A Glimpse on Herbal Anti-ulcer Agents

 

Mohana Rupa Alapaka, Sreeja Arava, Yamini Popuri, Lavanya Thummala, Madhusha Manda, Vamsi Krishna Reddy Penubolu, Afsar Shaik*

Department of Pharmacology, Narayana Pharmacy College, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore- 524002,

Andhra Pradesh, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: afsarsk4cology@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Peptic Ulcer is a one of the most effective, and commonly occurring gastrointestinal disorder among the world wide population. It is an erosion of the stomach lining which may leads to severe acidity and later on ulcer if not treated most common to cause cancer. There are a lot of medications available in the market to treat this complication but the exact cure is not available till date. Hence the aim of the present review was focused on natural sources such as herbal plants in continuation for the search the promising treatment of ulcers. In this review various medicinally proved herbal plants were listed out which may help the young researches to work on their future prospective to build a healthy nation.

 

KEYWORDS: Ulcer; erosion; stomach lining; herbal plants.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Gastric ulcers are the most wide state disease and are very common global problem today [Oliveira F et al., 2014]. Peptic ulcer is a lesion of the gastric and duodenal mucosa occurs at a site, where mucosal epithelial is exposed to acid and pepsin [Pradip Kumar Maury et al., 2012]. It occurs mainly due to an imbalance between the “aggressive” and “protective” factors at the luminal surface of the epithelial cells. The former include Helicobacter pylori, hydrochloric acid, pepsin, Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs [NASIDS], bile acids, ischemia, hypoxia, smoking and alcohol. While the later includes bicarbonates, mucus layer, mucosal blood flow, prostaglandins and growth factor [Borrelli F etal., 2000].

 

 

 

 

The presently available allopathic treatment for the peptic- ulcer are antacids (Aluminium Hydroxide and Magnesium Trisilicate), Cytoprotective Agents (Sucralfate and the prostaglandin analogue Misoprostol), Muscuranic Antagonists (Pirenzepine), Antimicrobial agents for eradication of H. pylori (Amoxicilin and Clarithromycin), H2 receptor antagonists (Cimitidine and Ranitidine) and proto pump inhibitors (omeprazole and lansoprazole) [4]. More over by using these drugs the complications are associated with the prolonged use of H2 receptors blockers and proton pump inhibitors: hypersensitivity, arrhythimia, impotence, gynecomastia, hypomagnesemia may decreases the morbidity rate and in some cases the relapse of disease also may occurs [Rao SP et al., 2015].

 

To overcome from these effects, the natural herbal medicine is used with low or no oxic properties than the existing drugs [Rao SP et al., 2014].

 

Hence the present review is prepared to compare and sum up few herbal anti ulcer agents which are promised to have anti ulcer effects.

 

Pathophysiology:

Peptic ulcer is one of the world’s major gastro-intestinal disorders and affecting 10% of the world population. The patho-physiology of peptic ulcer is assigns due to the imbalance between aggressive factors like acid, pepsin, and Helicobacter infection, and the local mucosa defenses like bicarbonate secretion, mucus and prostaglandins. Helicobacter pylori infection, use of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs-NSAIDs, emotional stress, alcohol abuse, and smoking are the principal etiological factors associated with peptic ulcer. In Helicobacter pylori infections a gram negative bacterium colonizes the human stomach, and is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma. Tissue damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa (or hemorrhagic injury) is produced by exogenous compounds. NSAIDs damage the stomach by suppressing synthesis of gastric prostaglandins. Gastric acid amplifies NSAID effects by deepening superficial lesions, interfering with platelet aggregation, and impairing the ulcer healing process. The suppression of stomach acid secretions is a key therapeutic target for ulcers, and includes the use of antacids, specific muscarinic M1 receptor antagonists, targeting gastrin receptors and histamine H2 receptors, and the use of proton pump inhibitors. The free radicals, or Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are normally neutralized by the action of the antioxidant system consisting of organic substances containing thiol groups, vitamins C and E, NADPH, antioxidant enzymes such as peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and others When there is an imbalance between ROS and the antioxidant defense mechanisms, ROS lead to oxidative modifications in the cellular membrane and intracellular molecules resulting in peroxidation of membrane lipids, accumulation of lipid peroxides, and cellular damage. Mucosal defensives are nitric oxide-NO1, mucus, bicarbonate, gastrin and prostaglandins, as well mucosal blood flow [Venkateswararao C et al., 2013].

 

Classification of peptic ulcer:

I. Ulcer by Region/Location

a)       Duodenum (called duodenal ulcer)

b)       Oesophagus (called esophageal ulcer)

c)       Stomach (called gastric ulcer)

 

II. Modified Johnson Classification of peptic ulcers:

a)       Type I: Ulcer along the body of the stomach, most often along the lesser curve at incisura angularis along the locus minoris resistentiae.

b)       Type II: Ulcer in the body in combination with duodenal ulcers, associated with acid over secretion.

c)       Type III: In the pyloric channel within 3 cm of pylorus, associated with acid over secretion.

d)       Type IV: Proximal gastro esophageal ulcer. [Venkateswararao C et al., 2013]

e)       Type V: Can occur throughout the stomach, associated with chronic NSAID use (such as aspirin).

