Anshuman Singh, Bhupendra Vyas
B. N Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Udaipur 313002 (Rajasthan) India
Nyctanthes arbortristis is one of the most useful traditional medicinal plants in India. It is distributed widely in sub-Himalayan regions and Southwards to Godavari. Each part of the plant has some important medicinal value and is thus commercially exploitable1. It is now considered as a valuable source of several unique products for the medicines against various diseases and also for the development of some industrial products. The present review is to focus on the potential phyto-chemicals and pharmacological activity of plant N. Arbortristis1. Various parts of the plant like seeds, leaves, flowers, bark and fruits have been investigated for their significant pharmacological activity. Phyto-chemicals like flavanoid, glycoside, oleanic acid, essential oils, tannic acid, carotene, friedeline, lupeol, glucose, benzoic acid have been reported for significant hair tonic, hepatoprotective, anti-leishmaniasis, anti-viral, antifungal, anti-pyretic, anti-histaminic, anti-malerial, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of Night jasmine and emphasizes the need for further exploring available information.1
Night jasmine tree are not very high. Its seeds are round. Its flowers are very soft and fragrant. Its flowers fall down on the earth by swing its tree. If someone feels the smell of night jasmine with air, his mind becomes very happy put dried stick of night jasmine flowers in the water, it changes into yellow color. Its stick color is used in medicines to make yellow color. By chewing leaves of night jasmine the tongue becomes yellow2.
Night Jasmine is a genus containing approximately 600 species of small trees and vines in the Family Oleaceae. These glabrous twining shrubs are widely cultivated in gardens and easily found in forests throughout tropical Asia and warm temperate regions in Europe and Africa.
Their flowers and leaves have been well recognized for multipurpose uses. For instance, the flowers have been utilized as traditional medicines in Asia to treat many diseases including diarrhea, fever, conjunctivitis, abdominal pain, dermatitis, asthma, abscess, breast cancer, uterine bleeding, and toothache. In China, the leaf parts are used for the treatment of quadriplegia gall, dysentery, and bellyache. According to its high medicinal value, Jasminum sambac is one of the most cultivated species in many countries in Asia including Thailand2.
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis is a or a small growing to 10 m (33 ft) tall, with flaky grey bark. The are opposite, simple, 6–12 cm (2.4–4.7 in) long and 2–6.5 cm (0.79–2.56 in) broad, with an entire margin. The are fragrant, with a five- to eight-lobed white with an orange-red centre; they are produced in clusters of two to seven together, with individual flowers opening at dusk and finishing at dawn. The is a flat brown heart-shaped to round 2 cm (0.79 in) diameter, with two sections each containing a single .
Cestrum nocturnum L.
Profusely branched shrub
White-orange aromatic flowers on oral administration tones stomach, prevents gas formation, astringent to bowel, prevents excess bile secretion by liver, cures cough. The corolla tube is bright orange in colour due to nyctanthin, which is similar to colouring substance of saffron.
Fig. : Flower of Night Jasmine
In Ayurveda Parijata leaves are extensively used for treatment of variety of diseases such as chronic fever, cough, sciatica, rheumatism, parasitic worms, constipation etc. The leaves juice is bitter in taste and works as a tonic3.
· The paste prepared from leaves is useful in fever, high blood pressure and diabetes.
· Leaf juice is given in cough as it has expectorant action.
· Leaf juice with honey, three times a day, is useful in treatment of fever, cough. Fever which occurs at irregular intervals and is not continuous or steady, the leaves juice in dose of 10 ml, twice a day for five days is given.
· Leaves juice is given with sugar for intestinal ailments.
The decoction or Kadha of leaves is extensively used by Ayurvedic physicians for the treatment of arthritis, obstinate sciatica, malaria, intestinal worms and as a tonic, cholagogue and laxative3.
