Vegetables Helps in Keeping a Healthy Balance

 

B.S. Mrudula, N. Kanakadurga Devi*, B.R. Madhavi,   V.L. Annapurna and K. Bhuvaneswari

K.V.S.R. Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vijayaawada-10.

 

ABSTRACT:

Vegetable nutrition improves the quality of life .Vegetables are very rich in nutrients and very low in calories .They are excellent source of vitamins, minerals, high fiber and healthy complex carbohydrates as well as antioxidants and phytonutrients which helps to reduce the overall risk of cancer and heart attacks .Here are some vegetables along with their vitamin and mineral contents. Eating healthy vegetables is essential to your optimum health and helps in keeping fit and maintaining a healthy balance.

 

 

INTRODUCTION:

Vegetables are essential in order to maintain healthy balance1-5. They contains many vitamins like vitamin A,vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin C which helps in supporting eye and respiratory health, in slow down the aging process, in preventing the blood clots, and in repairing of body tissue cells as well as bones correspondingly6,7. They also contains potassium which helps in regulating the body water, sulphur in keeping joints working well, chromium in normalizing blood pressure and maintaining insulin levels8,9. Folic acid and iron helps in detoxification of liver. Many vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts contain phytonutrients which helps to prevent cataract formation, hypertension, birth defects, obesity as well as diabetes. The polyphenols present in many vegetables like tomatos, onions helps in reducing Alzheimer’s disease. Carotinoids present in carrots, bellpeppers, tomatos and green leafy vegetables act as potent anti oxidants which plays a role in boosting your immune system10, 11.They helps in reducing the overall risk of cancer and heart diseases12-14. Cabbage, eggplant contains anthocyanin and other flavonoids which helps in fighting the damage to cells and play a role in promoting a clean and healthy liver15. As different vegetables contains different types of nutrients try to load up your salad bowl with colors of different veggies which helps you to stay and feel young.

 

 

 

 


Vegetable

Amount

Minerals contained                              
(in descending order)

Vitamins Contained
(in descending order)

Artichoke

 

One medium cooked with no added salt has 4.2 grams protein and 6.5 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 425 mg
Phosphorus - 103 mg
Magnesium - 72 mg
Calcium - 54 mg
Also contains small amounts of
selenium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc.

Vitamin C - 12 mg
Niacin - 1.2 mg
Pantothenic Acid - 0.5 mg
Folate - 61.2 mcg
Vitamin A - 212 IU
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Arugula

 

One cup of fresh arugula contains 1.3KJ of carbohydrates and 0.4KJ of protein.

 

Calcium – 3.2mg

Phosphorus – 1.0mg

Magnesium – 0.9mg

Sodium – 0.5mg

 

Choline -0.3mg

vitaminC- 0.3mg

vitaminK-2.2mcg

folate- 1.9mcg

vitamin A-47.5IU

Asparagus

 

Half cup (about 4 spears) cooked with no added salt contains over 2 grams of protein and almost 1.5 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 144 mg
Phosphorus - 48.5 mg
Calcium - 18 mg
Sodium - 10 mg
Magnesium - 9 mg
Also contains small amounts of
selenium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc.

Vitamin A - 485 IU
Vitamin C - 9.7 mg
Niacin - 0.974 mg
Folate - 131 mcg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Beets

 

One cup of boiled beets contains 2.86 g of protein and 3.40 g of dietary fiber

Potassium – 518.50mg.   

Sodium – 484.50mg 

Phosphorus – 64.60mg

Magnesium – 39.10mg     

Calcium – 27.20mg

Manganese – 0.55mg and

selenium ,copper and zinc in small amounts

Vitamin C – 6.12 mg                Vitamin E – 0.51mg

Folate – 136.00mcg

Vitamin K – 0.34mcg       Vitamin A – 59.50 IU

 

Bell peppers

 

One cup of bell pepper slices contains 0.82 g of protein and1.84 g of dietary fiber and carbohydrates 5.92g

Potassium – 162.84mg

Phosphorus – 17.48mg    

Chloride – 22.08mg

Magnesium – 9.20mg       

Calcium – 8.28mg

Sodium  - 1.84mg

Iodine – 0.92 mcg and small amounts of iron and manganese

Vitamin A – 5244.00 IU    Vitamin C –174.80mg    

Vitamin E – 0.68mg

Vitamin B3 – 0.47mg         Vitamin B6 – 0.23mg         Vitamin B1 – 0.06mg         Vitamin B2 – 0.03mg            Folate – 20.24mcg

Bok choy

 

One cup of fresh bokchoy contains 54.8g of carbohydrates, and9.8g if dietary fiber.