 

Synthetic drugs used for the treatment of ulcer:

Treatment for peptic ulcers depends on the cause. Usually treatment will involve killing the H. pylori bacterium, if present, eliminating or reducing use of NSAIDs, if possible, and helping your ulcer to heal with medication.

 

Medications can include:

·         Antibiotic medications to kill H. pylori such as amoxicillin (Amoxil), clarithromycin (Biaxin), metronidazole (Flagyl), tinidazole (Tindamax), tetracycline (Tetracycline HCL) and levofloxacin (Levaquin).

·         Medications that block acid production and promote healing. Proton pump inhibitors — also called PPIs such asomeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (Aciphex), esomeprazole (Nexium) and pantoprazole (Protonix).

·         H2 antagonists like cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and nizatidine.

·         Ulcer protectives like sucralfate, colloidal bismuth subcitrate.

·         Ulcer healing drurs like carbenoxolone sodium[Sabira Sultana et al., 2014].

 

Adverse effects of synthetic drugs used for the treatment of Peptic ulcer

Proton pump inhibitor (Omeprazole) inhibits the oxidative metabolism of some drugs by the hepatic microsomal enzyme system. Experimental studies in normal human subjects have demonstrated that omeprazole significantly increases plasma diazepam concentration and significantly decreases total body clearance. Over doses of omeprazole can produce histologic abnormalities in the gastric mucosa. prolonged usage of omeprazole causes mucosal endocrine cell hyperplasia Several side effects have been noted for the currently available H2-receptor antagonists. A number of dose-dependent neuropsychiatric effects have been reported with the use of cimetidine such as agitation, confusion, lethargy, and mental depression. These effects have been most frequently noted in elderly patients and In those with hepatic or renal dysfunction.. Increased is penetration of cimetidine into the cerebrospinal fluid has been reported for patients with hepatic disease. significant neuropsychiatric effects reported for ranitidine also rapidly reverse with appropriate dose reduction. The major side effect associated with pirenzepine therapy is dry mouth and blurred vision. The major side effect of treatment with prostaglandin is diarrhea, uterine bleeding and the spontaneous abortions. The reported side effects concern with sucralfate include constipation, dizziness, dry mouth, skin rash, headache, diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal discomfort[Sabira Sultana et al., 2014].

 

Herbal prospective:

Herbs have been used for centuries around the world. They may be the oldest evidence-based medicine. These remidies have been recorded to cure many types of diseases as a critical therapeutic method in many cultures like native American, European, Egyptian, Indian, Hebrew and Chinese.

 

The herbal remedies work on the principal that the body tends to heal itself if given in the right way and these herbal remedies does not interfere with body’s natural healing process. Herbs show minimum side effects and consider to be safe besides being cheap and locally available. According to the WHO, the use of herbal remedies throughout the world exceeds that of the conventional drugs. This is largely because they feel it is a natural way to get better and more importantly, nature is a better healer.


 

Table 1: List of Medicinal plants claimed to treat peptic ulcer.

S.

No

Biological  name

Common name

Family

Parts used

Chemical constituients

Animal used

No.of groups, drugs, dose [mg/kg]

Method used

Reference

1

Acacia catechu

khair, kaat, katthaa

mimosaceae

Heart wood

Catechuic acid, catechutannic acid, acacatechin, catechu red, quercetin, epicatechin, fisitin, quercitin.

Wistar albino rats

Group1 [control]

[gum acacia -5ml/kg]

Group2[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group3[standard]

[ranitidine-100mg/kg]

Pyloric ligation induced ulcer

Patil ss et al., 2010

2

Acacia Senegal and acacia seyal

Gum arabica, kheror khor

Fabaceae

Stems and branches

Amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, tannins and phenolics, flavonoids and glucosides.

Wistar albino rats

Group 1[control]

[vehicle-1mg/kg]

Group 2[standard]

[ranitidine-50mg/kg]

Group 3, 4[test]

[extract-500, 1000mg/kg]

Group 5, 6[test]

[extract+ranitidine-500, 1000mg/kg]

Ethanol and acetic acid induced ulcer

Al-yahya AA et al., 2016

3

Alchornea castaneae folia

Sara, sarao, gurupia

Euphorbiaceae

Leaves

Alchornein, alchorneinone, isoalchornein, yohimbin, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids.

Male swiss albino mice and male wister rats.

 

Group 1[control]

[vehicle, saline-10ml/kg]

Group 2[standard]

[lansoprazole-30 mg/kg]

Group 3[test]

[HEL-250, 500, 1000]

Group 4

[HEB-1000]

 

Hcl, ethanol induced ulcer

Indomethacin induced and hypothermic restraint stress ulcer

Hiruma-lima CA et al., 2006

4

Avicennia officinalis

Indian mangrove

acanthaceae

Whole plant [leaf]

Alkaloids, phenyloeic acid, flavonoids, zsteriols, pentacyclic triterpinoids

Wistar aibino rats

Group-1[control]

[vehicle]

Group-2[standard]

[omeprazole-30]

Group-3[test]

[ELEAO-250]

Group-4[test]

[ELEAO-500]

Aspirin+pyrolus ligation

Suras et al., 2011

5

Beta vulgaris

Chukandar  [or]

beet root

chenopodiaceae

Root

Glycine, Betaine.

