36, 0.43 and 0.4 loading values respectively.

 

Additionally, PC-3 and PC-4 explained 17.74% and 10.83% variations respectively. In PC-3, K and fat extracted maximum 0.5 and 0.4 loading value while in PC-4 ash (0.58) and P(-.43) extracted maximum loading value (Table 4). From the result it can be concluded that there were variability among clones in which each trait contributed for existed variability even though their loading value varied. This was because of large numbers of traits explained with few PC with large percentage variation.

 

Cluster analysis:

The results of cluster analysis on 14 enset clones based on 10 biochemical compositions of kocho were grouped under three clusters (Figure 1).  The results detected that largest number of clones were grouped under cluster-1(50%) which embraces 7 clones. Clones under this cluster were characterized by largest mean dry matter (48.57%) (Table 5).

 

Cluster two and three contain four and three numbers of clones (Table 5) with share of 28.57% and 24.43% respectively. The mean value content revealed that clones under this cluster contain large amount of fiber and ash content. 

 

Clones under cluster two contain high content of 0.26% fat, 3.9% crude fiber and 0.32% Ca but low in 0.46% K mineral content as compared to clones under cluster-1 and 3 which contain 0.18 % fat each and 0.61% and 0.63% of K.

 


 

Figure 1. Dendrogram of similarity for 14 enset clones

 

Table 5. Mean cluster summary of kocho proximate composition

Clones

Proximate composition (in %)

MC

DM

CFr

Ash

Mg

Ca

P

Fe

K

Ft

Barasho

Cluster-1

50.30

49.70

2.93

1.98

0.07

0.13

0.08

0.02

0.70

0.03

Yebo

50.40

49.60

2.72

1.86

0.02

0.13

0.09

0.01

0.46

0.24

Maxaqo

51.85

48.15

3.93

1.56

0.01

0.08

0.07

0.02

0.54

0.20

Gudiro

51.90

48.10

3.23

1.65

0.03

0.16

0.07

0.01

0.32

0.13

Shimmo

51.20

48.80

3.48

2.10

0.02

0.12

0.09

0.01

0.73

0.24

Baradi

52.75

47.25

3.49

1.80

0.09

0.65

0.06

0.01

0.93

0.21

Kekaro

51.64

48.36

1.81

1.48

0.01

0.05

0.05

0.01

0.62

0.22

Mean

51.43

48.57

3.08

1.78

0.04

0.19

0.07

0.01

0.61

0.18

Chikaro

 Cluster-2

55.15

44.85

2.6

2.12

0.01

0.05

0.06

0.01

0.37

0.24

Areko

54.76

45.24

2.87

1.90

0.02

0.14

0.04

0.02

0.31

0.18

Shisho

55.60

44.40

3.44

2.50

0.02

0.10

0.09

0.02

0.61

0.33

Gemo

55.59

44.41

3.46

2.02

0.02

0.97

0.07

0.01

0.56

0.27

Mean

55.28

44.73

3.9

2.14

0.02

0.32

0.07

0.02

0.46

0.26

Yeqo

Cluster-3

58.00

42

3.21

2.06

0.05

0.08

0.06

0.01

0.67

0.15

Nobo

57.40

42.60

3.6

1.96

0.02

0.11

0.05

0.01

0.64

0.20

Shuri

58.60

41.40

4.77

1.44

0.01

0.27

0.0 7

0.01

0.57

0.20

Mean

58.00

42.00

3.86

1.82

0.03

0.15

0.06

0.01

0.63

0.18

 


Divergence analysis:

Based on relative similarity in biochemical compositions of kocho, Mahalanobis distance calculated were clustered clones under different clusters (Table 6). The result showed that highly significantly diverged clones grouped under different clusters.

 

The maximum distance were observed between cluster-1and 3 and cluster-1 and 2 with D2 value of 261.77 and 192.3 respectively (Table 6). This imply crossing between genotypes belonging to such distant clusters expected due to it execute heterosis.

 

 

 

 

Table 6. Distance analysis between clusters using proximate composition of kocho

Clusters

Cluster-1

Cluster-2

Cluster-3

Cluster-1

-

 

 

Cluster-2

192.3***

-

 

Cluster-3

261.77***

59.26***

-

 

 

 

Similarly, moderate distance was obtained between cluster-2 and 3 with D2 value 59.26. The finding were in parity with Yemane and Fasil (2006) who portrayed crossing of genotypes belonging to distant clusters were expected due to its maximum heterosis in crossing and to be used in hybridization program for gaining a wide range of variation among the segregations.

