Utkarsh U. Bhamare, Yogesh S. Mali, Azam Z. Shaikh
email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org
Utkarsh U. Bhamare*, Yogesh S. Mali*, Azam Z. Shaikh
Department of Pharmacognosy, VEW `S Ahinsa Institute of Pharmacy, Dondaicha - 425408, Dist. Dhule, Maharastra India.
Volume - 12,
Issue - 4,
Year - 2020
Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family. It serves as the Health-promoting Effect because it is rich source of Anti-oxidant. Neem is very important medicinal plant which is used to treat different diseases in Unani System of Medicine as well as traditional system of medicine (Ayurveda, Homeopathic Chinese and European ‘Materia Medica’). It is fast growing popular tree found in Africa, America and especially Indian subcontinent. Neem is considering harmless to humans, animals, and birds and has been approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. Azadirachtin and other active ingredients in the neem seed have insecticidal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homeopathic medicine. It contains many medicinal values and some biological activities like use in treatment of anti-allergic, anti-dermatic, anti-viral, anti-malarial, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. It helps in the strong immunity and used in some inflammatory skin disorders. It has rightly been called as a “Single Solution to A Thousand Problems”.
Cite this article:
Utkarsh U. Bhamare, Yogesh S. Mali, Azam Z. Shaikh. Neem: As a Natural Medicine. Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2020; 12(4):245-255. doi: 10.5958/0975-4385.2020.00041.2
1. Anchal Trivedi, Naseem Fatima, Ishrat Husain, Aparna Misra. An update on the Therapeutic Potential of Neem and its Active Constituents: A Panacea for All Diseases. Era’s Journal of Medical Research, 2019, 6(1), 1-8.
2. Mohammad A. Alzohairy. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment. 2016, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/ 2016/7382506
3. Sharma Pankaj, Tomar Lokeshwar, Bachwani Mukesh, Bansal Vishnu. Review on Neem (Azadirachta Indica): Thousand Problems One Solution. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2011, 2 (12), 97-102. Available online www.irjponline.com
4. Zainab Saif Saleh Al-Hashemi, Mohammad Amzad Hossain. Biological activities of different neem leaf crude extracts used locally in Ayurvedic medicine. Pacific Science Review A: Natural Science and Engineering, 2016, 128-131. journal homepage: www.journals.elsevier.com/pacific-sciencereview-a-natural-science-and-engineering/
5. Rudra Prasad Giri, Dr. Ajit. K. Gangawane, Dr. Sucheta Ghorai Giri. Neem the Wonder Herb: A Short Review. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD), 2019, 3(3), 962-966. Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com
6. Haider Ali Quraishil, Naquibul Islam, Arsheed Iqbal, Shabir A. Bhat, Jameel Ahmed, Syed S. Ashraf, Qamar A. Khan. Therapeutical and medicinal properties of Neem (Azadirachta indica) in context of Unani System of Medicine: A Review Study. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2018, 8(6-s), 394-399. Available online http://jddtonline.info
7. Biswas Kausik, Chattopadhyay Ishita, Banerjee K Ranajit. and Bandyopadhyay Uday, Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica), Current Science, Vol-82, 10 june 2002, pp.1336-1345.
8. Bhargava KP, Gupta MB, Gupta GP, Mitra CR. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponins and ot-her natural products. Indian J Med Res. 1970 Jun;58(6):724 – 730.
9. Pillai, N. R. and Santhakumari, G., Anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory actios ofnimbidin, Planta Medica, 1981, 43, 59 – 63
10. Pillai, N. R. and Santhakumari, G., Effects of nimbidin on acute and chronic gastro-duodenal ulcer models in experimental animals, Planta Medica, 1984, 50, 143 – 146
11. Murthy, S.P. and Sirsi, m. 1958. Pharmacological studies on Melia Azadirachta indica. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2, 387-396.
12. Khalid, S. A., Duddeck, H. and Gonzalez-Sierra, M., Isolation and characterization of antimalerial agent of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, Journal of Natural Product, 1989, 52, 922 – 927.
13. Moursi, S. A. H. and Al-Khatib, I. M., Jpn J. Pharmacol., 1984, 36, 527 – 533.
14. Van der Nat, J. M., Van der Sluis, W. G., ’t Hart, L. A., Van Disk, H., de Silva, K. T. D. and Labadie, R. P., Planta Med., 1991, 57, 65 – 68.