Albino rats

Group-1[control]

Group-2[diseased control]

Group-3[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group-4[test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

Group-5[standard]

[omeprazole-20mg/kg]

Pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer method

Samyuktha k et al., 2017

6

Buchahania lanzanspreg

char

anacardiaceae

Roots

Celidoniol, vomicine, epinitol, phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins

Wistar albino rats

Group-1[normal]

Group-2[control]

[vehicle10ml/kg]

Group-3[test]

EBL-200

Group-4[test]

EBL400

Group-5[standard]

Ranitidine-100

 

Pyrolic ligation

Kodati d et al., 2010

 7

Centella asiatica

Centella gotu kola

mackinalayaceae

leaf

Pentyacyclic triterpinoids, asiaticoside, Asiatic acid, brahmuside, brahmic acid.

Sprague dawley rats

Group1[ulcer control]

Group2[standard]

[omeprazole -20mg/kg]

Group3[test]

[extract-abdu100mg/kg]

Group4[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group5[test]

[extract -400mg/kg]

Ethanol induced, gastric mucosal injury,

Abdulla MA et al., 2010

8

Citrus Medica Linn

Citron, Baranimbu, matulunga, Gajanimbe

Rutacae

Fruit

Ascorbic acid, Flavonoids, phenolics, pectin

Male Wister albino rats

Group 1 [control]

[distilled water]

Group 2 [untreated group]

[water ethanol -5ml/kg]

Group 3 [standard ]

[Ranitidine-20+ethanol -5ml/kg]

Group 4 [test]

[extract-250+ethanol-5ml/kg]

Group 5 [test]

[Extract -500+ethanol-5ml/kg]

Ethanol induced ulcer

Nagaraju B et al., 2012

9

Commiphoramolmol [myrrh]

Myrrh

Burseraceae

Oleo-gum

Limonene, cuminaldehyde, cinnamicaldehyde.

Male rats.

Group1[negative control]

Group2[positive ulcer]

Group3[standard]

[omeprazole-200mg/kg]

Group4[extract-125mg/kg]

Group5[extract-250mg/kg]

Group6[extract-500mg/kg]

Aspirin induced ulcer

Alfky NA et al., 2016

10

Corcoran olitorius

Jute

Tiliaceae

Leaf

Carotinoids, vit-B, -, vit-c, vit-E, minerals and amino acids.

Male albino and Wistar rats

Gropu-1[test]

[extract-100mg/kg]

Group-2 [test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group-3[test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

Group-4[positive control]

[cimitidine-50mg/kg]

Group-5[negative control]

[distilled water]

Pyloric ligation, ethanol induced, acetic acid induced and aspirin induced ulcer method

 

Mezuichristophe et al., 2016

11

Ficus glomerata

Cluster fig tree, goolarfig.

moraceae

Leaves and bark

Sterol, gluonol acetate, lupeol, ceryl behanate, alfa-amyrin acetate, leucocyanidin 3-o-alfa-L-rhamna

Wistar albino rats and swiss albino rats

Group 1[control]

[vehicle]

Group 2[standard]

[ranitidine-50mg/kg]

Group 3[test]

[leaf extract-300mg/kg]

Group 4[test]

[bark extract-300mg/kg]

Aspirin+pylorus ligation ulcer

Malairajan p et al., 2007

12

Ficus religiosol

Papal asvattha

moraceae

leaf

Protein

Carbohydrate, lipid, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, flavonoid, linoleic acid

Spraguedawley rats

Group-1[control]

[vehicie]

Group-2[control

[pyrolic ligation]

Group-3[standard]

Ranitidine50+Pyrolic ligation

Group-4[test]

[extract250+pyrolic ligation]

GROUP-4[test]

[extract500+pyrolic ligation]

Pyrolus ligation, ethane induced, aspirin induced ulcer]

Sahas et al., 2010

13

Flabellaria panicuylatacav.

 

Malpighiaceae

Leaves and roots.

Alkaloid, trepinoids, ferric chloride, phenolic compounds.

Albino rats and mice

Leaf extract

Group 1 [control]

[3% tween-20mg/kg]

Group 2, 3, 4 [test]

[leaf extract-100, 200, 400mg/kg]

Root extract

Group 1 [control]

[water]

Group 2, 3, 4[test]

[root extract-100, 200, 400mg/kg]

Group 5 [standard]

[misoprolol-100mg/kg]

Ethanol induced, pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced

Sofidiya MO et al., 2012

13

Hinguchooranam

 

 

 

 

Wister albino rats

Group-1[control]

Group-2[standard]

[ranitidine 30 mg/kg]

Group-3[test]

[extract 100mg/kg]

Group-4[test]

[extract 200mg/kg]

Pylorus ligation method and aspirin induced ulcer

Arivumani K et al., 2013

14

Jasminum grandiflorum linn

Spanish jasmine, royal jasmine

oleaceae

leaves

Alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, saponins, carotinoids, carbohydrates and glycosides

Wister albino rats.

