Botanicals as Antioxidants: A Renovate Review

 

Yogesh Shivhare1*, Priya Singh1, Radhika Gadekar1 and Prashant Soni 2

1Dept. of Pharmacognosy, VNS Institute of Pharmacy, Bhopal (M.P.)

2Dept. of Pharmacognosy, RKDF College of Pharmacy, Bhopal (M.P.)

 

ABSTRACT:

There is escalating curiosity in the fitness and wellness profit of herbs and botanicals. This is with good reason as plants and their extracts have enormous prospective for the management and treatment of different diseases. There are an increasing number of studies purporting antioxidant effects with conventional medicines. The present review is planned to deliver an overview of the current knowledge surrounding the use of herbal medicines as antioxidants and also to identify the research needs in this area.

 

KEYWORDS:  Botanicals, antioxidants, Plants

 

INTRODUCTION:

Free radicals can be described as chemical species that have an unpaired electron and cause weakening of immune system due to environmental pollutants, emission, chemicals, toxins, deep fried and spicy foods as well as physical stress1. Antioxidants act as a major security against radical mediated toxicity by caring the damages caused by free radicals. This has attracted a great deal of research interest in antioxidant-based drugs or formulations of natural origin, for the prevention and treatment of complex diseases like atherosclerosis, stroke, diabetes and cancer2. Medicinal plants play an important function in the field of treatment and cure of diseases. Most of the medicines of earlier centuries were of botanical origin, products of centuries of ethno botanical tradition. Botanicals are fresh or dried plants, plant parts, or plant’s isolates or collective chemical components, extracted in water, ethanol, or other organic solvents, plus essential oils, oleoresins, and other extractives used for flavoring, functional health benefits, medicine, or other natural and scientific activities. These botanical remedies were generally effective, although they contained many inert compounds in addition to the active compound(s)3. Medications from botanical sources have been described as far back as 60 millennia and most of the medications used throughout the world were derived from plants until the early 1900s. Today, it is estimated that 25% of the Western pharmacopoeia contains chemical entities that were first isolated from plants and another 25% are derived from chemical entities modified from plant sources4. The literature describing the utilization of botanical products tends to be poorly documented and incomplete Thus, There is scarcity of reviews on medicinal plants possessing antioxidant potential. Hence it was thought worthwhile to collect and enumerate data on medicinal plants possessing antioxidant activity so that it could serve as a source of information to provide an idea about the current trends in research on plants possessing antioxidant potential.

 

MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL:

A large number of plant extracts and plant isolates have been reported to protect against the damages caused by free radicals. These were summarized as follows:


Priya Singh and co-workers5 have evaluated the free radical scavenging potential of Chenopodium album Linn. Different in vitro methods namely 1, 1, diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power assay, nitric oxide radical and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay were selected to assess the antioxidant potential of the plant extract. The results stated that methanolic extract of Chenopodium album had found to be efficient antioxidant activity.

 

C. R. Resmi and Co-workers6 have been carried out detailed evaluation of antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Albizzia lebbeck in diabetic rats. The oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was resolute by estimating the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver and kidneys. The extract was established to afford noteworthy antioxidant activity.

 

O.E.Ogunlana and Co-workers7 reported the In vitro assessment of the free radical scavenging activity of Psidium guajava. The ability of the extract to scavenge the reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and the synthetic radical 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was determined with reference to the synthetic antioxidant Buthylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Plant extract showed concentration- dependent scavenging activity on all reactive species used.

 

According to Adeolu A Adedapo and co-workers8, extracts of Acokanthera oppositifolia and Adenia gummifera possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. This study has to some degree validated the medicinal latent of the stems of Acokanthera oppositifolia and Adenia gummifera.

 

Antioxidant activity of a new diarylheptanoid from Zingiber officinale was reported by Sajjad Khan and co-workers9. In this study, a new diarylheptanoid was isolated from the spent ginger devoid of oleoresin. The spent ginger was extracted with 50% methanol and partitioned with butanol. Column chromatography and preparative HPLC of the butanolic extract resulted in isolation of a new compound which was characterized as 3, 5 diacetoxy-7-(3, 4 dihydroxy phenyl)-1-(3, 4 dihydroxy phenyl) heptane.

 

A.K.Tuba and co-workers10 have evaluated the antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin. They determined the antioxidant activity of curcumin by employing various in vitro antioxidant assays.

 

Antioxidant activities of extracts and fractions from Baccharis spicata, B. trimera and B. usterii were determined, using TRAP and TBARS assays, by Simone Q. de Oliveira and co-workers.11 They reported that aqueous extracts from B. spicata and B. trimera, at a concentration of 25μg/mL, showed a higher antioxidant activity when compared to Trolox and aqueous extract from B. usterii exhibit similar activity than Trolox. Fractions were tested using 2.5μg/mL. In TBARS all extracts and fractions were efficient in the prevention of lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the development of thiobarbituric acid reactive species and cell mortality induced by hydrogen peroxide.

 

Mária Then and co-workers have reported12 antioxidant activity in the alcoholic extracts (20 and 40%) of the greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) herb by ferric reducing and antioxidant power (FRAP) method.

