A review on Phytochemical and Pharmacological activity of Datura Stramonium. (Medicinal Plant)

 

V. Krishna Murthy Naik1*, K. Sudhakar Babu1, J. Latha2, Beulah Kolluru3

1Department of Chemistry,Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapuramu, A.P, India

2Department of Environmental Studies, Sri Krishnadevaraya University College of Engineering & Technology, S.K. University, Anantapuramu–515003, A.P, India

3Department of Botany, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapuramu, A.P, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: vadethek@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Datura is a genus of nine species of poisonous vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. They are commonly known as daturasthe aim of current review is to search literature for the Phytochemical and pharmacological activities investigation of Datura stramonium. The preliminary phytochemical investigation of the plant extracts of Datura stramonium revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, tannins, saponins, iridoids, gycosides and sterols etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant.This plant has been reported pharmacological activities likes’antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, antibacterial activity, Anticholinergic activity, antifungal activity.

 

KEYWORDS: Datura stramonium, Solanaceae, Phytochemicals,saponins,Alkaloids.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Plants have always played a major role in the treatment of human traumas and diseases worldwide. The demand for medicinal plant is increasing in both developed and developing countries due to growing recognition of natural product. Herbal medicine is an important part of both traditional and modern system of medicines [1]. Datura stramonium (D. stramonium) is a widespread annual plant from the Solanaceae family. It is one of the widely well known folklore medicinal herb. It is a wild growing flowering plant and was investigated as a local source for tropane alkaloids which contain a methylated

 

nitrogen atom (N-CH3) and include the anti-cholinergic drugs atropine, and scopolamine. From ancient civilization it was traditionally used for religious visionary purposes throughout the world and used by witchcraft in medieval Europe. The god lord Shiva was known to smoke Cannabis and Datura. People still provide the small thorn apple during festivals and special days as offerings in Shiva icons at temples. An extract made from the leaves is taken orally for the treatment of asthma and sinus infections and stripped bark are applied externally to treat swellings, burns and ulcers. The wide distribution, the strong toxicity and the potential for occurrence in foodstuffs are responsible for the numerous incidents in humans[2]. Datura genus distributes over tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. About ten species of Datura are found, of which Datura anoxia and D. stromoniumare most important drug plants. Datura has long been known as a medicinal plant and as a plant hallucinogen all over the world. Pre-historic use of Datura in medicinal and ceremonial rituals could be observed in aboriginal in Indian sub-continent[3]. The therapeutic activities of most plants are due to the presence of one or more of such components like alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and glycosides[4]. Atropine and scopolamine are competitive antagonists of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and are central nervous system depressants. All parts of the plant are toxic, but the highest amount of alkaloids is contained in the ripe seeds[4],[5]. Many cases of accidental poisoning by D. stramonium have been reported when these plants were eaten accidentally [6].

 

Fig: Datura stramonium  L

 

Scientific classification

Kingdom

Plantae

(unranked)

Angiosperms

(unranked)

Eudicots

(unranked)

Asterids

Order

Solanales

Family

Solanaceae

Genus

Datura

Species

Dstramonium

Binomial name

Datura stramonium  L.

 

 

Chemical Structure of Datura stramonium  L


 

Phytochemical analysis:

The various phytochemical parameters from the different plant parts of D. metel Linn. It is observed that the leaf content more phytochemicals as compared to other plant parts were as it is very less in stem. The qualitative analysis of the extracts from the root, stems, leaf, seed and fruit coat sample of Datura metel Linn. showed the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, and Iridoids during the present investigation on the basis of present investigation it is found that leaf and seed contain more in Tannin, saponin and Alkaloids as compared to other plant parts Iridoids were absent in root and stem[7].

 

Phytochemical analysis:

The preliminary phytochemical investigation of the plant extracts of Datura stramonium revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, tannins, saponins, iridoids, gycosides and sterols [8].

 

Pharmacological activity:

Antioxidant activity:

DPPH radical scavenging:

The photometric evaluation of the antioxidant activity of chloroform extract of Datura metel leaves shows good antioxidant capacity.The inhibitionpercentage of di􀃗erent extracts ranges from 5.97 to 53.2mg/ml. In all extracts, Chloroform showed maximum inhibition whereas n-hexane showedminimum inhibition. Chloroform extract contain highest amount of total phenolics, was found to be most effective radical scavenger followed byethylacetate, methanol and n-hexane extract. DPPH is used to evaluate the free radicals. Free radicals are involved in the process of lipid per oxidationwhich is considered as a major role in chronic diseases [9]. All extracts from Datura metel leaves exhibited a significantly greater hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity than the ascorbic acid.