Group 1[control]

[aspirin-200mg/kg]

Group 2[test]

[extract -100mg/kg]

Group 3[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group 4[standard]

Famotidine-20mg/kg

Aspirin+pylorus ligation induced

Umamaheswari M et al., 2007

15

Jasminum officinale.l

Jasmine, Indian jui

oleaceae

Leaf

Ferpineol

Jasmonic acid

Jasmolactone

Esters

Eugenol

Eugenyl acetate

 

 

Pyrolus ligation

Shailendra khandal et al., 2018

16

Leea Indica

Bandicoot berry

vitaceae

Leaves

Hydrocarbons, palmitic acid, pthalic acid, l-eicosanol, farnesol, soalnasoi, gallic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid.

Wistar albino rats

Group1[ control +pylorus ligation]

Group2[standard]

[ranitidine-40mg/kg]

Group3[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group4[test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

 

Pylorus ligation

Damayanthi dalu et al., 2018

17

Leucas lanvandufolia

Gumma

gummo

Labiatae

Lamiaceae

Whole

Plant

Linifolioside

Isopimarane

Rhomnoglucoside

Swiss aibino rats

Group-1[control]

[vehicle+ indomethacin]

Group-2[standard]

[Misoprostol+Indomethacin]

Group-3[test]

Extract[100+Indomethacin]

Group-4[Test]

Extract[200+Indomethacin]

Pyrolus ligation+indomethacin induced ulcer

Gupta JK et al 2010

18

Madhuca Indica J.WF Gmel

Mahuwa, mahua, mahwa, vippa chettu.

Sapolaceae

leaves

Myrecuitin, quercitin, myricitrin, triteroinoids, quercitrin and xanthophylls.

Male and Female albino rats and male Swiss albino mice

Group-1[normal control]

Group-2[control]

Vehicle+naproxen-30mg/kg]

Group-3[standard]

[omeprazole-30mg/kg]

Group-4[test]

[extract-100mg/kg]

Group-5[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group-6[test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

Naproxen induced ulcer method

Mohod SM et al 2013

19

Maduca longifolia

Mahua butter

sapotaceae

Flowers

Fatty acods, palmitic stearic, oleic, linoleics.

Albino rats

Group1[control]

[water-1 mg/kg]

Group2 [standard]

[ranitidine-30mg/kg]

Group3[test]

[extract-100 mg/kg]

Group4[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group5[test]

[extract-300mg/kg]

Pylorus ligation

Kalaivani.m et al., 2013

20

Mangifera Indica

Mango

Anacardiaceae

Seed kernel

Phenolics, saturatedc fatty acids.

Albino rats

Group-1[control]

Group-2[diseased control]

Group-3[standard]

[Ranitidine-32mg/kg]

Group-4, 5, 6[test]

[extract-100, 200, 400mg/kg]

Acid ethanol induced ulcer

Prabhu k et al., 2015

21

Mimosa Pudica

Chue Mue

Fabacea

Leaves

Flavonoids, quercetin, naringine, saponin, glycosicdes, tannins, gums and mucilage’s.

Wister albino rats

Group 1 [control]

[normal saline-2ml/kg]

Group 2 [standard]

[Ranitidine-20mg/kg]

Group 3 [test]

[methanolic extract-100, 200mg/kg]

Group 4 [test]

[chloroform extract-100, 200mg/kg]

Group 5 [test]

[diethyl ether extract-100, 200mg/kg]

Aspirin+alcohol+pylorus ligation

Vinothapoosh N G et al 2010

22

Momordica dioica raxd

Spine gourd or teasle guard

cucurbitaceae

Fruit

Crude protein, lipids, fiber, carbohydrates, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin

Male Sprague dowley rats

Group-1[normal]

[control]

Group-2[cold restraint stress induced ulcer]

Group-3[test]

[extract 100mg/kg]

Group-4[test]

[extract 200mg/kg]

Group-5[test]

[extract 400mg/kg]

Group-6[standard]

[ranitidine 50mg/kg]

Ethanol induced ulcer

M.Vijaykumar et al., 2011

23

Momordicacharanfia

Bitter gourd, bitter melon.

cucurbitaceae

Saponins, steols, mucilage, glycosides, alkaloids, steroidal saponins.

Fruits

Albino rats

Group 1[normal control]

[vehicle]

Group 2[standard]

[ranitidine-10mg/kg]

Group 3[test]

[extract-100mg/kg]

Group 4[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group 5[test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

Pylorus ligation +aspirin induced ulcer

Rao nv et al 2011

24

Morinda citrifolia linn

Noni

Rubiaceae

Fruit

Octoanoic acid, potassium, vitamine-c, Scopoletin.terpinoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, beta-sitosterol, carotene, vitamine-A, rutin, caprylic acid.

Wister rats.

