Pharmacognostic Study of Leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

 

Ghori Vijay P., Gatecha Heena N., Desai Tusharbindu R., and Pandya Devang J.*

R. K. College of Pharmacy, Rajkot 360020, Gujarat, India.

ABSTRACT:

Cordia dichotoma Linn (Family Boraginaceae) is found commonly in India. Recent pharmacological findings indicate that its fruits possess significant activities like anthelmintic, diuretic, demulcent and expectorant, and are also used in disease of chest and urinary passage. A decoction of bark is used in dyspepsia and fever. These comply with the claims made in the traditional medicinal texts. However, no conclusive pharmacognostic study of its leaves has been performed yet. The present investigation deals with the qualitative and quantitative microscopic evaluation of the leaf material. Chief microscopic characters include vascular bundles having patches of perimedullary phloem and unicellular and multicellular covering trichomes. Chief characters of powder include anomocytic stomata, calcium oxalate prisms and clusters and xylem vessels with Reticulate thickening. Such a study would serve as a useful gauge in standardization of the leaf material, ensuring quality formulations, and distinguishing it from other species of Cordia.

 

KEYWORDS: Boraginaceae, Cordia, Cordia dichotoma

 

1. INTRODUCTION:

Cordia dichotoma Linn. also known as Bird Lime Tree and belongs to family Boraginaceae. This evergreen tree from tropical Asia and Australasia grows to 30 ft (9 m) high with a broadly spreading habit and broad, shiny leaves 15 to 20 cm long. It produces both male and hermaphrodite orange flowers. These flowers are followed by 25 mm long dull pinkish edible fruit with sticky flesh. It is also known as (Punjabi) Karuk, (Hindi) Ajanta. [1] Its fruits are mucilaginous, sweetish and edible. They are used traditionally in several disorders. They are used as astringent, anthelmintic, diuretic, demulcent and expectorant, also used in disease of chest and urinary passage. A decoction of bark is used in dyspepsia and fever.1,2 The present investigation deals with the qualitative and quantitative microscopic evaluation of the leaf material.

 

Materials and Methods:

Collection and authentication of leaves:

Leaves of C. dichotoma were collected from the herbal garden of R. K. College of Pharmacy, Rajkot in March, 2010. Herbariums and voucher sample were prepared and deposited in Department of Pharmacognosy, R. K. College of Pharmacy (Voucher no. RKCP/COG/07/2010). Authentication was done by Dr. A. N. Pandey, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University.

 

Morphology of fresh leaves of C. dichotoma was studied. Photomicrography of stained and unstained transverse sections of fresh leaves was performed using Win DVR software. Leaf constants were established using camera lucida. The leaves were dried under shade, powdered to 60#, stored in airtight containers and used for powder study and quantitative microscopy (Table 1).3


 

Pharmacognostic studies:

Table 1: Quantitative microscopy

Parameter

Mean value SD

Stomatal Index

Upper surface

Lower surface

 

35 0.5

41 0.5

Stomatal Number

Upper surface

Lower surface

 

365 to 380

377 to 395

Palisade ratio

5 1

Vein islet number

7 0.5

Vein termination number

6 1

Cluster crystal diameter

13.88 - 25.39 38.2

Length of covering trichome

33.55 - 45.85 - 78.15

Number of observations =10; SD = Standard Deviation

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Pharmacognostic study:

Macroscopical characteristics:

The leaves are simple, 12-15 cm X 8-10 cm. Phyllotaxy is sub-opposite. Upper surface is dark green while lower surface is light green in color. Margin is entire or slightly dentate, apex mucronate, venation reticulate, texture leathery, base symmetrical, surface rough and pubescent. Petiole is short and cylindrical and stipules are absent. Taste and odor are characteristic (Figure 1).

 

Figure 1: Leaves of Cordia dichotoma

 

Microscopy: Transverse section:

Epidermis consists of single-layered, tabular parenchymatous cells. Underlying the upper epidermis a single-layered, compact, radially elongated palisade followed by spongy mesophyll composed of 5-6 layers of loosely arranged parenchymatous cells with scattered calcium oxalate cluster crystals. Midrib consists of a well-developed collenchyma below upper epidermis and above lower epidermis. Ground tissue consists of loosely arranged polygonal parenchymatous cells having calcium oxalate prisms and cluster crystals. Vascular bundles are bicollateral, having patches of perimedullary phloem. Starch grains are scattered throughout the ground tissue. Trichomes are covering, long, unicellular or multicellular and few are cylindrical in shape (Figure 2, 3).

 

 

 
 


Figure 2: Diagrammatic and Detailed T. S. of leaf (X40)

(Uco, Upper Collenchyma; UEp, Upper Epidermis; Lco, Lower Collenchyma; Lep, Lower Epidermis; Pal, Palisade; Vb, Vascular bundles; Cvt, Covering Trichomes; Phl, phloem; Xlm, Xylem; St, Stele; Spm, Spongy Mesophyll; Crs, calcium oxalate crystals; Sgr, starch grains)

 

Microscopy: Powder characteristics:

It is a light dull green powder with no distinct odor or taste. The important diagnostic features of the powder include parts of epidermis in surface view showing straight walled-polygonal shaped epidermal cells and Anomocytic stomata, Reticulate xylem vessels, calcium oxalate clusters and prisms, starch grains and numerous covering trichomes, which may be unicellular or multicellular, cylindrical, narrow, conical or pointed (Figure 4).

 

Figure 3: T. S. of leaf showing single enlarged portions (X400)

(Uco, Upper Collenchyma; UEp, Upper Epidermis; Lco, Lower Collenchyma; Lep, Lower Epidermis; Pal, Palisade; Vb, Vascular bundles; Cvt, Covering Trichomes; Phl, phloem; Xlm, Xylem; St, Stele; Spm, Spongy Mesophyll)

 

Figure 4: Powder study (X400)

(A, Epidermis in surface view; B, Covering trichome; C, Xylem vessels with Reticulate thickening; D, Calcium oxalate prisms; E, Starch grains; F, Anomocytic stomata)

 

DISCUSSION:

The present work deals with the pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves of C. dichotoma. Main microscopic characters include very long unicellular covering trichomes and vascular bundles having patches of perimedullary phloem. Diagnostic characters of powder include multicellular trichomes, calcium oxalate clusters and prisms, starch grains, anomocytic stomata and reticulate xylem vessels with shape. Such a pharmacognostic study is useful for standardizing crude drugs and can be used to differentiate closely related species of the genus Cordia.

 

REFERENCES:

1.       Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. Vol III. 2nd Ed. International Book Distributors, Dehradun. 2005.

2.       Anonymous. Wealth of India: Raw materials. Vol IV. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1956.

3.       Khandelwal KR, Kokate CK, Gokhale SB. Practical Pharmacognosy techniques and experiments. Nirali Prakashan, Pune. 1996.

 

 

Received on 20.01.2011

Accepted on 17.02.2011

A&V Publication all right reserved

Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 3(2): March- April 2011, 82-85