15. Pant, N., Garg, H. S., Madhusudanan, K. P. and Bhakuni, D. S., Fitoterapia, Sulfurous compounds from Azadirachta indica leaves, 1986, 57, 302 – 304.
16. A. J. Mordue (Luntz) and A. J. Nisbet, “Azadirachtin from the neem tree Azadirachta indica: its action against insects,” Anais da Sociedade Entomol´ogica do Brasil, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 615–632,2000.
17. A. H. Rahmani and S. M. Aly, “Nigella sativa and its active constituents thymoquinone shows pivotal role in the diseases prevention and treatment,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 48–53, 2015.
18. A. K. Ghimeray, C. W. Jin, B. K. Ghimire, and D. H. Cho, “Antioxidant activity and quantitative estimation of azadirachtin and nimbin in Azadirachta indica A. Juss grown in foothills of Nepal,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 13, pp. 3084–3091, 2009
19. P. Sithisarn, R. Supabphol, and W. Gritsanapan, “Antioxidant activity of Siamese neem tree (VP 1209),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 109–112, 2005.
20. M. A. Hossain, W. A. S. Al-Toubi, A. M. Weli, Q. A. Al-Riyami, and J. N. Al-Sabahi, “Identification and characterization of chemical compounds in different crude extracts from leaves of Omani neem,” Journal of Taibah University for Science, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 181–188, 2013.
21. A. H. Rahmani, M. A. Alzohairy, M. A. Khan, and S. M. Aly, “Therapeutic implications of black seed and its constituent thymoquinone in the prevention of cancer through inactivation and activation of molecular pathways,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 724658, 13 pages, 2014.
22. L. Le Marchand, “Cancer preventive effects of flavonoids—a review,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 296–301, 2002.
23. G. Harish Kumar, K. V. P. Chandra Mohan, A. Jagannadha Rao, and S. Nagini, “Nimbolide a limonoid from Azadirachta indica inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells,” Investigational New Drugs, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 246–252, 2009.
24. R. V. Priyadarsini, P. Manikandan, G. H. Kumar, and S. Nagini, “The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by modulating xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage, antioxidants, invasion and angiogenesis,” Free Radical Research, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 492– 504, 2009.
25. Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, et al. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis - An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health.2013; 5(6):61-66.
26. M. D. Mahfuzul Hoque, M. L. Bari, Y. Inatsu, V. K. Juneja, and S. Kawamoto, “Antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) extracts against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 481–488, 2007.
27. M. B. Yerima, S. M. Jodi, K. Oyinbo, H. M. Maishanu, A. A. Farouq, and A. U. Junaidu, “Effect of neem extracts (Azadirachta indica) on bacteria isolated from adult mouth,” Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 20, pp. 64–67, 2012.
28. Debjit Bhowmik, Chiranjib, Jitender Yadav, K. K. Tripathi, K. P. Sampath Kumar. Herbal Remedies of Azadirachta indica and its Medicinal Application. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2010, 2(1), 62-72. Available online www.jocpr.com
29. Hirpa E. Review on Swine Flu and Status of Swine Flu in Ethiopia. International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination.2017; 4(2):22-27
30. Akin-Osanaiya BC, Nok AJ, Ibrahim S. et al. Anti-malarial effect of Neem leaf and Neem stem bark extracts on Plasmodium berghei infected in the pathology and treatment of malaria. International Journal of Research in Biochemistry and Biophysics.2013; 3(1):7-14
31. Habluetzel A, Pinto B, Tapanelli S, et al. Effects of Azadirachta indica seed kernel extracts on early erythrocytic schizogony of Plasmodium berghei and pro-inflammatory response in inbred mice. Malar J. 2019; 18(1):35
32. Kabeh JD. Mini review exploiting neem (AzadirachtaIndica) resources for improving the quality of life in Taraba State, Nigeria. Int J Agri Biol. 2007; 9(3):530-532.
33. Hamid SK, Al-Dubayan AH, Al-Awami H, et al. In vitro assessment of the antifungal effects of neem powder added polymethyl methacrylate denture base material. J Clin Exp Dent. 2019; 11(2):170-178.