Group 1 [control]

Group 2[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group 3 [test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

Aspirin induced, alcohol induced and pylorus ligation

Muralidharan p et al., 2009

25

Moringa oleifera

Drumstick tree

moringaceae

Root, bark

Carbohydrates, alkonoids, phenols, flavanoids, proteins, amino acidsand saponins

Male albino rats

Group1[control]

[saline water]

Group2[standards]

[omeprazole-30mg/kg]

Group3[test]

[extract-150mg/kg]

Gropu4 [test]

[extract-350mg/kg]

Group5[test]

[extract-500mg/kg

Pulorus ligation and alcohol induced ulcer

Choudhary MKet al., 2013

26

Morur alba

 

White mulberry

Moraaceae

leaflets

Flavonoids, Phenols, cumarinus, terperols

Rats

Group-1(control rats )

(10% tween 80 5mg/kg)

Group-2 (test rats )

(extract /250)

Group-3 (test rats)

(extract/500)

Group-4(std rats )

(omeprazole/20)

Ethanol induced ulcer

Mahmood amen abdulla et al., 2009

27

Murraya koenigii

Meethi neem

Rataceae

Leaves

Alkaloids, volatile oils, gycozoline, xanthotoxine, serquiterpione

Female albino rats

Grouop 1[control]

[distilled water]

Group 2[standard]

[ranitidine-3.5mg/kg]

Group 3[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group 4[test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

 

Pyloric ligation, NSAIDS induced ulcer

Dinesh kumar patidar 2011

28

Nigella sativa Linn

Blackcaraway, black cumin, fennel flower, nigella kalonji

Ranunculaceae

Seed

Alkaloids, nigellicin, nigellidin, quanazoline, tannins, steroids, campsterl, cholesterol, stigmas-7-en-3-beta-ol and flavonoids

Wistar albino

Group-1 (control)

(saline-2ml/kg)

Group-2 (std)

(ranitidine-20)

Group-3 (test)

(alcoholic extract- 150mg/kg)

Pyloric ligation and aspirin induced ulcer

Mohd wasif ahmed et al., 2016

29

Ocimum sanctum

Holy basil tulasi

Lamiaceae

Leaves

Oleanolic acid, urolic acid, roenarinic acid, Eugenol, carvacrol, lina lool, beta -caryophyllene

Wister rats

Group -1(normal)

Group2(control)

(ethanol+vheical)

Group-3(STd)

(ethanol +omeprazole)

group-4 (test)

(ethane +extract-100)

Group-5 (test)

(ethanol +extact-200)

Ethanol induced ulcer

Ghangale g.ret al., 2009

30

Oldenlandia Corymbosa [L]

Parpata, pitpapdo, diamond flower.

rubiaceae

Whole plant

Olaeanolic acid, ursolic acid, gama-sitosterol alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids

Wistar rats

Group-1 [ontrol]

Group-2[standard]

[Lansoprazol-8mg/kg]

Group-3[test]

[alcoholic extrat-200mg/kg]

Group-4[test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

 

Aspirin induced ulcer

Sorabh kumar agrawal 2013

31

Osyris Quadripartita Decne

Wild tea plant

santalaceae

Leaf

Polyphenols, anthracene derivatives, sesquiterpene lactones.

Wistar albino rats

Group-1[negative control]

[distilled water]

Group-2 [positive control]

[RANTIDINE-50mg/kg]

Group-3[test control]

[extract-100mg/kg]

Group -4[test control]

[extract-200mg/kg]Group=-5[test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

Pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer method

Abebaw Met al., 2017

 

32

Phyllantus niruri L

Plyllanthaceae

euphorbiaceae

Leaves

Carbohydrates, triterpinpids, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavanoids, essential oils and secondary metabolites

Female swiss albino rats

Group-1[normal control]

[distelled watrer]

Group-2 [ethanol control]

[water +hcl+ethanol]

Group-3[standard]

[omeprazole+hcl+ethanol]

Grou[p-4[test]

[extract-100, 200, 400 mg/kg

Alcohol induced ulcer

Mostofa r et al., 2017

33

Piptadeniastrum africanum

 

legumunoceae

Stem bark

Saponins, phenols, terpiniodsand flavanoids

Wistar albino rats

G-1(negative control)(distilled water 1ml/100kg)

g-2 (positive control)(Maalox -50)

G-3(positive control)(ranitidine-50)

G-4, 5, 6(test)(aq extract-125, 250, 500)

g-7, 8, 9 (test)(methanol extract 125, 250, 500)

Hcl/ethanol induced ulcer

Ateufack Get al., 2015

34

Polyalthia Longifolia

False ashoka

Annonaceae

Leaves

 

Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice

Group-1[control]

Group-2[standard]

[Ranitidine-50mg/kg]

Group-3[test]

[Ethanol extract-300mg/kg

Aspirin plus Pylorus ligation induced and HCL –ethanol induced ulcer method

Malairajan p etal., 2008

35

Pongamia pinnata

Ponga, dilkaramacha, pongam

papilionaceae

Leaves

Phytostierols,

Flavanoids,

Alkaloids, amino acids, saponins, glucosides

Albino Wister rats

Group- 1(control )

(3%tween-5)

Group-2 (std )

(sucralfate-100)

Group 3, 4, 5(test)

(methanol extract 50, 100, 200 mg/kg)

Pylorus ligation

Prasad ms et al., 2012

36

Salvadora Indica

Jhak

Salvadoraceae

leaves

Flavanoids, alkaloids, phenolics, terpinoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates and amino acids.

Albino rats

Group-1[control] [distilled water]

Group-2[test]

[extract-150mg/kg]

Group-3[test]

[extract-300mg/kg]

Group-4[test]

[extract-600mg/kg]

Group-5[standard]

[Ranitidine-50 mg/kg]

Pylorus ligation, ethanol and cysteamine induced ulcer method

Sahoo sk et al., 2016

37

Samanea samanmerr

Rain tree

Fabaceae

Bark

Alkaloids, pithecoloban, samarin, steroidals.

