Pharmacognostical Studies on Sweta Musli (Market Samples)

 

Vinita1*, H. S. Mishra2, R. K. Tiwari3, R. B. Yadav4, K. N. Yadav5

1M.D. Scholar, P.G. Department of Dravyaguna, Lalit Hari State P.G. Ayurveda College and Hospital, Pilibhit (U.P.)

2Lecturer, P.G. Department of Dravyaguna, Lalit Hari State P.G. Ayurveda College and Hospital, Pilibhit (U.P.)

3Research officer (Pharmacognosy), Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Eye Diseases, CCRAS, Lucknow (U.P.)

4Reader, P.G. Department of Dravyaguna, Lalit Hari State P.G. Ayurveda College and Hospital, Pilibhit (U.P.)

5Professor, P.G. Department of Dravyaguna, Lalit Hari State P.G. Ayurveda College and Hospital, Pilibhit (U.P.)

*Corresponding Author E-mail: drvinitatiwari@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Sweta Musli, a classical herb is being used for therapeutic application in Ayurveda, Unani and Modern Medicine in general debility, as rejuvenator and aphrodisiac. It has been used in many life style disorders due to its antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, anti-stress, analgesic, anti-diabetic, and hypo-lipidemic activity. Presently increasing demand of Sweta Musli in global market has created a huge gap between demand and supply of the drug. Local suppliers and markets have been the basic source for procurement of raw drug which are not trust worthy for genuine drug. The Chlorophytum sp. and Asparagus adscendens are being frequently sold in crude drug market by the name of Sweta Musli. The present study aims to workout botanical sources of the drug in Crude drug markets and evaluate quality standards of market samples of Sweta Musli with respect to the parameters of crude drug mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. Study reveals that among the market samples procured from different regions, tubers of two different plants viz. Chlorophytum sp. and Asparagus adscendens were found to be sold in the market in the name of Sweta Musli.

 

KEYWORDS: Sweta Musli, Chlorophytum sp., Asparagus adscendens, Pharmacognostical study.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Sweta Musli is a focus drug in Ayurveda and reputed as a general tonic and aphrodisiac. It has been used in therapeutics as a single drug as well as in compound formulations. Due to its antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, anti stress, analgesic, anti diabetic, hypo-lipidemic activity, and drug has been used in many life style disorders. Gradually increasing demand of Sweta Musli in global market has created a huge gap between demand and supply of the drug. Local drug markets are flooded with various species of Chlorophytum as well as Asparagus in the name of Sweta Musli.

 

For monetary gains, brokers and middlemen substituted the genuine drug and adulterate it with morphologically similar tubers. Thus, many varieties of Sweta musli are available in the market.

 

Current status of availability of Sweta musli:

Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker. is the authentic source plant for Sweta Musli in Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI)[1-2]. Asparagus adscendens Roxb. has been mentioned as the source plant of Sweta Musli in many Ayurvedic literatures. Chlorophytum borivillianum Saint and Fern. has been cultivated on large scale in many parts of the county and used as Sweta Musli[2]. But in present time, many pharmaceutical companies are frequently using other species of Chlorophytum and Asparagus instead of genuine drug. Therefore, an urgent need was felt to work out botanical specifications of crude drug being sold in different regions of Country in the name of Sweta Musli.

 

AIM AND OBJECTIVES:

Present study aims the pharmacognostical evaluation of market samples of Sweta Musli and its comparative study with genuine drug sample in order to determine its substitutes and adulterants.

 

The objectives of the study are - market survey and collection of the drug, procurement of the genuine drug from reliable source, and pharmacognostical studies and comparative analysis of market drug samples and genuine drug sample.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Collection of plant material:

Market samples of Sweta Musli were collected from five different places. Samples were manually cleaned for any foreign matter and earthen impurities, shade dried and packed in dark coloured polybags. Samples were labeled as sample-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Quality evaluation of these samples was carried out with the help of Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Eye Diseases, CCRAS, Lucknow (U.P.) and National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), CSIR, Lucknow (U.P.). The standard operating procedures were strictly followed in the process of quality standardization and parameters of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) were taken as reference for the quality evaluation of the samples [3-5].

