Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical Studies and Comparative Extraction Techniques of Daucus carota

 

Mohini Upadhye1*, Parikshit Gandhi2, Mohini Phanse2

1P.E.S.’s Modern College of Pharmacy (For Ladies), Moshi, Pune

2P.E.S.’s Modern College of Pharmacy, Nigdi, Pune.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:

 

ABSTRACT:

In the last few decades, there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicines. It is getting popularized in developing and developed countries owing to their natural origin and lesser side effects. Herbal extracts are the compound mixtures obtained from fresh or dry plants by different extraction procedures. Apart from conventional methods of extraction, there are several other techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction, soxhlet assisted   extraction, microwave extraction in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease in solvent consumption, increasing the yield and also to enhance quality of the extract. It also minimizes risk of decomposition and oxidation of phytopharmaceuticals. The present work aims to study pharmacognostical and phytochemical characteristics and also to compair the microwave assisted extraction with conventional methods of extraction of Daucus carota roots.  This study will be useful for the standardization and further pharmacological and therapeutic evaluation of Dacus carrota.

 

KEYWORDS: Daucus carota, pharmacognostic study, phytochemical study, microwave extraction.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The plants contain broad range of bioactive compounds such as lipids, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, resins and other chemicals like flavours, fragrance, pigments. For extraction of these valuable phytoconstituents, different techniques have been widely investigated to obtain such valuable natural compounds from plants for commercialization. There is an increasing demand for new extraction techniques with shortened extraction time, reduced organic solvent consumption and increased pollution prevention. Novel extraction methods including ultrasonication assisted extraction, microwave assisted extraction, accelerated solvent extraction which makes the process faster and efficient for extracting phytochemicals from solid plant matrixes.1, 2

 

Thus, the microwave reduces the extraction at least to half of the time needed by the conventional extraction method without any change in extract composition. The present study is carried out for pharmacognostical, phytochemical analysis and also comparative evaluation of conventional and microwave assisted extraction of Daucus carota (Family: Apiacea) roots.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Collection of plant material

The roots of Daucus carota were collected from local region Pune and the plant was authenticated from Botanical Survey of India, Pune and voucher specimen MODMPHG1 has been submitted to Department of Pharmacognosy, Modern College of Pharmacy, Nigdi, Pune.

 

Morphological Description

The roots of Daucus carota were subjected to morphological studies viz. color, odour, appearance, texture, shape, fracture etc. of the drug which are considered to be useful in quality control of crude drugs.3, 4,5

 

Microscopic Characteristics

Microscopic sections were cut by free hand sectioning and histochemical reactions were applied with staining reagents on the transverse sections and examined microscopically.  The powder of Daucus carota roots was boiled with choral hydrate to remove coloring matter and it was stained with different staining reagents to observe the powder chracteristics.5, 6, 7

 

Physicochemical Evaluation

For obtaining quality standards and to evaluate quality and purity of the drug, different physicochemical parameters like ash value, moisture content, foreign organic matter, extractive values were calculated as per WHO guidelines.8, 9

 

Phytochemical Investigations

The different phytoconstituents present in the powdered crude drug were identified by performing various qualitative chemical tests. 3, 4

 

Preparation of the extracts

Maceration

The coarsely powdered roots of Daucus carota were extracted with chloroform: water (1:99) by cold maceration method for 7 to 8 days. The extract was filtered through Whattman filter paper no. 41 and evaporated on the water bath and finally dried in vaccum to get powder.

 

Soxhlet extraction

The powdered roots of Daucus carota were extracetd with solvents such as ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol, by using continuous Soxhlet extraction method. After complete extraction, solvents were evaporated in vaccum under reduced pressure and dried in the dessicator.

 

Microwave extraction

The powdered crude drug was taken in round bottom flask. Ethyl acetate (50 ml) was added and mixed. Microwave assisted extraction was done by using Cata Scientific microwave extractor at viz. 140w for 15 min. by interrupting the process to avoid bumping. After extraction, the extracts obtained were filtered and concentrated. Percentage yield was calculated. The procedure was repeated using chloroform and methanol as solvents. 10

 

RESULTS:

Morphological characteristics –

Table no 1 Results for morphological characteristics

Organoleptic characteristics

observations

color

Reddish orange

odour

Slight

Taste

sweet

Height

15-20 cm

Width

2.5- 3 cm

Shape

Elongtaed, cylindrical

Texture

smooth

Fracture Inner surface and outer surface

Fibrous, yellowish with markings, outer surface is smooth

 

Microscopical characteristics

Microscopical and powder characteristics of the powder revealed the presence of lignified xylem, medullary rays, starch and calcium oxalate crystals.

 

Physicochemical parameters

The results of physicochemical parameters of raw material are mentioned in table no 2. The result of foreign organic matter was found to be 5.81 % w/w which indicates that the presence of adulterants or product of an organism is in fewer amounts.

 

 

The moisture content of the drug was 4.88 % w/w which signifies that the drug is properly dried and properly stored.

 

The total ash value was found to be 7.9 % w/w, amount of acid insoluble ash value was 5.6 % w/w,, water soluble ash value was 3.7 % w/w and sulphated ash value was 2.6 % w/w.