Fig.: Leaf of Night Jasmine
Fig. : Fruit of Night Jasmine
Night blooming jasmine (Cestrum nocturnum) fills the night air with an almost intoxicating floral fragrance. Grown in U. S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 through 11, night blooming jasmine features small, star-shaped flowers and vine-like stems. These plants grow in clumps up to 12 feet wide and 12 feet tall with support. The jasmine will die back in freezing temperatures, but return in spring in USDA zones 8 and 9. Night blooming jasmine is considered highly invasive in some areas, so you might want to plant it in containers or prune it frequently to control its size4.
Fig : Seed of Night Jashmin
Root: Top Root System
Fig.: Root of Night Jasmine
The powder of stem bark is useful in treatment of rheumatic joint pain and malaria. In Orissa, stem bark of Parijata is boiled with power and pippali or long pepper. This is taken orally for two days to cure malaria4.
Fig.: Stem of Night Jasmine
Calyx : cepal 5
Corolla : Petal 5
Androecium : Stamen 5
Gynoecium: Overy superior, two locular, stigma capitate.
Chromosome number: 2n = 16
Color: Night jasmine leaves are green. Upper part of its flower is white
Sanskrit: Parijata, Shephali, Shephalika, Mandara Hindi: Harsingar
Bengali: Harsingar, Shephalika, Siuli
Gujarati: Jayaparvati Oriya: Gangasiuli
Tamil: Parijata, Paghala Siddha: Pavazha mattigai.
Taxonomic Position According to Cronquist (1981)
Harsinger usually grows in tropical regions of the world. Though this plant usually blooms at night, it does require plenty of sunlight and it cannot survive in a frosty or cold area. It grows best in sandy sol, moist and well drained soil. It cannot grow in highly saline soil. It is usually found in some regions of South Asia and Asia.
Night blooming jasmine loves the heat, so make sure you can provide for it! If you decide to plant indoors, make sure that the temperature is nice and warm, at least 70F! If you do decide to plant outdoors, that is also fine! Once frost hits, the night blooming jasmine will freeze, but will take up again in the spring5.
Choose a light, loose sandy soil in which to grow night blooming jasmine. If you’re growing from seed, you can start off with a small, shallow pot, and transplant once the plant has reached 4-6 inches in height. If you grow night blooming jasmine from a small plant (like from a nursery), plant it in a bigger pot or straight into your garden5.
The night blooming jasmine loves the sun, so place your plant or pot in a sunny spot! If you’re growing indoors, a windowsill is preferred.
Water your night blooming jasmine plant regularly, but also make sure not to over-water it either! Simply touch the soil around the plant and, if it feels dry, go ahead and give it some water6
Because the night blooming jasmine is pretty self-sufficient and doesn’t require much care, you shouldn’t need a fertilizer at all. If you do choose to fertilize, do so just once in the spring using a regular flower fertilizer6.
Mostly, its trees are found in forests and gardens. Its flowers are beautiful and attractive. Its sticks are saffron. Ground sticks of night jasmine are used in cloths to make yellow. Its fruits are small and flats. Its leaves are rough like adhul6.
It is cool and dry in nature, but some night jasmine is hot in nature.
Precaution: It’s harmful in cough.
Dose: It should be used in 3 grams quantity.
The leaves and seeds contain iridoid glycosides. The other constituents reported from the leaves are mannitol, beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, hentriacontane, benzoic acid, astragalin, nicotiflorin, oleanolic acid, nyctanthic acid friedelin and lupeol. The seeds containa polysaccharide glucomannan7.
Phenylephrine chloride (PE), Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), atropine sulfate, acetylcholine chloride (Ach), ruin hydrate, oleuropein, kaempferol disaccharides, and quercetin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical, USA. All other chemicals used were of analytical grade7.
Jasmine’ is a common name for plants classified in the genus Jasminium. There are over two hundred individual species of jasmine, which come from Asia, Europe, and Africa. The precise original location of jasmine is heavily disputed8.
Some botanists pinpoint as originating from India in the northern parts of the Himalayan valleys. Others place it as far away as Egypt or ancient Persia. The name itself, ‘jasmine’, comes from a Persian word meaning ‘fragrant flower’.
Flow Chart of Properties of Nyctanthes Arbortristis
Jasmine tolerates a variety of soils, which makes it excellent for many different gardens.