 

RESULTS:

Macroscopic study:

The detailed morphological study revealed that sample 1 and 2 appearance look like same. The sample 3, 4 and 5 structurally appearance looks like same (Table-1).

 

Microscopical Studies of sample 1 and 2:

The T.S. of preserved peeled sample devoid of epiblema shows layer of cortex consists of many layers of thin walled rounded to polygonal parenchymatous and have little or no intercellular spaces (Probably due to swelling). The inner most layer of cortex is a single layer endodermis pericycle layer followed by a uniseriate of thin walled cells. The vascular tissue is not elaborate. The Xylem is exarch and consists of jointed vessels, 3-5 in number in each group. However, Xylem fibres are quite abundant, surrounding the vessels and jointed to form a more or less continuous irregular ring, xylery fibres are not uniform at all places. The phloem is grouped in between the arches of the xylery tissue along with parenchyma. The central region is occupied by a fairly large pith region, where the cells are closely packed as in cortical region and mostly of polygonal in shape.

 

Microscopical Studies of sample 3, 4 and 5:

The T.S. of root clearly showed the outermost layer of epidermal cells, compactly arranged, thick walled cells forming the piliferous layer. Below the epidermis two types of cortex were present i.e. outer lignified cortex and inner parenchymatous cortex. Sclerenchymatous fibres were found scattered in the cortex while some of them on maceration appeared as scattered fibres. A well-developed sheath of stone cells surrounding the endodermis was present at all levels of root. The innermost 1 or 2 layers of cortex immediately outside endodermis comprises of thick walled cells, with numerous circular or oval pits on their walls. The endodermis beneath the sheath shows thickened radial and inner tangential walls. Inner to endodermis, a single layer of thin-walled, parenchymatous cells constituting the pericycle was present in form of a ring, which surrounds the central stele. Phloem and xylem groups, many in number, were arranged on alternate radii and form a ring. In some root samples, especially from plants growing in shaded places, the cortical sclerenchymatous fibres were confined either to the peripheral region only or were absent. Tracheids with usual thin pointed tapering ends and wide pith comprising of completely or partially lignified rounded cells were present [6-7].

 

Microscopic studies of powder:

The root powder of sample 1 and 2 were buff coloured having mucilaginous and showed large cortical cells, group of fibres and associated with the pitted vessels with reticulate thickening and presence of stone cells with simple pits on their walls.

 

The root powder of sample 3, 4 and 5 were pale yellow in colour to yellowish brown and showed mostly cortical parenchyma consisting of thin walled polyhedral cells with or without intra cellular spaces. Large vessels were showing all kinds of thickenings like scalariform, annular and pitted. Fragments of linear pitted tracheids were also found occasionally. Acicular raphide crystals were seen in large number while starch grains were also found throughout the powder [8-9].


 

Fig.1: Market sample of Sweta Musli

 

Fig. 2: Microscopic view of T.S. of tuber of sample-1

 

 

Fig. 3: Microscopic view of T.S. of tuber of sample-2

 

Fig. 4: Microscopic view of T.S. of tuber of sample-3

 

Fig. 5: Microscopic view of T.S. of tuber of sample-4

 

Fig. 6: Microscopic view of T.S. of tuber of sample-5

 

Table: 1 (Macroscopic Studies)