34. Bhajoni PS, Meshram GG. Evaluation of the Antiulcer Activity of the Leaves of Azadirachta indica. An Experimental Study. Integr Med Int.2016; 3: 10-16.
35. N. S. Baligar, R. H. Aladakatti, M. Ahmed, and M. B. Hiremath, “Hepatoprotective activity of the neem-based constituent azadirachtin-A in carbon tetrachloride intoxicatedWistar rats,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 267–277, 2014.
36. S. Bhanwra, “Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf aqueous extract on paracetamol induced liver damage in rats,” Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 64–68, 2000.
37. V. P. Devmurari and N. P. Jivani, “Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Azadirchata indica leaves,” International Journal of PharmTech Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1037–1040, 2010.
38. C. C. Barua, A. Talukdar, A. G. Barua, A. Chakraborty, R. K. Sarma, and R. S. Bora, “Evaluation of the wound healing activity of methanolic extract of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) and Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) in rats,” Pharmacologyonline, vol. 1, pp. 70–77, 2010
39. D. A. Ofusori, B. A. Falana, A. E. Ofusori, T. A. Abayomi, S. A. Ajayi, andG. B. Ojo, “Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract of neem Azadirachta indica on induced gastric lesion in rats,” International Journal of Biological and Medical Research, vol. 1, pp. 219–222, 2010
40. A. Osunwoke Emeka, J. Olotu Emamoke, A. Allison Theodore, and C. Onyekwere Julius, “Thewound healing effects of aqueous leave extracts of azadirachta indica on wistar rats,” Journal of Natural Science and Research, vol. 3, no. 6, 2013.
41. R. Dhar, H. Dawar, S. Garg, S. F. Basir, andG. P. Talwar, “Effect of volatiles from neem and other natural products on gonotrophic cycle and oviposition of Anopheles stephensi and An. Culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae),” Journal ofMedical Entomology, vol. 33, no.2, pp. 195–201, 1996.
42. Dixit VP., Sinha, R. and Tank, R, J. Ethnopharmocology, 1986; 17-95.
43. Hawary EI, Z.M. and Kholief, T.S, Archives J Pharmacol. Res., 1990; 13(1):108-3963.
44. Chattopadhya RN, Mita, S. K. and Chattopadhya, R.R, Fitoterapia., 64(4), J Pharmacology,1993; 25(2): 99-100.
45. Dholi SK, Raparla R, Mankala SK, et al. In vivo Anti-diabetic evaluation of Neem leaf extract in alloxan induced rats. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science.2011; 01(4):100-105.
46. Dubey R, Patil K, Dantu S, et al. Azadirachtin inhibits amyloid formation, disaggregates pre- formed fibrils and protects pancreatic β-cells from human islet amyloid polypeptide/ amylin- induced cytotoxicity. Biochemical Journal. 2019; 476: 889-907.
47. Armstrong P, Morchesky Z, Hess D, et al. Production of High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Coconut Husk. MRS Proceedings. 2014;16: 44.
48. K. Anbumani and Ajit Pal Singh, Performance of Musturd and Neem oil blend with diesel fuel in c.i engine, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 5, no. 4, april 2010, 14-20.
49. Udeinya JI, Shu EN, Quakyi I, Ajayi FO. American Journal of Therapeutics 2008; 15(2):108-10. Natarajan V, Venugopal PV, Menon T. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2003; 21(2): 98-101.
50. Singh, R. P., Chari, M. S., Raheja, A. K. and Kraus, W., Neem and Environment, Oxford and IBH Publishing, New Delhi, 1996, Vols. I and II, pp. 1-1198.
52. Kraus, W., in The Neem Tree: Source of Unique Natural Products for Integrated Pest Management, Medicine, Industry and Purposes (ed. Schmutterer, H.), 1995, pp 35-88.
53. Ketkar, A. Y. and Ketkar, C. M., in The Neem Tree: Source of Unique Natural Products for Integrated Pest Management, Medicine, Industry and Other Purposes (ed. Schmutterer, H.), 1995, pp.518-525.
54. J.K. Roop, P.K. Dhaliwal and S.S. Guraya. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 2005; 38(6): 943-947.