A Multidisciplinary Aspects of Clodendrum Serratum –A Review

 

Ravindra Singh1, Aakanksha Tiwari2*

1Head of Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science and Environment,

Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidyalya, Chitrakoot– 488334 Satna (M.P), India

2 Research Scholar, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science and Environment,

Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidyalya, Chitrakoot – 488334 Satna (M.P), India

*Correspondence Author E-mail: rsinghmgcgv@gmail.com , tiwariaakanksha0@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Clerodendrum serratum is a shrub which is not much branched with stems. The root of the plant is attributed with various activities like anti- inflammatory, digestive and carminative and many more. It is used to treat the conditions like inflammations, anorexia, cough, asthma, hiccough, tubercular glands, skin diseases etc. Various minerals like Na, Mg, Al, Ca etc. saponins, terpenoids, D-mannitol are the phytoconstituents present in the plant. Research works are carried out to study the pharmacognostic, physicochemical, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiasthmatic and various other activities. Clinical trial was also done in patients of Tamaka shwasa (Bronchial asthma). Thus, this paper highlights the various pharmacological activities of Clerodendrum serratum and its further scope for clinical utility.  

 

KEYWORDS: Cleodendrum Serratum, Pharmacology, Asthma, Traditional Medicine

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon belongs to the family of Verbenaceae. It is commonly known as Bharangi in Hindi. The parts used are the root and leaf. Its roots are bitter, acrid, thermogenic, antiinflammatory, digestive, carminative, stomachic, anthelmintic, depurative, expectorant, sudorific, antispasmodic, stimulant and febrifuge and are useful in inflammations, dyspepsia, anorexia, colic, flatulence, helminthiasis, cough, asthma, bronchitis, hiccough, tumors, tubercular glands, dropsy, consumption, chronic inflammation of the nose, skin diseases, leucoderma, leprosy and fever.

 

Leaves are useful as an external application for cephalalgia, and ophthalmia. The root increases appetite, lessens expectoration. Seeds bruised and boiled in buttermilk are used as aperient and in dropsy (Anonymous, 2002). Various parts of the plant have been used by tribes in colic, scorpion sting, snakebite, tumour and certain skin diseases, also used in Indian folk medicine as in the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, fever, diseases of the blood, inflammation, burning sensation and epilepsy (Modi and Deore, 2010). It is one of the commonly used plants in ethno medicine for its various medicinal properties. Apart from its application as antipyretic and anthelmintic in ethnic medicine, it is also used for relieving thirst and burning sensation, foul odours and diseases of the blood (Gouthamchandra, 2010). The root contains βsitosterol, lupeol and steroidal glycosides; the leaf contain a diterpene clerodin and the flower contains βsitosterol, lupeol, cleridine, hentriacontane and Fumaric acid esters of caffeic acid (Lobo and Punitha, 2010). Plantsterols and stanols have been known for a long time to reduce serum levels of low density lipoproteincholesterol by competing with dietary and biliary cholesterol for intestinal absorption. The first therapeutic agent described was βsitosterol, used to treat hypercholesterolemia about 60 years ago (Izar and Tejani, 2011). It is also useful in certain gynaecological disordersan (Duncan, 1992 and Becker, 1956).It is used to treat the conditions like inflammations, anorexia, cough, asthma, hiccough, tubercular glands, skin diseases etc. Various minerals like Na, Mg, Al, Ca etc. saponins, terpenoids, D-mannitol are the phytoconstituents present in the plant. Research works are carried out to study the pharmacognostic, physicochemical, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiasthmatic and various other activities. Clinical trial was also done in patients of Tamaka shwasa (Bronchial asthma). Thus, this paper highlights the various pharmacological activities of Clerodendrum serratum and its further scope for clinical utility.

 

Hepatoprotective activity:

The ethanol extract of Clerodendrum serratum roots and ursolic acid isolated from it were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in male Wistar strain rats. The rats received 20 mg/kg/day per orally of ethanol extract and 10 mg/kg/day per orally of ursolic acid concomitantly for 14 days. It revealed that the hepatoprotective activity of constituent ursolic acid extracted from roots of Clerodendrum serratum is significant as similar to the standard drug and showed more significant hepatoprotective activity than crude extract (Vidya et al., 2005).

 

Antioxidant activity:

The results of the present study show that the ethanolic extract of the roots of Clerodendrum serratum Linn possess antioxidant activity through the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide. (Bhujbal et al., 2009).

In another study hydroalcoholic extract was prepared from the samples of a polyherbal drug –Bharangyadi which contained Clerodendrum serratum, Hedychium spicatum and Inula racemosa. The steroidal and anti- platelet aggregation factor studies were carried out in Swiss albino rats. The results showed that Bharangyadi compound has no endogenous steroidogenesis effect neither it has any role in platelet aggregation inhibition. As no significant change was found in the weight of adrenal gland after two week treatment with them drug, it can be concluded that the anti-inflammatory effect of the Bharangyadi compound is not due to increase synthesis of steroids. (Kajaria et al., 2012).

 

Anticancer activity:

Aqueous and methanolic extracts of roots of Clerodendrum serratum were used to study the anti-cancer activity in Swiss albino mice. Mice were treated with the extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg/day per orally) respectively for 14 days. The parameters studied were mean survival time, percentage increase in life span, body weight, hematological parameters like RBC, WBC and Hb, biochemical investigations viz. ALAT, ASAT, total protein. The study confirmed that the methanolic extract of the roots of Clerodendrum serratum exhibits anticancer activity at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight.