Parameters

Sample 1

Sample2

Sample3

Sample4

Sample5

Shape

Tuberous and cylindrical with tapering ends

Tuberous and cylindrical with tapering ends

Cylindrical with slightly tapering ends

Cylindrical with slightly tapering ends

Tuberous and cylindrical with tapering ends

Size

4-10 cm in length and 4-8 mm in diameter

4-12 cm in length and 4-8 mm in diameter

10 – 15 cm long, 4-10 mm diameter

4-10 cm in length and 4-8 mm in diameter

4-10 cm in length and 4-8 mm in diameter

Colour

Dull white

CreamishWhite

Pale yellow

Dull white

Dull white

Fracture

Short, fractured surface more or less uneven

Short, fractured surface more or less uneven

Breaks with uneven fibrous

Uneven fibrous fracture

Uneven fibrous fracture

Surface

Smooth and irregular longitudinal furrows developed when root was peeled and dried

Smooth and irregular longitudinal furrows developed when root was peeled and dried

Smooth and irregular longitudinal furrows developed when root was peeled and dried

Smooth and irregular longitudinal furrows developed when root was peeled and dried

Smooth and irregular longitudinal furrows developed when root was peeled and dried

Odour

Not characteristic

Not characteristic

Pleasant

Pleasant

Not characteristic

Taste

Slightly mucilaginous and sweetish

Slightly mucilaginous and sweetish

Sweetish

Sweetish

Tasteless

 

 

Table: 2 Organoleptic characters of powder of samples

Parameters

Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 3

Sample 4

Sample 5

Texture

Smooth

Smooth

Smooth

Smooth

Smooth

Colour

Buff colour

Creamish White

Yellowish brown

Creamish Light brown

Creamish Light brown

Odour

Characteristic

Characteristic

Pleasant

Pleasant

Pleasant

Taste

Mucilaginous Taste

Mucilaginous Taste

Sweet

Sweet

Sweet

Touch

Smooth

Smooth

Smooth

Smooth

Smooth

 

Table: 3 Physicochemical Studies

Parameters

Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 3

Sample 4

Sample 5

Foreign matter

0.5%

1%

1%

1.5%

1%

Moisture content

3.67%

3.94%

5.75%

4.45%

4.56%

Total Ash

3.70%

2.86%

2.00%

3.25%

3.43%

Acid-insoluble Ash

1.20%

0.90%

0.25%

0.80 %

1.02%

Sulphated Ash

4.35%

3.66%

3.50%

3.96%

3.95%

Alcohol soluble Extractive

5.60 %

10.30%

14.56%

5.90%

13.90%

Water soluble extractive

51.40%

39.10%

61.25%

49.80%

37.30%

 


Phyto-chemical Screening:

The alcoholic extracts of all the samples were tested for different phytoconstituents like carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, protein, mucilages and volatile oils (Table 4) [10-11].

 

Table: 4 Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis

Parameters

Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 3

Sample 4

Sample 5

Alkaloids

+

+

-

_

_

Steroids

+

+

+

+

+

Flavonoids

+

+

+

+

+

Glycosides

+

+

+

+

+

Protein

+

+

+

+

+

Reducing Sugar

+

+

+

+

+

Saponins

+

+

+

+

+

Tannin

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

Thin Layer Chromatography: (Fig-7 and Table-4)

TLC of all five market sample were done under UV 254 nm and 366nm by using stationary phase with Aluminium sheet silica gel 60 F 254 plates and mobile phase Chloroform –Acetic acid-Methanol-Water (5: 3.5: 1.5: 1). The sample no. 1 showed 8 and 7 spots; sample no. 2, 7 and 8 spots; sample no. 3, 6 and 8 spots; sample no. 4,  4 and 7 spots and sample no. 5 showed 6 and 8 spots under UV 254 nm and 366 nm, respectively.

 

The sample no.1 and 2 showed 7 spots with same Rf value (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35, 0.55 and 0.80) visualized under UV 254nm and 7 spots with same Rf value (0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, and 0.80) visualized under UV 366 nm. The sample no.3, 4, and 5 showed 4 spot with Rf value (0.15, 0.20, 0.45 and  0.75) under UV 254 nm and 7 spots with same Rf value (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.35, 0.50 and 0.75) visualized under UV 366 nm [6 -7].