Male albino rats amd albino mice

Group 1 [control]

[1% acacia-10mg/kg]

Group 2[control]

[vehicle]

Group 3[test]

[extract-100mg/kg]

Group 4[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group 5[test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

Group 6[standard]

[extract-100mg/kg]

Ethanol induced ulcer

Armugam Set al., 2011

38

Saraca indica

Ashoka

Fabaceae

Flower

Saracacin, saracadin, fatty acids, flavonoids.

Albino rats

Group-1[control]

[normal saline-2 ml/kg]

Group -2 [teat]

[extract-10mg/kg]

Group-3[test]

[extract-20mg/kg]

Group-4[test]

[extract-30mg/kg]

Pylorus ligation and aspirin induced ulcer method

maruthappan v et al., 2010

39

Scoparia dulcis [linn]

Sweet broom weed

Scrophula riaceae

leaves

Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid B, scopadulciv acid Aand B, scopadulciol, scopadulin.

Male and female wister rats

Group-1[normal]

[distelled water]

Group-2(control)

(pyloric ligated)

Group-3(std)

(ranitidine -50)

Group-4(test)

(extact-250)

Group-5 (test)

(extract 500)

Pylorus ligationand ethanol induced

Girish C et al., 2011

41

Sechium edule

Chayote, choko, chocho, chow-chow and vegetable pear

cucurbitaceae

Fruit

Amino acids, 8-flavonoids-3 c-glycosyl, 5-o-glycosyl flavones, gibberellins.

Wister albino rats

Group 1[control]

[vehicle]

Group 2[standard]

[omeprazole-20mg/kg]

Group 3[test]

[extract-200mg/kg]

Group 4[test]

[extract-100mg/kg]

Pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer

Firdous sma et al., 2012

42

Solanum paniculatum.L

Jurubeba, jurupeba, jubeba, juna.

solanaceae

Aerial partb [twings and leaves ]

Flavonoids, steriods, lignans, steroidal saponins, steroidal alkanoids.

Male wistar albino rats

Group1[positive control]

[carbenoxelone-100mg/kg]

Group2 [negative control]

[saline]

Group3[standard]

[carbenoxelone + extract]

Group4, 5, 6, 7, 8[test]

[extract-31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500mg/kg]respectively.

Ethanol induced ulcer

Junior GMet al., 2015

43

Terminalia chebula

Arjuna

combretaceae

fruit

Tannins, chebulic acid, glycosides, sugar, triterpenoids, steroids.

Wistar albino rats

Group1[control]

Group2[standard]

[omeprazole-20mg/kg]

Group3 and 4[test]

[pextarct-250, 500 mg/kg]

Pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer

raju D et al., 2009

 

 

 

 

 

44

Tinostora cordifolia

Guduchi

menispernaceae

Bark

Columbin, tinosporaside, jatrorhizine, palmatine, berberine, tembeterine phenyl propene, choline, tinosporic acid

Albino rats

Group 1[control]

[normal saline]

Group 2[standard]

[ranitidine-20mg/kg]

Group 3[test]

[extract-400mg/kg]

 

Pylorus ligation, aspirin induced, ethanol induced ulcer model

Chandau NGet al., 2013

45

Vitis Vinifera

Goape

vitaceae

Seed

flavonoids

Wistar albino rats

Group 1[control]

[distilled water]

Group 2[standard]

[ranitidine-50mg/kg]

Group 3[test]

[extract-100mg/kg]

Group 4[test]

[Extract-200mg/kg]

Aspirin+pylorus ligation induced ulcer model

Anand Met al., 2016

 


CONCLUSION:

Traditional medicinal systems in the world provide therapeutically useful compounds from plants. A large number of herbal extracts are used in folk medicine to treat various types of disorders. Various plants and plant extracts have significant antiulcer activity and gastric anti secretary when compared with reference herbal drugs.

 

According to the old hypothesis acid secretions was thought to be the sole cause of ulcer formation and reduction in acid secretion was thought to be the major approach towards therapy. However, in the light of recent evidences this concept has changed. Now treatment of ulcer mainly targets the potentiation of defensive system along with lowering of acid secretion.

 

Phytogenic agents have traditionally been used by herbalists and indigenous healers for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer. A number of drugs including proton pump inhibitors, h2 blockers, antibiotics and mucosal protective agents are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but these drugs have shown incidence of relapses, side effects and drug interactions.

 

This article highlights the various phytochemicals of the plant extracts have significant anti ulcer activity. Plant products may be safe option for the management of peptic ulcer as they have fewer side effects.

 

This review has wide scope for researchers to compile literature data of anti ulcer drugs and intense study on evaluated use of certain herbs for their better acceptability in therapeutics. Hence the review study is concluded that the herbal drug possesses anti ulcer activity. It has proved by different animal models give many links to develop the future trails.

 

REFERENCE:

1.      Abdulla MA, Al-Bayaty FH, Younis LT, Hassan MA. Anti-ulcer activity of Centella asiatica leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Journal of medicinal plants research. 2010; 4(13):1253-1259.