Potassium – 1909mg      

Calcium – 706mg

Sodium – 991mg

Phosphorus – 326mg     

Magnesium – 147mg               

Iron – 6.4mg

Fluoride – 3.7mcg

Vitamin B - 249mg

Vitamin E - 1.8mg

Vitamin B3 – 1.3mg

Vitamin B2 – 0.5mg

 Vitamin B1 – 0.3mg 

Vitamin K – 290mcg        Vitamin A – 28971IU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Broccoli

 

Half cup cooked with no added salt contains 2.3 grams protein and 2.3 grams fiber.

Potassium - 228 mg
Phosphorus - 46 mg
Calcium - 36 mg
Sodium - 28 mg
Magnesium - 18.7 mg
Iron - 0.65 mg
Vitamin K - 110 mcg
Also contains small amounts of
selenium, manganese, copper and zinc.

Vitamin A - 1083 IU
Vitamin C - 58 mg
Niacin - 0.45 mg
Pantothenic Acid - 0.4 mg
Folate - 39 mcg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Brussel sprouts

 

 

One cup of boiled brussel sprouts contains 3.98 g of proteins ,13.53 g of carbohydrates and 4.06 g of dietary fiber

 

 

 

 

 

Potassium – 494.92mg

Phosphorus – 87.36mg     

Calcium – 56.16mg

Magnesium – 31.20mg      

Sodium – 32.76mg

Iron – 1.87mg

Manganese – 0.35mg and small amounts of copper, sodium .zinc, selenium.

 

Vitamin A -1121.64IU    

Vitamin C – 96.72mg       Vitamin  E – 1.33mg         Vitamin B3 – 0.95mg         Vitamin B1 – 0.17mg         Vitamin B2 – 0.12mg         Vitamin K – 218.80mcg

Carrots

 

Half cup cooked with no added salt contains .85 grams protein and 2.6 grams fiber.

Potassium - 177 mg
Sodium - 51.5 mg
Calcium - 24 mg
Phosphorus - 23.4 mg
Magnesium - 10 mg
Iron - 0.48 mg
Also contains small amounts of
selenium, manganese, copper and zinc.

Vitamin A - 19,152 IU
Vitamin C - 1.8 mg
Niacin -0 .4 mg
Folate - 11 mcg
Pantothenic Acid - 0.2 mg
Vitamin B6 - 0.2 mg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Cauliflower

 

Half cup cooked with no added salt contains 1.1 grams protein and 1.7 grams fiber.

Potassium - 88 mg
Phosphorus - 19.8 mg
Calcium - 9.9 mg
Sodium - 9.3 mg
Magnesium - 5.6 mg
and small amounts of
selenium, iron and manganese.

Vitamin C - 27.5 mg
Vitamin A - 1.5 IU
Pantothenic Acid - 0.3 mg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Celery

 

One cup of raw celery contains 4.38 g of carbohydrates ,0.90g of proteins  and 2.04 g of dietary fiber

 

 

Potassium – 344.4mg      

Sodium – 140.40mg

Phosphorus – 30.00mg     

Calcium – 48.00 mg

Magnesium – 13.20mg            

Zinc – 0.16mg

Copper – 0.04mg

Molybdenum – 6.00mcg    

Selenium – 1.08mcg

 

 

Vitamin A – 160.80 IU                 Vitamin C – 8.40mg

Vitamin E – 0.88mg

Vitamin B3 – 0.38mg         Vitamin B1 – 0.06mg          Vitamin B2 – 0.05mg   Pantothenic acid – 0.22mg and folate and biotin in small amounts.

 

Corn

 

One ear, cooked with no salt contains 2.6 grams protein and 2.1 grams fiber.

Potassium – 191.7 mg
Phosphorus - 79.3 mg
Magnesium - 24.6 mg
Sodium - 13 mg
Calcium -1.5mg
selenium -0 .6mg
Iron - 0.5 mg
Zinc - 0.4 mg

Vitamin C - 4.8 mg
Vitamin A - 167 IU
Niacin - 1.2 mg
Folate - 27.3 mcg
Pantothenic Acid - 0.68 mg
and some other vitamins in small amounts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cucumber

 

 

Half a cup of sliced cucumber with skins contains .36 grams protein and .42 grams fiber.

Potassium - 74.9 mg
Phosphorus -1.4 mg
Magnesium - 5.7 mg
Sodium - 1 mg
Calcium - 7.3 mg and small amounts of selenium, iron  manganese, copper and zinc.