 

The evaluation of anticarcinogenic activity of the cleodendrum leaf extract on liver and kidney of 7,12 dimethylbenzaanthracene induced skin carcinogenesis in mice were studied. The studied showed that there was recovery in biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in the liver and kidney of the cleodendrum serratum leaf extract administered mice.Together, these findings suggest that cleodendrum serratum leaf extract has anticarcinogenic efficacy against skin carcinogenesis (Jaiyraj and Rajeshwari, 2011).

 

Bronchodilator activity:

Aqueous extract of leaf of cleodendrum serratum possess bronchodilator property (Mukesh and Gaurav, 2012).

 

Antiasthmatic activity:

The anaphylactic bronchoconstrictor response in sensitized isolated guinea pig lung was found to be inhibited after continuous perfusion of the alcoholic fraction of aqueous extract of the root of Clerodendrum serratum suggesting antiasthmatic potential (Tondon and Gupta 2008). Icosahydropicenic acid, a new pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin was first time isolated from the roots of Cleodendrum serratum. IHPA, at the dose of 100mg/kg, showed significant protection to mast cell degeneration as compared to standard sodium cromoglycate. The compound also revealed significant inhibitory activity on Histamine induced gout tracheal chain preparation.

 

Wound healing activity:

Ethanolic extracts of roots and leaves of Cleodendrum serratum were obtained and their wound healing potency was evaluated on Albino rats. The results show highest wound healing potency on root extracts as compared to leaf extracts (Mukesh and Khare, 2012).

 

Antibacterial activity:

The ether and saline extracts of the leaves showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, while they were found to be inactive against Escherichia coli. The sulphuric acid, acetate buffer and phosphate buffer extracts were inactive against both the bacteriae. The 80 percent ethanolic extract of the leaves at 25 mg/ml showed inhibition of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (Gupta and Tondon, 2008). The ethanol extracts of roots of the plant showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The zone of inhibition was found to be increased with increased in concentration of extracts.

 

Antifungal activity:

The aqueous extract of the leaves did not show significant effect on the mycelia growth (8 to 38.2 percent inhibition) of the keratinophilic fungi, viz., Nannizia gypsea (strain -), N. gypsea (strain +), N. incurvata (strain +), N. fulva (strain -) and N. fulva (strain +). However, it exhibited antifungal activity against Curvularia tuberculata, the causal fungus of die-back disease and Pestalotiopsis mangiferae, the causal organism of leaf spot disease (Gupta and Tondon, 2008).

 

Antinociceptive activity:

Albino mice were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity with alcoholic extract of Clerodendrum serratum roots at the dosage of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg per orally by acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate methods. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, subcutaneously) was used for comparison. The result showed a significant reduction in acetic acid induced writhing, which has the most  potent antinociceptive effect and it has been supported by hot plate method where a significant increase in AUC (area under the time response curve) was observed. The response was much less when compared to morphine sulphate (Narayanan, 1999).

 

Antiinflammatory activity:

The alcoholic extract of roots of Clerodendrum serratum was administered to Albino rats at the concentration of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg per orally to study the anti- inflammatory activity 128, carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet implantation methods. Standard anti-inflammatory agent phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg per orally) was used for comparison in both acute and chronic models. A potent anti-inflammatory effect for Clerodendrum serratum was evidenced by the significant reduction in paw edema and cotton-pellet granuloma methods. However, the effect was less when compared to phenylbutazone (Narayanan et al., 1999). In another anti-inflammatory study aqueous extract of Clerdendrum serratum root and stem in low (90 mg/kg per orally) and high dose (180 mg/kg per orally) respectively was administered to Albino rats for ten days. The standard group received Dexamethasone p.o as a single dose daily. Both root and stem have shown the anti- inflammatory effect, but root showed significant activity in comparison with Dexamethasone.

In another study, the methanolic extracts of aerial and root parts of Clerodendrum serratum  was carried out to study the anti-rheumatic properties based on the effects on carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The results showed that the roots possess significant while the aerial parts exhibited moderate anti –inflammatory activity. Thus from the study it is evident that the roots of Clerodendrum serratum L. possesses potent anti-rheumatic properties (Shareef et al., 2013).

 

The ethanolic root extract of Cleodendrum serratum showed significant anti-inflammatory effect on Carragenan induced oedema in rats, and also in the cotton pellet model in experimental mice,rats  and rabbits at a concentration of 50,100 and 200mg/kg (Mukesh and Khare, 2012). The extract at two percent showed In-vitro spermicidal activity both in rat and human semen. The acetone and methanolic extract of the root did not exhibit Anti-implantation activity in rats at 150mg/kg (Gupta and Tondon, 2008).

 

Antiangiogenic and Vasorelaxant activity:

To identify the antiangiogenic activity, the inhibitory effect of the extracts of leaves on blood vessel growth formation were adapted in rat aortic ring assay. In another experiment, the vasorelaxant activity of leaves extract of Cleodendrum serratum were examined on an isolated rat aortic ring preparation and response of cumulative dose of Noradrenalin were used.

 

CONCLUSION:

Bharangi (Cleodendrum serratum) is a drug of choice to cure various ailments especially breathlessness, cough, wound, swelling and many neurological disorders. The most important chemical constituents like saponin, flavonoids, carbohydrate were also reported. Various studies also showed the presence of majority of pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, antihistaminic activity. Inspite of this, various clinical trials are required for their future perspective.

 

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Received on 10.02.2017          Modified on 28.02.2017

Accepted on 11.03.2017      ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2017; 9(1): 53-56.

DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2017.00009.7