Review on herbal drugs used in treatment for Asthma

 

Kalantri M. R.  , Aher A. N

NDMVP College of Pharmacy, Nashik

*Corresponding Author E-mail: mmbihani@ gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Asthma is  common disease that found in world wide. Asthma affects 300 million people worldwide and will be affect more 100 million in 2025. Many drugs are available for asthma now a days.They are directly or indirectly derived from plants only. This synthetic drugs by continuous using causes some side effects. In India 45,000 plants species and among them, several are claimed medicinal property. Now research has been focused on scientific evaluation of herbal drug which are used as antiasthmatic with efficient theraupatic property. An attempt has been made to review antiasthmatic medicinal plants in this present article.

 

KEYWORDS: Antiasthma, antiallergy, extracts, bronchospasm, inflammation.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Asthma is chronic condition; Symptoms are due to endogenous and intrinsic mediator like histamine, leukotriens, bradykinine, prostaglandin, nitric oxide, platelet activation factor, chemokines and endothelline from mast cell during allergic reaction and inflammation of air passage in lungs. Asthma is characterized by coughing, dyspnoea, wheezing, and chest tightness. Other features of asthma are airway inflammation and bronchial hyper-responsiveness.Asthma attacks are triggered by allergen such as dust, mites, mold, spores, animal hair or feathers and also caused by cold air, environmental tobacco smoke, emotional stress.1

 

Asthma affects 7 % of total population and approximate 300 million worldwide. During attacks the smooth muscle cells in bronchi constrict and the airway inflamed swollen and breathing become difficult.2

 

Asthma comes from a Greek word meaning gasping or breathless is chronic lung disorder that occurs commonly in both children and adult in economically developed as well as developing countries. It is increasing pervasiveness and severity especially in allergic patient.All medicine used for the organization of asthma  proves to be beneficial in acute condition and act as life saving remedies. But long term use of all these medicine can cause serious, toxic side effect like muscle tremors, restlessness, hypertension, delirium, convulsion, mood changes, growth retardation etc. Now a day’s herbal medicines are the major components in Ayurvedic, Homeopathic, Naturopathy and other medicinal systems.The medicinal value of these plants lies in some chemical substances that produce definite pharmacological action on human system. The graceful advantage of herbal medicines like ecofriendly nature, less cost, great strength, less toxic and ready availability.3

Asthma is a global problem. Most synthetic drugs are used to treat acute symptoms of asthma but they are not completely safe for long term use. Currently available treatment for asthma most medication works by relaxing bronchospasm, or reducing inflammation. These available treatments are not sufficient for treating asthma as they have many side effects. 4, 5

 

Synthetic drugs may give instant relief from symptoms of asthma, but have lot of undesirable effects (like those of steroids). Synthetic drugs used for conventional medical treatment of asthma include-Bronchodilators (Sympathomimetics: Albuterol, Formoterol, Terbutaline; Methylxanthines: Aminophylline, Dyphylline; Antimuscarinics: Ipratropium, Tiotropium) Mast cell stabilizers (Cromolyn sodium, Nedocromil sodium) Corticosteroids (Aerosols: Beclomethasone, Budenoside, Triamcinolone; Systemic: Betamethasone, Prednisolone) Leukotriene inhibitors (Montelukast, Zafirlukast, Zileuton). 6

 

Hence search has been started once again to look back to traditional medicine which can be used to treat asthma. The following table gives brief review of medicinal plant used as antiasthmatic.

 

MEDICINAL PLANT

Type of Extract

PART

Acacia xanthophloea

Methanol and aqueous

Stem bark7

Achyranthus  aspera

N hexane, methanol

Whole plant2

Acorus calamus

Ethanol

Rhizome8

Adhatoda vasica

Ethanol

Leaves 9

Agastache rugosa

Methanol

Aerial parts10

Ailanthus excels

Methanol

Stem bark 11

Alangium lamarkii

Methanol

Leaves  12

Anchomanes difformis

Aqueous

Leaf  13

Asystasia gangetica

Methanol

Leaves 14

Azina tetracantha

Methanol

Leaves 15

Balanites aegyptiaca

N butanol

Fruit pulp 16

Balanites roxburghi

Ethanol

Stem 17

Bauhinia racemosa

Ethanol

Leaves 18

Boerhvia procumbens

Methanol

Whole plant 19

Bryonia lasiniosa

Ethanol

Aerial part 20

Bryophyllum pinnatum

Aqueous

Leaf   21

Bulbus fritillariae

Methanol

Bulbs 22

Bytteneria herbaceae

Ethanol,aqueous

Root 23

Cassia occidentalis

hydroalcohol

Seed  24

Calendula officinalis

Methanol

Whole plant 25

Cassia sophera

Ethanol

Leaves 26

Cassia tora

Aqueous

Leaves 27

Citrullus colocynth

Hydroalcohol

Fruits  28

Clerodendron phlomidis

Aqueous

Leaves  29

 

Clerodendrum serratum

Ethanol

Root 30

Cordia subcordata

Ehanol

Bark 31-

Cressa cretica

Ethyl acetate,methanol

Whole plant 32

Crocus sativus

Hydroalcohol

Flower 33

Cuculigo orchioides

Ethanol

Rhizome 34

Cucumis trigonus

Hydroalcohol

Fruits 35

Curcuma longa

Hydroalcohol

Rhizome 36

Cyamopsis tetragonoloba

Aqueous and alcohol

Leaves 37

Cyclea peltata

ethanol and aqueous

Whole plant 38

 