 

Albina Arjuman and co-workers13 have evaluated the antioxidant potential of NR-ANX-C (a polyherbal formulation) and its individual constituents in reversing haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice. They concluded that, with the exception of C. sinensis, the antioxidant potential of NR-ANX-C and its individual constituents has contributed to the reduction in the oxidative stress and the catalepsy induced by haloperidol administration.

 

R.R. Kulkarni and co-workers14 have assessed the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Vitex negundo. They reported that methanolic extract of Vitex negundo, in a dose of 100 mg/kg caused a comparable reduction in edema. The extract also exhibited a sturdy free radical scavenging activity by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and caused a major reduction in the configuration of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances when evaluated for its lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity.

 

Radical scavenging activity and antioxidant power of bay leaf extracts was assessed by M. Elmastas and co-workers.15 In this study, lyophilized extracts (both water and ethanol) of BL were evaluated by reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating methods for their antioxidant potential. On the basis of the results of the study, they reported that both BL extracts have significant antioxidant activity.

 

Recognition of potential antioxidants by in-vitro activity guided fractionation of Bergenia ligulata was performed by Vaishali A. Shirsat and co-workers.16 The objective of the present work was to isolate an effective antioxidant compound from Bergenia ligulata by the activity guided fractionation process and to exemplify it by GC-MS and LC-MS. For this purpose, the dried rhizome extract of Bergenia ligulata was subjected to a consecutive sequence of solvent extraction using the soxhlet extractor and the methanolic extract was selected for further fractionation process. The fractions obtained were screened for in vitro free radical scavenging activity by different standard methods and results concluded that, these fractions can therefore be included as a native antioxidant agent in the management of polygenic diseases like atherosclerosis and diabetes.

 

 

In vitro antioxidant activity of petroleum ether extract of black pepper was assessed by Ramnik Singh and co-workers17. In this study, different fractions of petroleum ether extract of black pepper was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging methods and results stated that different fractions of petroleum ether extract of black pepper increased in a concentration dependent manner.

 

C.S. Alisi and co-workers18 evaluated the nitric oxide scavenging ability of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata (Linn.). In the present work, inhibition of nitrite formation by ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of C. odorata, showed a dose-dependent response.

 

Yildirim Ali and co-workers19 have assessed the antioxidant activity of the leaves of Cydonia vulgaris. They suggest that there is always no linear correlation between total antioxidant activity and reducing power activity.

 

Jaishree Vaijanathappa and co-workers20 have reported in vitro antioxidant activity of Enicostemma axillare. This work concluded that successive petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Enicostemma axillare exhibited potent in vitro antioxidant activity.

 

Sandra R. Georgetti and co-workers21 have evaluated antioxidant activity of different flavonoids by the Chemiluminescence method. They studied antioxidant action of different flavonoids (quercetin, glabridin, red clover, and Isoflavin Beta, an isoflavones mixture) in order to determine if they could be added to a topical formulation used to treat damage caused by free radicals. The results concluded that all flavonoids proved to be adequate for addition to topical formulations because of their high antioxidant activity.

 

In vitro antioxidant studies of Ficus racemosa Linn roots were reported by Surendra kumar Sharma and co-workers.22 Different in vitro models, namely DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and determination of total phenolic content, were selected to assess the antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate extract of Ficus racemosa. The results reported that antioxidant property of the extract may be due to presence of phenolic content.

 

Malaya Gupta and co-workers23 have evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Galega purpurea root. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the methanolic extract of Galega purpurea. The results obtained in the present study indicate that methanolic extract of Galega purpurea can be a potential source of natural antioxidant. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were also determined in this study.

 

Mallika Jainu and co-workers24 have assessed antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum berries on aspirin induced gastric mucosal injury. The results indicate that SBE may exert its gastro protective effect by a free radical scavenging action and have considerable therapeutic potential in the treatment of gastric diseases.

 

Gincy M Mathew and co-workers25 have evaluated the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Pseudarthria viscida. DPPH quenching assay and reducing power assay models were selected and the results concluded that stems and roots extracts of Pseudarthria viscida exhibited potential antioxidant activity in both the models.

 

S.U. Yele and co-workers26 have determined in vitro antioxidant activity of Cassia Sophera Linn leaves. In the present work antioxidant potential of aqueous, ethanol, and Petroleum ether extracts of the leaves of Cassia Sophera Linn were determined by the thiocyanate method. From the results obtained ether extract was the most efficient antioxidant among the extracts.

 

J.M. Oke and co-workers27 have studied some Nigerian medicinal plants for antioxidant activity using 2, 2, diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl radical method.

 

Nooman A. Khalaf and co-workers28 have assessed the antioxidant activity of methanolic crude extracts of some common plants. This study was performed using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method. The results stated that antioxidant activity of green tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) was the strongest, followed in descending order by black tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.), Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.), Piper cubeba Linn, Zingiber officinale and Piper nigrum Linn.

 

Madan Mohan Pandey and co-workers29 have reported significant Free radical scavenging potential of Saussarea costus roots. The results stated that antioxidant activity of the extract can be partly justified by the presence of 0.027% chlorogenic acid.