Jasmine prefers sun to shade; in fact, this plant like sun so much it does not do well in shade at all. If the garden is filled with trees, the gardener must carefully trim them on a regular basis in order to make sure that jasmine stays in the sunshine8.
Medicinal Uses of Jasmine:
Whether it is a jasmine flower or essential jasmine oil, jasmine can be used as an aphrodisiac, a sedative, an antiseptic, antidepressant, antispasmodic, and analgesic. In Ayurveda, jasmine has been used as an aphrodisiac and as a means to increase immunity and fight fever. It has also been regarded as a means to treat conjunctivitis. In traditional Chinese medicine, jasmine flowers are brewed and consumed as an herbal and remedial tea. An infusion of jasmine tea is known to be beneficial in treating fevers, urinary inflammation, and other infections. In addition, jasmine tea can be helpful in relieving stress and anxiety. It can be extremely helpful for people suffering from heat stroke or sunstroke.
Jasmine tea can also be administered as a tincture to treat cuts and scrapes. A compress using jasmine flowers can be useful for headaches and strokes. Jasmine juice is useful for treating corns. In fact, various skin conditions including sun burn and rashes can be treated by apply jasmine in lotion form. Jasmine oil is an integral part of aromatherapy. It is used in the form of incense, candles, and jasmine body oil, providing several benefits including uplifting the mood. The scent of jasmine is said to be useful in treating depression, in particular post partum depression and emotional depression. A body massage with jasmine oil is known to not only lift spirits but also relieve aches and pains
The leaf of Harsingar contains acid, fructose, glucose, carotene, amorphous resin, ascorbic acid, methyl , acid, oleanolic acid and flavanol glycosides. The flowers are very beneficial as it contains essential oils and glycosides. The seeds contain palmitic, oleic and myristic acids. The bark of this plant is useful due to its alkaloids and glycosides content. The extracts of this flower posses antifungal and antiviral properties. Apart from this antileishmanial, hepatoprotective and immunostimulant properties are also present in it.
Direction for uses:
Take 3-4 leaves and grind them and boil with water and drain and drink twice in day.
For swelling and pain:
Boil leaves in water to make decoction and drink.
Take leaves, bark, flower about 5 gm. and make decoction with 200 gm. of water. Decoction is said to be formed when water reduces to ¼ of initial quantity.
For dry cough:
Grind leaves in mortar and pestle to extract juice and take it with honey.
For intestinal parasites:
Grind leaves in mortar and pestle to extract 2 tabs of juice and take it with misery and water9.
For ring worm:
Apply paste of leaves on affected area.
Take 3 gm. bark and 2 gm. leaves with 2-3 and boil in water and drink 2 times a day.
TREATS VARIOUS TYPES OF FEVERS:
Night jasmine is quite efficient in treating the Malaria fever. Also, it treats nausea, diarrhea and rising body temperature caused due to bile maladies. The leaf of this flower is helpful in reducing the fever of malaria, strains of Plasmodium falciparum. All you have to do is, mix 1 ml of olive oil and 2 drops of arising oil in a bowl. If possible soak this herb to the oil for 1 hour. Now rub the oil on your feet9.
Reduces Pain and Inflammation:
Parijat makes amazing essential oils which are great to reduce the pain, injury and the inflammation. Not only this, it reduces the pain of arthritis, stress, muscle tension, rheumatism and sore muscles too. So, it is easy to understand how beneficial pariah is in treating pain. Hence, what you have to do is, mix the coconut oil and 5-6 drops of parijat essential oil in a bowl. Then, warm up the solution and massage on your swelled area. This will help a lot9.