 

Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity:

Oxidative DNA damage is occur is due to presence of H2O2 in the cell, hence removing hydrogen peroxide is very essential for antioxidant defense incells. Reactive agent of hydrogen peroxide sometimes causes cell death due to the production of hydroxyl radical within the cell. The overall inhibitoryactivity of solvent extracts against hydrogen peroxide can be presented in the following order: L-Ascorbic acid> Chloroform> Methanol> Hexane> Ethylacetate. Chloroform exhibit highest inhibition (79%) and Ethyl acetate exhibit lowest inhibition (42%).The leaf extractmight contain primary antioxidant compounds, which are able to react with free radicals, especially hydroxyl radicals thereby ending the radical-chained reaction and stop the formation of hydroperoxides[10-11].

 

Antimicrobial activity:-

Antimicrobial activity of solvent extract methanol was determined by Well Diffusion Method on Nutrient Agar medium [12]. A well with diameter 5mm was made using sterile cork borer and inoculums of bacteria were spread on the solid plates with a sterile swab moistened with the bacterial suspension. Then 50mg each of solvent extracts were poured in the wells of the inoculated plates. The plates were incubated for 24 hrs at 370C and zone of inhibition if any around the wells were measured in mm.

 

Antibacterial activity:

Antibacterial activity of Daturaplant extracts (aqueous and Ethanolic) was carried out by well diffusion method [13]. Pre-prepared nutrient agar plates were inoculated with test bacteria by spreading one loopful of bacterial inoculums (24 hr broth culture) on surface of the media. Five mm diameter wells were punched in the agar. 0.5 ml of aqueous extracts was added into the well. Well containing sterile distilled water act as negative control for aqueous extracts. Ethanolicextracts (10mg) were mixed with 1 ml of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 0.5 ml of this solution was added into the well. Well containing DMSO alone act as negative control for ethanolic extracts and antibiotic streptomycin (1mg/1ml) act as positive control. The plates were incubated at 37±2°C in bacteriological incubator for 48 hr. The zone of inhibition was measured and recorded.

 

Antifungal activity:

Antifungal activity of Daturaplant extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) was carried out by well diffusion method [13]. Pre-prepared PDA plates were inoculated with test fungi (Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Rhizopus stolonifer) and MGYPA (yeast culture) plates were inoculated with test fungus Candida albicans by spreading 1 ml of standard spore suspension on surface of the media. Five mm diameter wells were punched in the agar. 0.5 ml of aqueous extracts was added into the well. Well containing sterile distilled water act as negative control for aqueous extracts. Solvent extracts (10mg) were mixed with 1 ml of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 0.5 ml of this solution was added into the well. Well containing DMSO alone act as negative control and Fluconazole (0.1ml) act as positive control. The plates were incubated at room temperature (28±2C°) for72 hr. The zone of inhibition was measured and recorded.

 

Anticholinergic activity:

The alkaloids found in D. stramonium, are organic esters used clinically as anticholinergic agents. Jimson weed (also called Jamestown weed, thornapple and stinkweed) has been reported as a drug of abuse[14-15]and has been involved in the accidental poisoning of humans and animals[16-19]. Symptoms of acute jimson weed poisoning included dryness of the mouth and extreme thirst, dryness of the skin, pupil dilation and impaired vision, urinary retention, rapid heartbeat, confusion, restlessness, hallucinations, and loss of consciousness. Chronic and subchronic toxic effects of concern could be more subtle than those observed in acute poisonings of man, which have come to the attention of the medical profession, or of domestic animals that have consumed the plant as a source of food.

 

CONCLUSION:

The Phytochemical and pharmacological activity of Datura stramonium has been well documented in this brief review. In view of its multiple uses, Plant shows various types of activities such as antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal and Anticholinergic activitywhich may be due to the presence of the investigated active chemical constituents. The information presented in this review would be helpful in promoting research aiming at the research and development of new agents for medical application and agro industries based on natural products derived from plants.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT:

First author are thankful to UGC, New Delhi for providing financial assistance as PDF, UGC Post doctoral fellowship. We are also thanks to Dept of Chemistry Sri Krishnadeveraya University, Ananthapuramu, India for supporting this study.

 

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Received on 30.08.2017          Modified on 14.09.2017

Accepted on 08.11.2017       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2018; 10(1): 77-80.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2018.00013.4