 

 

 

 

MEDICINAL PLANT

Type of Extract

PART

Elaeagnus  rungens

 Aqueous

Leaves 39

Elaeagnus henryi

Aqueous

Leaves 39

Elaeagnus lanceolata

Aqueous

Leaves39

Elephantous scaber

Ethanolic

Leaves 40

Ephedra geradiana

Ethanol

Whole plant 41

Euphorbia hirta

Hexane

Leaves 42

Gastrodia elata

Ethanol

Root 43

Hemidesmus indicus

Alcohol

Root 44

Ixora coccinea

Hydroalcoholic

Leaves  45

Kalanchoe integra

Aqueous

Leaves 46

Labisia pumila

Dichloromethane

Leaves 47

Leptadenia reticulate

Hydroalcohol

Leaves 48

Leucas  aspera

Methanol

Whole plant 49

Microglossa pyrifolia

Methanol and aqueous

Leaves 5

Mimosa pudica

Aqueous

Roots  50

Myrica sapida

Ethanol

Stem bark 51

 

 

 

Nyctanthes arborstris

Ethanol and aqueous

Bark    52

Nyctanthes arbortristis

Ethanol

Leaves5 3

Ocimum gratissimum

Aqueous

Leaf 54

Passiflora incarnate

Methanol

Leaves 55

Physalis angulata

Methanol

Leaves 56

Piper longum

Pet ether,ethanol,decoction

Fruit 57

Pistacia integerima

Aqueous

Galls 58

Pluchea ovalis

Ethanol

Root 59

Polyscias fruiticosa

Ethanol

Leaf 60

Portulaca oleracea

Methanol

Leaves,stem,root 61

Punica granatum

Ethanol

Flowerbud 62

Ricinus communis

Ethanol

Root 63

Saururus chinensis

Ethanol

Herbs 64

Sphaeranthus indicus

Methanol

Aerial part 65

Stephania japonica

Aqueous and alcohol

Leaves 66

Stereospermum suaveolens

Methanol

Stem bark 67

Strychnas heninningsii

Methanol and aqueous

Leaves 5

Symplocas racemosa

Ethanol

Bark 68

Tephrosia purpurea

Methanol

Whole plant69

Tephrosia purpurea

Ethanol

Leaves 70

Vitex negundo

Ethanol

Leaves 71

Ziziphus xylopyrus

Aqueous and alcohol

Stem 72

In- vivo models

1) Histamine induced bronchospasm in conscious guinea pig.

2) Passive paw anaphylaxis in rat.

3) Milk induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia in mice.

 

In- vitro models

4) Degranulation of rat mesenteric mast cells.

5) Histamine and Acetylcholine induced contractions on isolated guinea pig tracheal chain and ileum preparation.

 

Histamine induced bronchospasm in conscious guinea pig.

Symptom like asphyctic convulsion resembling bronchial asthma can be induced by inhalation of histamine or other bronchospsmogen in guinea pig. The occurrence of these symptoms can be delayed by bronchodilator drugs.

 

Passive paw anaphylaxis in rat

Anti allergic model involves Passive immunization with serum containing IgE antibody and second antigen exposure cause immediate hypersensitivity in form of paw edema.

 

Milk induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia in mice

Leukocyte recruited during asthmatic inflammation release the inflammatory mediators like cytokines, histamine, and major basic protein which promote ongoing inflammation. The eosinophils are the most characteristic inflammatory cells in the sub-mucosal and epithelial layers. The involvement of eosinophil  in bronchial mucosa, in which allergic inflammation occurs, is a critical contributor to the late asthmatic reaction of congestion and mucus hypersecretion. Eosinophil secretes mediators such as eosinophil cationic protein, tumor necrosis factor, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, and prostaglandin, which results in epithelial shedding, bronchoconstriction, and promotion of inflammation in respiratory tract often allergic.

 

IN– VITRO MODELS

4) Degranulation of rat mesenteric mast cells

Degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells can be induced in vitro by different stimuli egg albumin, sodium cromoglycate and compound 48/80. This involves microscopic examination of rat mesenteric mast cells

 

Histamine and Acetylcholine induced contractions on isolated guinea pig tracheal chain and guinea pig ileum preparation.

 

To detect antispasmodic and bronchodilator activity, the test compound was first added alone and washed out. The response of spasmogens like Histamine and Acetylcholine were taken and at the height of contraction and the treatment drug was added. It causes relaxation in dose dependant manner 49

 

CONCLUSION:

As the synthetic drugs give instant relief from symptoms of asthma, but cause lot of side effect, their efficacy goes on decreasing with their continuous use .herbal drugs have lots of availability and easy of cultivation when compared with synthetic drugs makes herbal plants best choice for treatment of asthma .Although purity of extract, selectivity, toxicity, is matter of concern for use of herbal drugs.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The authors are thankful to the authorities of M.V.P. college of pharmacy Nashik  (India) for providing support to the study and other necessary facility like internet surfing, library and other technical support to write an article.

 

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Received on 11.05.2017          Modified on 11.06.2017

Accepted on 21.08.2017       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2018; 10(1): 63-67.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2018.00010.9