CNS depressant activity:
It was reported that the leaves, flowers, seeds and barks (600 mg/kg) of N. arbortristis exhibited significant and dosedependent prolongation of onset and duration of sleep and found to cause decrease in dopamine and increase serotonin level from which it can be resolved that the CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extracts of seeds, leaves and flowers may be due to the decrease in dopamine and increase in serotonin level
Sedative potential of a hot infusion of the flowers was examined in rats. In this test, male rats exhibited a dosedependent conscious sedative activity while female rats remained unaffected. At these doses, muscle strength and coordi Nyctanthes arbortristision were not affected nor was blood glucose levels affected even at the highest dose. However, glucose absorption from the small intestine was significantly reduced. The sedation was attributed, in part, to the antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity of the extract
The aqueous extracts of the leaves and seeds of N. arbortristis were found to have anti-hepatotoxic activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity [47, 48]. Further, it was established that the alcoholic and aqueous extracts showed significant hepatoprotective activity by reducing the levels of SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase), SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and serum bilirubin (total and direct). The results were supported by histopathological studies of liver samples which showed regeneration of hepatocytes by the extracts
A crude 50% ethanolic extract of leaves have been reported to exhibit trypanocidal activity at 1000 g/mL concentration. In vivo studies revealed that the extract exerted antitrypanosomal effects at doses of 300 and 1000 mg/Kg, significantly prolonged the survival period of Trypanosomaevansi infected mice. However, it is also reported that as soon as the treatment with the extract is discontinued, the parasitaemia increases and results in death of the experimental animals. N. arbortristis extract has also exhibited potential anti-leishmanial activity in Leishmania donovani infected hamsters. The 50% ethanolic extracts of the seeds, leaves, roots, flowers and stem of N. Arbortristis have been found to clear Entamoeba histolytica infections in rat caecum. However, the extracts were not active in vitro.
Other health benefits of night jasmine or parijat:
There is no limit when it comes to talking about the health benefits of parijat or night jasmine. Apart from the above ones, here are some other health benefits too:
1 It helps in treating treat anxiety and vertigo.
2 It cures dandruff and prevents hair from turning grey.
3 Night jasmine helps in controlling the glucose levels in the body.
4 It gives a relieve in menstrual cramps.
· Helps to cure lice, baldness, , and get rid of grey hair.
· Used to treat and vertigo
· Prevents dental issues like scurvy
· One of the Parijata herb uses include treating congestion that is caused by , dry cough, etc.
· Can be used to
· Helps to maintain glucose levels in the body
· Prevents acidity and dyspepsia
· Used to treat Sciatica
· Provides relief from urinary infections like Stranger
· Helps relieve menstrual cramps
· Is used as an antidote to snake bites
POTENTIAL SIDE EFFECTS:
While many people report beneficial effects from using jasmine in some form, others report side effects. For example, it is commonly known not to use jasmine more than is necessary for such purposes as food preparation if the patient is pregnant or nursing10.
Aside from this all manner of side effects have been reported from using jasmine. So far no serious side effects have come up. The majority of these effects can probably be attributed to allergic reactions. Customers are well advised to follow the rule of caveat emptor when looking for products made from jasmine; it is their responsibility to research as much as they can before buying anything10.
Pierorhiza is used to remove the side-effect of night jasmine
Night blooming jasmine is a fragrant plant with multifaceted medicinal properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, hypoglycemic, antimalarial, antiepileptic, cytotoxic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, and hepatoprotective, antipyretic and wound healing effect. In addition night blooming jasmine is also used as an ornamental plant due to its showy and fragrant white flowers. The leaves of C. nocturnum are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of burns and swellings, being applied externally. Further research work and clinical trials need to be done to establish the above mentioned effects in human beings.
· Cestrum nocturnum can be grown in cooler climates as a house or conservatory plant.
· I'm not saying you will never need to use air fresheners again, but you certainly won't need them when this plant is in flower. However, as gorgeous as its scent may be, you may soon find it to be overpowering in such close quarters.
· They can reach 10-12 feet in height and have a spread of 6 feet in ideal growing conditions. Prune back into shape after flowering.
· Night-blooming jasmines flower up to four times per year, after which, they produce white berries full of seeds.
· If grown as a houseplant, chances are that the flowers will never pollinate, unless you do it by hand with an artist's brush or similar tool. Cestrum nocturnum is self-pollinating and does not need another plant for cross-pollination. Common pollinators include bats and moths.
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Received on 27.06.2018 Modified on 20.08.2018
Accepted on 11.10.2018 ©A&V Publications All right reserved