Vitamin C - 2.6 mg
Vitamin A - 111.8 IU
and some other vitamins in small amounts.

Egg plant

 

 

One cup of cooked eggplant cubes contains 6.57g of carbohydrates, 2.48g of dietary fiber and 0.82 g of protein.

Potassium –245.52mg

Phosphorus –21.78mg

Magnesium –12.87mg

Calcium –5.94mg

Sodium –2.97mg

Iron –0.35mg

Zinc –0.15mg

Manganese -0.13mg

 

Vitamin C –1.29mg

Vitamin B3 –0.59mg         Vitamin B6 –0.09mg          Vitamin B1 –0.08mg    Pantothenic acid -0.07mg         Vitamin E –0.03mg

 Vitamin B2 –0.02mg         Vitamin A –35.64mcg          folate –14.26mcg

 

Garbanzo beans

 

One cup of cooked garbanzo beans contains 17.86 g of protein and 15.64 g of dietary fiber

protein -17.86 g

dietary fiber -15.64 g

Tryptophan -0.16 g

Potassium – 730.62mg

Phosphorus - 356.4 mg

Iron – 4.74 mg

Manganese – 0.98 mg

Copper – 0.5mg

molybdenum-148.50 mcg

Vitamin B1 -0.33mg

Folate - 357.98 mcg

                      Garlic

 

One garlic contains 9.38g of carbohydrates,

1.8g of protein and 0.60g of dietary fiber

Potassium- 113.68mg

Calcium- 51.31mg

Phosphorus-43.38mg

Magnesium- 7.09mg

Sodium- 4.82mg

Manganese-0.47mg

Zinc- 0.33mg

Copper-0.08mg

Selenium- 4.03mcg

VitaminC – 8.85mg

Vitamin B6- 0.35mg

Vitamin B3 – 0.2mg

pantothenic acid- 0.17mg          Vitamin B1- 0.06mg 

Vitamin B2- 0.03mg

Folate – 0.08mcg

 

 

 

Green Pepper

 

One small raw pepper contains .66 grams protein and 1.3 grams fiber.

Potassium - 131 mg
Phosphorus - 14 mg
Magnesium - 7.4mg
Calcium - 6.7 mg
Sodium - 1.48 mg
Also contains small amounts of
selenium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc.

Vitamin A - 467.7 IU
Vitamin C - 66 mg
Niacin - 0.4 mg
Folate - 6.8 mcg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Kale

 

One cup of cooked kale with no added salt contains 2.5 grams protein and 2.6 grams fiber.

Potassium - 296.4 mg
Phosphorus - 36.4 mg
Magnesium - 23.4 mg
Calcium - 32 mg
Sodium - 29.9 mg
Iron - 1.2 mg
Manganese -0 .5 mg
Selenium - 1.2 mg
Vitamin K - 1062 mcg Also contains small amounts of copper and zinc

 

Vitamin A - 9,620 IU
Vitamin C - 53.3 mg
Niacin - 0.6 mg
Folate - 17 mcg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leeks

 

One cup of boiled leeks contains 0.42 g of protein and 0.52 g of dietary fiber

Potassium – 45.24mg     

Calcium – 15.60mg 

Phosphorus – 8.84mg  

Magnesium – 7.28mg       

Sodium – 5.2mg 

Manganese – 0.13mg         

Copper – 0.03mg

Vitamin A- 29.32 IU                  Vitamin C – 2.18mg

Niacin _ 0.16mg

Vitamin E – 0.36mg

Vitamin B6 - 0.06mg

 

Mushroom

 

Half a cup of raw mushrooms contains 1.0 grams of protein and .42 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 129.5 mg
Phosphorus - 36.4 mg
Magnesium - 3.5 mg
Calcium - 1.8 mg
Sodium - 1.4 mg
Iron - 0.36 mg

Vitamin D - 26.6 IU
Niacin - 1.4 mg
Vitamin C - .8 mg
Pantothenic Acid - 0.5 mg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Onions

 

One small onion cooked without salt contains .8 grams protein and 1.3 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 110 mg
Phosphorus - 23.1 mg
Calcium - 14 mg
Magnesium - 7 mg
Sodium - 2.1 mg
Selenium -0 .42 mg
Also contains small amounts of iron, manganese, copper and zinc.

Vitamin C - 4.5 mg
Folate - 9 mcg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Parsley

 

Two cups of fresh parsley contains 0.47 g of carbohydrates, 0.25 g of dietary fiber and 0.22 g of protein.