2.      Abebaw M, Mishra B, Gelayee DA. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of the leaf extract of Osyris quadripartita Decne.(Santalaceae) in rats. Journal of experimental pharmacology. 2017; 9:1-11.

3.      Alfky NA, Mustafa RA, Header EA, El Sawy NA, Al-Kushi AG. Antiulcer Activities of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) Extract in Male Rats. Open Journal of Gastroenterology. 2016; 6(10):300-309.

4.      Al-Yahya AA, Asad M. Antiulcer activity of gum Arabic and its interaction with antiulcer effect of ranitidine in rats. Biomedical Research. 2016; 27(4):1102-1106.

5.      Anand M. Ingale, Venkata Bharat Kumar Pinnelli, Vijaya Rajendran. Experimental evaluation of the anti-ulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed in wistar albino rats against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2016; 5(3):722-727.

6.      Arivumani K, Velpandian V, Banumathi V, Ayyasamy S, Kumar A. Anti-ulcer activity of Hingu chooranam against aspirin and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. Int J Pharma Res Rev. 2013; 2(4):13-21.

7.      Arumugam S, Selvaraj SV, Velayutham S, Natesan SK, Palaniswamy K. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Indian journal of pharmacology. 2011; 43(5):586.

8.      Ateufack G, Mokam EC, Mbiantcha M, Feudjio RB, David N, Kamanyi A. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of piptadeniastrum Africanum on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2015; 15(1):01-10.

9.      Borrelli F, Izzo AA. The plant kingdom as a source of antiulcer remedies. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives. 2000; 14(8):581-591.

10.   Chandan NG, Deb T, Bhargavi SM. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Tinospora cordifolia in albino rats. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2013; 4(2):78-85.

11.   Choudhary MK, Bodakhe SH, Gupta SK. Assessment of the antiulcer potential of Moringa oleifera root-bark extract in rats. Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies. 2013; 6(4):214-220.

12.   Damayanthi Dalu. Anti Ulcer Activity of Leea Indica in Wistar Albino Ratss. Arch Nano Op Acc J 2018; 1(1):11-16.

13.   Dinesh Kumar Patidar. Anti-ulcer activity of aqueous extract of murraya koenigii in albino rats. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences.2011; 2(1):524-529.

14.   Firdous SMA, Neraja KA, Debnath RA, Dipak Singhaa and Sravanthi KA. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Sechium edule fruits in experimental rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci.2012; 4(1): 374-377.

15.   Ghangale G. R, Mahale Tushar and Jadhav N. Evaluation of Antiulcer Activity of Ocimum Sanctum in Rats. Veterinary World.2009; 2(12):265-266.

16.   Girish C, Vineela S, Narasimha RY, Rajasekhar KK, Shankarananth V. Antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Scoparia dulcis (Linn.) in rats. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2011; 4(8):2526-2528.

17.   Gupta JK, Upmanyu N, Patnaik AK, Mazumder PM. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Leucas lavandulifolia on mucosal lesion in rat. Asian journal of pharmaceutical and clinical research. 2010; 3(2):118-120.

18.   Hiruma-Lima CA, Calvo TR, Rodrigues CM, Andrade FD, Vilegas W, Brito AR. Antiulcerogenic activity of Alchornea castaneaefolia: effects on somatostatin, gastrin and prostaglandin. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006; 104(1-2):215-224.

19.   Júnior GM, da Rocha CQ, de Souza Rodrigues T, Hiruma-Lima CA, Vilegas W. New steroidal saponins and antiulcer activity from Solanum paniculatum L. Food chemistry. 2015; 186:160-167.

20.   K. Samyuktha, Krishna Mohan Chinnala, G. Prathiba, D. Rajendhar, P. Smana Reddy. Evaluation of anti ulcer activity of ethanolic root extract of Beta vulgaris in rats. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2017; 6(2):359-364.

21.   Kalaivani.M, Jegadeesan.M. Evaluation of Antiulcer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Madhuca longifolia flowers in Experimental Rats. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2013; 3(6):1-7.

22.   Kodati D, Pareta S, Patra KC. Antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Buchanania lanzan Spreg. Roots. Annals of biological research. 2010; 1(4):234-239.

23.   M. Vijayakumar, M. Bavani Eswaran, S. K. Ojha, CH. V. Rao and A. K. S. Rawat. Antiulcer Activity of Hydroalchol Extract of Momordica dioica Roxb. Fruit. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011:572-577.

24.   Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Khaled Abdul-Aziz Ahmed, Suzita Mohd Noor, Salmah Ismail. Evaluation of the anti-ulcer activities of Morus alba extracts in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Biomedical Research 2009; 20 (1): 35-39.

25.   Malairajan P, Gopalakrishnan G, Narasimhan S, Kavimani S. Antiulcer Activity of Ficus glomerata. Pharmaceutical biology. 2007; 45(9):674-677.

26.   Malairajan P, Gopalakrishnan G, Narasimhan S, Veni KJ. Evalution of anti-ulcer activity of Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites in experimental animals. Indian journal of pharmacology. 2008; 40(3):126-128.

27.   Maruthappan V, Shree KS. Antiulcer activity of aqueous suspension of Saraca indica flower against gastric ulcers in albino rats. Journal of pharmacy research. 2010; 3(1):17-20.