 

Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory activities of Selaginella species have been reported in water extract of Selaginella involvens by V. Gayathri and co-workers.30 The extract has showed significant antioxidant and antilipid peroxidation properties.

 

A. Saravana Kumar and co-workers31 have evaluated the antioxidant potential of some Indian medicinal plants and the results stated that potency of radical scavenging effect of Camellia sinensis extract was about 4 times greater than synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene.

 

 


S.N.

Brand Names

Ingredients

Mfd./Mkt. by

1

Adliv syr

Andrographis Paniculata, Eclipta alba, Picrorrhiza Kurroa, Phyllanthus niruri, Sarapunkha, Trikatu

Albert David

2

Adliv forte cap

Andrographis Paniculata, Eclipta alba, Picrorrhiza Kurroa, Phyllanthus niruri,

Albert David

3

Apicare cap

Guduchi, Saunf, Katuki, Vidang, Nagarmotha, Jeera, Pippali, Amalki, Yavani, Haritki

Azine Healthcare

4

Ayuplus cap

Ashwagandha, Shemal mushli, Ashtavarga, Pravala pisti, Banga bhasma, Makaradhwaja

Ayulabs

5

Cheerup syr

Ashwagandha, Shatavari, Gokshura, Vidarikanda, Kulanjan, Triphala, Akarkara, Ashtavarga, Trikatu, Yashtimadhu, Chaturjata, Jathiphala, Rasna, Shemal mushali, Manjishta, Shilajit

Ayulabs

6

Hepajaun

Bhringaraja, Madayantika, Daruharidra, Kalamegha, Punarnava, Nimba, Chitraka, Mandura Bhasma, Shanka Bhasma, Kasamarda, Pathari, Katuki, Nishothara, Kharavath, Kapardika,

Phyto-pharma

7

Neobliss cap

Pravala Bhasma, Godanti Bhasma, Sukti Bhasma, Lauha Bhasma, Mandura Bhasma, Emblica Officinalis

Vasu Pharma

TABLE 1: MARKETED PREPARATIONS CLAIMING ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL33

 


 

 

MODE OF ACTION OF ANTIOXIDANT PLANTS 32

Allium Satium is claimed to be effectual against those diseases in which the pathophysiology of oxygen free radicals has been concerned, due to its ability to scavenge oxygen free radicals. Allicin, a constituent of garlic, produced concentration dependent decreases in 2, 3 and 2, 5- dihydroxybenzoic acid generated by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide by scavenging hydroxyl radicals.

 

Bacopa Monniera exerted antioxidant action on rat brain frontal cortical, striatal and hippocampal regions by shifting superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels.

 

Oral administration of Carica papaya preparation decreased prominent lipid Peroxide levels in the ipsilateral cerebrum. It also increased superoxide dismutase activity in the cortex and hippocampus, suggesting antioxidant activity.

 

Plumbago Zeylanica prevents NADPH ascorbate induced microsomal lipid peroxidation by forming hydroquinones. These may trap free radicals species involved in catalyzing lipid peroxidation.

 

Ricinus Communis extract produced an inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity and H2O2 production by lindane- induced mouse hepatic microsomes, indicating the antioxidant activity of the plant.

Rubia cordifolia significantly inhibited FeSO4 induced lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion.

 

An ethanolic extract of leaves of Terminalia chebula significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation in mouse liver, lung homogenate and mitochondria by inhibiting H2O2 induced red cell haemolysis.

 

CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK:

Botanicals have been a basis of medicinal agent since time perpetual.34 Not only natural products are the capable candidates for the development as chemotherapeutic agents, there is also convincing proof that they protect against the injurious effects of free radicals. Medicines chiefly prepared from plants integrated with synthetic medicines have developed an ample therapeutic frame to assemble its

 

 

detailed healthcare needs. Review of the available literature revealed that in majority of the studies, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Nitric oxide scavenging methods were used to assess the antioxidant activity of different plant extracts. Evaluation of test drugs was carried out by comparing the effect of ascorbic acid and the plant extracts. Review also reveals that plants belonging to different families possess antioxidant activity. Though antioxidant activity has been reported in active principles belonging to different groups like flavonoids, triterpenoids and phenolic compounds. The present review is planned to offer an overview of the modern information adjacent the use of herbal medicines as antioxidant. In fact, there are more than a 100 extracts purporting antioxidant effects. Such evidence is required to afford scientific credibility to the folklore use of traditional medicines and still be supportive in the advancement of future medicines and treatments.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

Mr. Yogesh Shivhare and Priya Singh genuinely gratitude to Dr. U.K. Patil, Principal, VNS Institute of Pharmacy and Mr. J.R. Patel, Principal, RNS College of Pharmacy, Gormi for his great guidance and support to carry out this work. The authors are also obliged to authors/editors of all those articles, journals and books from where the material for this article has been reviewed and discussed

 

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Received on 17.02.2010

Accepted on 24.03.2010        

© A&V Publication all right reserved

Research Journal of Pharmacognosy  and Phytochemistry. 2(4): July-Aug. 2010, 255-259