Potassium –41.55mg    

Calcium –10.35mg  

Phosphorus –4.35mg        

Sodium –4.20mg

Magnesium –3.75mg

Iron –0.46mg.

Vitamin C –9.97 mg

Vitamin B3-0.10mg

Vitamin E –0.06mg 

Vitamin B1 –0.01mg    VitaminB2 -0.01mg

Vitamin A -379.05mcg

Vitamin K-123.00mcg     

Peas

 

One cup of boiled peas with no salt added contains 8.58 grams of protein and 8.8 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 433.6 mg
Phosphorus - 187.2 mg
Magnesium - 62.4 mg
Calcium - 43.2 mg
Sodium - 4.8 mg
Selenium - 3.0 mg
Iron - 2.5 mg
Zinc - 1.9 mg
Manganese -0 .8 mg
Also contains small amount of
copper.

Vitamin A - 955.2iu
Vitamin C - 22.72 mg
Niacin - 3.23 mg
Folate - 100.8 mcg
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) -0 .41 mg
Vitamin B6 - 0.35 mg and some other vitamins in small amounts.

potatoes

 

One medium baked potato without salt contains 3.0 grams of protein and 2.3 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 610 mg
Phosphorus - 78 mg
Magnesium - 39 mg
Calcium - 7.8 mg
Sodium - 7.8 mg
Iron - 0.55 mg
Selenium - 0.46 mg
Zinc - 0.45 mg
and small amounts of
manganese and copper.

Vitamin C - 20 mg
Niacin - 2.18 mg
Pantothenic Acid - .9 mg
Vitamin B6 -0 .5 mg
Folate - 14 mcg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romaine lettuce

 

2 cups of romaine lettuce contains 1.90 g of dietary fiber and 0.08 g of omega 3 fatty acids

It contains 1.81 g of protein, 0.01 g of tryptophan. Potassium - 324.80 mg          Phosphorus – 50.40 mg                  Calcium – 40.32 mg Iron – 1.23 mg Manganese – 0.71 mg                Chromium – 15.68 mcg and other minerals in small amounts.

Vitamin C – 26.88 mg                Vitamin B3 – 0.56 mg                    Vitamin B2 – 0.11 mg                Vitamin B1 – 0.11 mg                  Vitamin B6 – 0.05 mg                  Vitamin A – 2912.00 IU       Vitamin K – 114.80 mcg

 

Shiitake mushrooms

 

8.00 oz-wt of raw shiitake mushrooms contains 12.46g of carbohydrates

4.98g of phosphorus and 2.49g of dietary fiber

It contains 49.85mg of sodium and 3.59mg of iron.

It contains 5.98ng of vitamin C

Snow peas

 

One cup of cooked snow peas contains 3.7 grams of protein, 9.8 grams carbohydrate, 3.38 grams of fiber and total fat of about 0.26 grams.

Potassium – 200mg

Phosphorus – 53mg

Calcium – 43mg

Magnesium – 24mg

Sodium – 4mg

 

Vitamin C –60mg 

Vitamin B6 – 0.16mg         Vitamin B3 – 0.60mg         Vitamin B1- 0.15mg

VitaminB2- 0.08mg.

Spinach

 

One cup of raw spinach contains .86 grams of protein and .81 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 167.4 mg
Phosphorus - 14.7 mg
Magnesium - 23.7 mg
Calcium - 29.7 mg
Sodium - 23.7 mg
Iron - 0.81 mg
Selenium -0 .3 mg
- Vitamin K - 145 mcg
Also contains small amounts of
manganese, copper and zinc.

Vitamin A - 2014.5 mg
Vitamin C - 8.43 mg
Folate - 58.2 mcg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Squash, Summer (or) zucchini

 

One cup of sliced summer squash, baked with no added salt contains 1.65 grams of protein and 2.5 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 345.6 mg
Phosphorus - 7.2 mg
Magnesium - 43.2 mg
Calcium - 48.6 mg
Sodium - 1.8 mg
Iron - 0.65 mg
Manganese - 0.38 mg
Selenium - 0.36 mg
Zinc -0 .7 mg
Also contains small amount of
copper.

Vitamin A - 516.6 mg
Vitamin C - 9.9 mg
Niacin - 0.92 mg
Folate - 36 mcg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Squash, Winter

 

One cup of cubed winter squash, baked with no added salt contains 1.02 grams of protein and 2.07 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 181.3 mg
Phosphorus - 21.7 mg
Magnesium - 17.0 mg
Calcium - 32.5 mg
Sodium - 27.9 mg
Iron - 0.52 mg
Selenium - 0.46 mg
Also contains small amounts of
manganese, copper and zinc.