28.   Mezui Christophe, Amang Andre Perfusion, Nkenfou Celine, Sando Zacharie, Betou Dorine, Moulioum Hervé, Tan Paul Vernyuy. Anti-ulcer and antioxidant activities of the leaf aqueous extract of corchorus olitorius (Tiliaceae) in rats. International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2016; 7(1): 17-28.

29.   MohdWasif Ahmed, Roshan.S, N.L. Mahammed, M A Muqeem Nasir. Anti-ulcer effect of Nigella sativa linn. Against gastric ulcers in rats. Int. J. Res. Dev. Pharm. L. Sci. 2016; 5(2): 2006-2009.

30.   Mohod SM, Bodhankar SL. Antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Madhuca indica JF Gmel against naproxen induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Journal of Acute Disease. 2013; 2(2):127-33.

31.   Mostofa R, Ahmed S, Begum MM, Rahman MS, Begum T, Ahmed SU, Tuhin RH, Das M, Hossain A, Sharma M, Begum R. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and gastric anti-ulcer activity of Phyllanthus niruri L.(Euphorbiaceae) leaves in experimental rats. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2017; 17(1):267.

32.   Muralidharan P, Srikanth J. Antiulcer activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn fruit extract. J Sci Res. 2009; 1(2):345-352.

33.   Nagaraju B, Anand SC, Ahmed N, Chandra JN, Ahmed F, Padmavathi GV. Antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of Citrus medica linn. fruit against ethanol induced ulcer in rats. Advances in Biological Research. 2012; 6(1):24-29.

34.   Oliveira F, Andrade L, de Sousa É, de Sousa D. Anti-ulcer activity of essential oil constituents. Molecules. 2014; 19(5):5717-5747.

35.   Patil SS, Bhide AA, Gorle AM. Antiulcer activity and Ant inflammatory studies on acacia catechu. Indian drugs. 2010; 47(2):52-3.

36.   Prabhu K, Rajan S. Assessment of antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Mangifera indica seed kernel using acid ethanol induced ulcer model. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2015; 4(4):854-860.

37.   Pradip Kumar Maury, S.K. Jain, Nand Lal and Shashi Alok. A review on antiulcer activity. IJPSR, 2012; 3(8): 2487-2493.

38.   Prasad MS, Sadik MJ, Kumar KA, Brainard PJ. Antiulcer activity of Pongamia pinnata leaves extract. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research. 2012; 2(2):106-108.

39.   Raju D, Ilango K, Chitra V, Ashish K. Evaluation of Anti-ulcer activity of methanolic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits in experimental rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and research. 2009; 1(3):101-107.

40.   Rao NV, Venu K, Sowmya U, Reddy GJ, Anirudan K. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Momordica charantia in rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2011; (1):1-6.

41.   Rao SP, Amrit I, Singh V, Jain P. Antiulcer activity of natural compounds: A review. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2015; 7(2):124-130.

42.   Sabira Sultana, Muhammad Akram, Hafiz Muhammad Asif, Naveed Akhtar. Complementary and alternative approaches to treat peptic ulcer. al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2014, 5 (5); 353-359.

43.   Saha S, Goswami G. Study of anti ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa L. on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010; 3(10):791-793.

44.   Sahoo SK, Sahoo HB, Priyadarshini D, Soundarya G, Kumar CK, Rani KU. Antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora indica (W.) leaves on Albino rats. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2016; 10(9):7-10.

45.   ShailendraKhandal, Charanjeet Singh, Anil Godara. A Review on anti-ulcer activity of Ofjasminum officinale L. LEAF. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Science Archive.2018; 6(1):09-12.

46.   Sofidiya MO, Agufobi L, Akindele AJ, Olowe JA, Familoni OB. Effect of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. extracts on gastric ulcer in rats. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2012; 12(1):2-6.

47.   Sorabh Kumar Agrawal. Evaluation of anti ulcer activity of Oldenlandia corymbosa (L). Int. J. Res. Dev. Pharm. L. Sci. 2013; 2(2): 363-367.

48.   Sura S, Anbu J, Sultan MA, Uma BM. Antiulcer effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Avicennia officinalis. Pharmacologyonline. 2011; 3:12-19.

49.   Umamaheswari M, Asokkumar K, Rathidevi R, Sivashanmugam AT, Subhadradevi V, Ravi TK. Antiulcer and in vitro antioxidant activities of Jasminum grandiflorum L. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2007; 110(3):464-470.

50.   Venkateswararao C, Venkataramana K. A pharma–cological review on natural antiulcer agents. J glob trends pharm sci. 2013 Jul; 4:1118-31.

51.   Vimala G, GricildaShoba F. A review on antiulcer activity of few Indian medicinal plants. International journal of microbiology. 2014; 1-14.

52.   Vinothapooshan G, Sundar K. Anti-ulcer activity of Mimosa pudica leaves against gastric ulcer in rats. Research journal of pharmaceutical, biological and chemical sciences. 2010; 1(4):606-614.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 20.03.2019         Modified on 30.03.2019

Accepted on 11.04.2019       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2019; 11(2):97-106.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2019.00018.9