 

Fig.7: Comparative alcoholic extract Thin Layer Chromatography of 5 Sweta musli samples under UV254 and UV366 nm

 

 

Table 4: Comparative study of TLC findings

Sample No.

Rf value Spots visualized under UV 254nm

Rf value Spots visualized under UV 366nm

1

0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.35, 0.55and 0.80 (8 spots)

0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, and 0.80 (7 spots)

2

0.05,  0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35, 0.55and 0.80  (7 spots)

0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.60,  and  0.80 (8 spots)

3

0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.45, 0.55 and 0.75 (6 spots)

0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.35, 0.50 and  0.75 (8 spots)

4

0.15, 0.20, 0.45 and  0.75 (4 spots)

0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.35, 0.50 and 0.75 (7 spots)

5

0.05, 0.15, 0.20, 0.35, 0.55 and 0.75 (6 spots)

0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.35, 0.50and 0.75 (8 spots)

 


DISCUSSION:

After evaluation of these five samples, two samples viz. Sample 1 and 2 were botanically identified as C. borivillianum and rest three samples (Sample 3, 4 and 5) as A. adscendens. The macroscopically examination of the tuberous roots revealed vertical direction of the growth (positively geographic). The drug is having fasciculate tuberous roots. Microscopical examinations of C. borivilianum root tubers revealed the presence of thickened epiblema and swollen walls due to siliceous deposition in some samples. This structure is absent in peeled drug. The outermost layer of the cortex is epiblema layer which is rectangular followed by rounded to polygonal, parenchymatous cortical cells with little or no intercellular spaces probable due to swelling. The innermost layer of cortex is a single layer endodermis followed by a layer of pericycle in all samples. Vascular bundles are radically arranged and xylem are exarches in nature and presence of more than seven numbers of radial vascular bundles in sample 1 and 2 and more than twelve numbers of radial vascular bundles in sample 3, 4 and 5. Distinct pith varies sample to sample. Simple and compound starch grains are present. Acicular raphide and prismatic crystals are present in all the samples which is very rich in sample 3. The processed sample drugs showed total ash from 2.00 to 3.70 %, acid insoluble ash 0.25 to 1.20 %, sulphated ash 3.50 to 4.35 %, alcohol soluble extractive 5.60 to 14.56% and water soluble extractive from 37.30 to 61.25 %. The qualitative chemicals test revealed the presence of alkaloid in sample 1, 2 and 5; steroids in sample 3 and 4; saponin, flavonoids, reducing sugar, protein and glycosides in all the samples.

 

CONCLUSION:

The present study revealed that out of five samples of Sweta Musli, sample no.1, sample no.2, sample no.3, sample no.4 and sample no.5 are free from adulterants. Pharmacognostical study of crude drug samples procured from market by the name of Sweta Musli revealed that Sample 1 and 2 (macroscopically and microscopically) belonged to Chlorophytum borivillianum Saint and Fern; Sample 3, 4 and 5 (macroscopic and microscopic structure) belonged to Asparagus adscendens Buch. Ham. ex Roxb. TLC profile produced Rf value of spots in all the sample visualized under UV 254 and 366 nm respectively which serves to compare the drug. These parameters could be further useful for authentication of drugs used in preparation of Ayurvedic formulations.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT:

Authors are thankful to DG, CCRAS, New Delhi and in charge of Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Eye Diseases (CCRAS), Lucknow (U.P.) to provide facility to complete the work. Also thankful to P.G. Department of Dravyaguna, Lalit Hari State P.G. Ayurveda College and Hospital, Pilibhit (U.P.), for facilitation of the study.

 

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11.      Vinita, Morya G.C.K., Mishra, H.S., Shakya S., Yadav, R.B.  and Yadav, K.N. Study on market trends and botanical source of Sweta Musli in North India. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2018;7(1):1011-1016.

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 02.03.2019         Modified on 24.03.2019

Accepted on 03.04.2019       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2019; 11(2):65-69.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2019.00012.8