Vitamin A - 17.5 mg
Vitamin C - 5.4 mg
Niacin - 1.25 mg
Folate - 57.4 mcg
Pantothenic Acid - 0.55 mg
and some other vitamins in small amounts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sweet Potatoes

 

One medium sweet potato baked in its skin contains 1.96 grams of protein and 3.42 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 273 mg
Phosphorus - 29.5 mg
Magnesium - 13.5 mg
Calcium - 6.2 mg
Sodium - 11.0 mg
Iron - 0.55 mg
Selenium - 0.5 mg
Manganese -0 .6 mg
Zinc - 0.3 mg
Also contains small amount of
copper.

Vitamin A - 24,877 mg
Vitamin C - 28.0 mg
Pantothenic Acid - 0.74 mg
Niacin -0 .69 mg
Folate - 26.2 mcg
Contains some other vitamins in small amounts.

Swiss chard

 

One cup of boiled Swiss chard contains 7.25g of carbohydrates, 3.68g dietary fiber and 3.29g of protein.

 

 

 

Potassium – 960.75mg

Sodium –313.25mg

Magnesium –150.50mg

Phosphorus –57.75mg

Iron –3.96mg

Selenium –1.58mcg

And small amounts of manganese and zinc.

Vitamin C – 31.5mg

Vitamin E  -3.31mg

VitaminB3 – 0.63mg

VitaminB2 – 0.15mg

VitaminB1- 0.06mg

vitamin A – 3274.25mcg

vitamin K – 572.80 mcg

folate – 15.05mcg

biotin – 10.50mcg

Tomatoes

 

One medium tomato contains 1.05 grams of protein and 1.35 grams of fiber.

Potassium - 396.7 mg
Phosphorus - 62.7 mg
Magnesium - 22.8 mg
Calcium - 31.9 mg
Sodium - 11.4 mg
Iron - 0.51 mg
Selenium - 0.8 mg
Also contains small amounts of
manganese, copper and zinc.

Vitamin A - 2364 IU
Vitamin C - 25 mg
Folate (important during pregnancy) - 46 mcg
Niacin - 0.94 mg
Vitamin B6 - 0.1 mg

Turnip greens

 

One cup of boiled turnip greens contains 6.28g of carbohydrates,

5.04g of dietary fiber and 1.64g of protein.

 

 

Potassium – 292.32mg

Calcium – 197.28mg

Sodium -41.76mg

Phosphorus – 41.76mg

Magnesium – 31.68mg

Chloride – 21.60mg

Manganese – 0.49mg

And small amounts of iron and zinc.

Vitamin C – 39.46mg

Vitamin E – 2.49mg

Vitamin B3 – 0.59mg

Biotin – 0.58mg

Vitamin B2 – 0.10mg

Vitamin B1 – 0.06mg

Vitamin A – 4752.00mcg

Vitamin K- 529.34mcg

Folate -170.40mcg

Yams

 

One cup of boiled cubes of yam (dioscorea species) contains 37.54g of carbohydrates

5.30g of dietary fiber and 2.03g of protein.

 

Potassium- 911.20mg

Phosphorus-66.64mg

Chloride-54.40mg

Magnesium-24.48mg

Calcium- 19.04mg

Sodium- 10.88mg

Manganese- 0.50mg

Iron- 0.71mg

Zinc- 0.27mg

Copper- 0.21mg

VitaminC- 16.46mg

VitaminK-3.54mg

VitaminB3-0.75mg

Pantothenic acid- 0.42mg

VitaminB6- 0.31mg

VitaminE- 0.22mg

VitaminB1-0.31mg

VitaminB2- 0.04mg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION:

Vegetables improve the quality of life as they are rich in nutrients. Low vegetable consumption is a risk factor for overweight and obesity and adequate consumption decreases risk for developing several chronic diseases.Veggies plays a very crucial role in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes where as fruits can’t do that. So try to make your commitment to protect your health with 5 to 9 servings a day.

 

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15.     S. J. Duthie, W. Johnson, V. L. Dobson, The effect of dietary flavonoids on DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidised pyrimdines) and growth in human cells; Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 390, Issues 1-2, 24 April 1997, Pages 141.

 

 

Received on 11.05.2010

Accepted on 04.06.2010     

© A&V Publication all right reserved

Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(4): 267-274