 

These ash values of crude drug lie within the limits. It signifies its quality and purity and gives an idea about total inorganic content.

 

Water soluble extractive value was found to be 4% w/w and it indicates presence of sugars, acids and inorganic compounds and alcohol soluble extractive value was found to be 9 % w/w which shows the presence of alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, flavanoids, glycosides.

 

The high alcohol soluble extractive value indicates that large amounts of constituents are soluble in alcohol than water.

 

The results for comparative extraction techniques by using different solvents are shown in table no.3 which indicated increase in the yield in microwave assisted extraction as compared to the conventional methods of extraction like maceration and soxhlet assisted extraction.

 

Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous exracts were performed and the results are expressed in table no. 4. It shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, tannins, proteins as major primary and secondary metabolites which revealed its potent therapeutic activity. The presence of these phytoconstituents was confirmed by performing thin layer chromatography of these extracts and the results are indicated in table no 5.

 

Table no. 2 Physicochemical parameters

Sr. No.

Parameters

Results obtained (% w/w)

1

Foreign organic matter

5.81

2

Moisture content (LOD)

4.88

3

Total ash value

7.9

4

Acid insoluble ash value

5.6

5

Water soluble ash value

3.7

6

Sulphated ash value

2.6

7

Water soluble extractive value

4

8

Alcohol soluble extractivevalue

9

 

Table no. 3 Comparative studies of conventional and microwave assisted extraction of Daucus carota roots

Sr. no.

Solvents used

Maceration

% yield

Soxhlet extraction

Microwave assisted extraction

1

Ethyl acetate

9.76

18

24.5

2

Chloroform

1.5

4.2

5.14

3

Methanol

3.8

7.5

9.65

4

Water

1.26

--

--

 

 

Table no. 4 Phytochemical screening

Sr. No.

Constituents

Ethyl acetate

Chloroform

Methanol

Water

 

Flavanoids

+

+

+

+

1

Alkaloids

+

+

+

+

2

carbohydrate

+

-

+

+

3

Steroids

-

+

-

-

4

Glycoside

-

-

+

+

5

Tannins

+

+

+

+

6

Proteins

-

-

+

-

7

Gums and mucilages

-

-

-

+

+   Indicates presence

-    Indicates absence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table no. 5 Thin Layer Chromatography

Extract

Rf value

Chemical constituents

Solvent system

Ethyl acatate

0.77

Flavanoids

Toluene: ethyl acetate (93.7)

Methanol

0.54

Alkaloids

Ethyl acetate: methanol: water (100:13.5:10)

Chloroform

0.9

Steroid

Hexane: chloroform (3:7)

 

CONCLUSION:

Standardization of herbal drugs is an essential measure for confirming quality, purity and identification of samples. Morphological, microscopical, physicochemical analysis and phytochemical screening confirm the quality and purity of the drug.

 

As percentage yield by microwave assisted extraction was improved as compared to conventional method, microwave assisted extraction can be successfully used for the routine extraction in laboratory. This information collected will be useful for the further standardization, pharmacological and therapeutic evaluation of the crude drug.

 

REFERENCES:

1.       Vinatoru M., An overview of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. Ultrasonic Sonochemistry (2001); 8, pp 303- 313

2.       Kaufmann B. and Christen P., Recent extraction techniques for natural products; Microwave assisted extraction and pressurized solvent extraction. Phytochemical Analysis; (2002); 13, pp 105-113.

3.       C. K. Kokate, Practical Pharmacognosy, 4th edition, Delhi, Vallabh Prakashan, 1997,  pp 107-111

4.       K. R. Khandelwal, Practical Pharmacognosy Techniques and Experiments, 15th edition , Pune, Nirali Prakashan, 2006, pp 15-163

5.       T. E. Wallis, Text Book of Pharmacognosy, 5th edition, Delhi, CBS publishers and distributors , 2005, pp 104-158

6.       M. A. Iyengar, S. G. Nayak, Anatomy of crude drugs, 11th edition, Manipal, Manipal Press Limited, 1997, pp 01-08

7.       M. A. Iyengar, Pharmacognosy of Powdered Crude Drugs, 5th edition, Manipal, Manipal Press Limited, 1997, pp 21-31.

8.       World Health Organization, Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials, WHO / PHARM/ 92.559, 1998, pp 4-46

9.       Anonymous, Indian Pharmacopoeia vol.- II, Ministry of Health and family welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, Controller of publications, 1996, A-53-54, A-95, A-97, A-109.

10.     Joshi Uttara, Ware Leena, Upadhye Mohini “Microwave assisted extraction of crude drugs”, International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 1, issue 4, Oct-Dec. 2010, pp 130-332.

11.     W. C. Evans, Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, London, W. B. Saunders Company, Ltd, 2009, pp. 541-570

12.     P. K. Mukharjee, Quality control of herbal drugs, 1st edition, Business horizon publications, 2002, pp 186.

 

 

 

 

Received on 24.03.2014       Modified on 18.04.2014

Accepted on 01.06.2014      ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Pharmacognosy & Phytochem. 6(3): July-Sept.2014; Page 115-117