 

CONCLUSION:

Generally, from the results of the study, mean comparison of percentage proximate composition of kocho and bulla revealed that there were variations among all concerned clones. Additionally, comparative result of proximate composition of the two products viz., kocho and bulla detected that kocho had more constituent than bulla except in dry matter where highest dry matters were recorded in bulla of all clones because of bulla is free of fiber and excess water. But, for other traits such as ash, crude fiber, crude fat, Ca and K kocho contents were more than bulla contents may be due to kocho is the blende result of corm and pseudo-stem products. Besides, based on these attributes, cluster analysis grouped into three classes revealing variations of clones within the same cluster having related traits and clones under different clusters having genetic variation, PCA explained 76% variation from the first four PC and divergence analysis value ranged from 59.26 to 261.77 between clusters in which result witnessed that there were variations among evaluated enset clones indicating possibility of cross breeding between landraces of different clusters. So, future research should focus on clones’ collection, conservation and molecular characterization for further breeding works.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

We the authors like to put great appreciation on both institutes i.e Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Jimma Agricultural Research Center and Jimma University for their collaboration on fund raising for the success of the work. Additionally, Sheka zone agriculture office, experts, DAs’ as well as farmers are highly acknowledged for their collaboration during study work. Additionally, the authors kindly like to thank Agricultural Quality Research of Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute, Holleta Agricultural research and Debre Zeyt Agricultural Research Center for their support on laboratory work during this experiment.

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Ajebu N, Adugna T, Eik O, Sundotol F (2008). Yield and mineral content of ten enset (Ensete Ventricosum) varieties. Tropical Animal Health Production, 40:299–30

2.      Aklilu D, Solomon A (2016). Fermentation conditions and blending ratios on nutritional composition of kocho-fababean blended product. Food Science and Quality Managenet, 48:2224-6088

3.      Ayalew D (2006). Studies of Enset (E. ventricosum) for major, minor and trace elements. Journal of Food Composition and analysis 21(7):545-552

4.      Ayalew D, Chandravanshi BS, Taddese W (2012). Metallic Nutrients in Enset (Ensete Ventricosum) Corm Cultivated in Wolliso and Wolkite towns in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Science. 35(2):71–80

5.      Belachew G, Aklilu A, Bewketu H, Habtamu K (2016). Indigenous knowledge of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) cultivation and management practice by Sheka people, southwest Ethiopia. Journal of plant Science, 5(1): 6-18.

6.     

 

 
Fekadu D (2009). Characterizing farming practices from three regions of Ethiopia on which enset (Ensete Ventricosum) is widely profited as a multipurpose crop Plant. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 21(12), Ethiopia.

7.      Mahalanobis, P.C. (1936) On the Generalised Distance in Statistics. Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India, 2, 49-55.

8.      Melesse T (2012). Improving the indigenous processing of kocho, an Ethiopian traditional fermented Food. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences

9.      Minaleshewa A, Chandravanshi SB (2008). Levels of major, minor and trace elements in commercially available enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.), Cheesman) food products (Kocho and Bulla) in Ethiopia. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 21:545-552.

10.   Mohammed B, Martin G, Laila M (2013). Nutritive values of the drought tolerant food and fodder crop enset. African Journal of Agriculture Research, 8(20).

11.   OAC (2000). Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. Maryland, USA.

12.   Reeb J, Milota M (1999). Moisture content by oven-dry method for industrial testing. Oregon State University Corvallis, OR

13.   Sirawdink F, Rupasinghe V, Tess A (2013). Anti-oxidant capacity, Total phenolics and nutritional content in selected Ethiopian staple food grad inients. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition

14.   Solomon Z, Olsson M, Masresha F (2008). Effect of drought /irrigation on Proximate Composition and Carbohydrate content of Two enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Clones. Ethiopian Journal of Science., 31(2):81-88,

15.   Tadessa D, Masayoshi S (2016). Enset (Ensete ventricosum) production in Ethiopia: Its Nutritional and Socio-cultural values. Agriculture and Food Sciences Research. 3(2):66-74.

16.   Tadessa D, Masayoshi S (2016). Enset (Ensete ventricosum) production in Ethiopia: Its Nutritional and Socio-cultural values. Agriculture and Food Sciences Research. 3(2):66-74.

17.   Temesgen O, Bizuayehu T, Catellani M, Enrico M (2014). Indigenous knowledge, use and on-farm management of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 10(41). 

18.   Tesfaye B and Ludders P, 2003. Diversity and Distribution pattern of enset landraces in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Article in Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 50(4):359-371.

19.   Yemane T, Fasil K (2006). Diversity and Cultural Use of Enset (Ensete Ventricosum (Welw,) Cheesman) In Bonga in Situ Conservation Site, Ethiopia. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 4:147-157.

20.   Zeberga A, Yemataw Z, Sinebo W, Musemil S and Ambechew D (2014). On farm cultivar diversity of enset (Ensete ventricosum W.) in Southern Ethiopia. JAD 4(1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 15.05.2019         Modified on 10.06.2019

Accepted on 30.06.2019       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2019; 11(3):167-174.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2019.00028.1