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Volume No. :   2

Issue No. :  5

Year :  2010

ISSN Print :  0975-2331

ISSN Online :  0975-4385


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Phytochemical Screening and Acute- and Organ- Toxicity Evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis Root Aqueous Extract on Normal Wister Rats



Address:   Ogbonnaya, E. Anthony*, Monago, C. Comfort and Belonwu, D. Chuka
Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author
DOI No:

ABSTRACT:
The phytochemical compositions of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts, and acute and organ toxicities of Telfairia occidentalis Root Aqueous Extract (TAE) were investigated in this study. Thirty five (35) healthy wister albino rats (99-140g) were separated into two groups of fifteen (15) and twenty (20) animals and used for acute- and organ- toxicity testing respectively. For acute toxicity 15 animals of both sexes were divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each and dosed 10, 100, and 1000mg/kg body weight (bw) of TAE respectively. For organ toxicity testing, 20 female animals were placed into 4 groups of 5 animals each. The first three groups were dosed as in the acute toxicity test, while the fourth group received equal dose of normal saline. Animals were sacrificed after 24 hours of administration of TAE. Phytochemical assay results show the presence of flavonoids, steroids, terpenes, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The presence of plant steroids was more pronounced compared to other phytochemicals and alkaloids and tannins were absent or present in undetectable level. The TAE was lethal at the administered doses (10mg/kg bw, 100mg/kg bw and 1000mg/kg bw) to only male rats, although at the highest dose (1000mg/kg bw) the surviving animals were unconscious but regained consciousness minutes later. The biochemical assays show significant increase in the activities and levels of SGOT, SGPT, Creatinine, Urea, and Total protein, an indication of liver and renal insufficiency. Thus this study shows that at a dose as low as 10mg/kg bw, Telfairia occidentalis root aqueous extract (TAE) could exert hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects on rats, and also indicates that these toxicities may be dose- and sex-dependent.
KEYWORDS:
Telfairia occidentalis, toxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity
Cite:
Ogbonnaya, E. Anthony, Monago, C. Comfort ,Belonwu, D. Chuka. Phytochemical Screening and Acute- and Organ- Toxicity Evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis Root Aqueous Extract on Normal Wister Rats. Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2010; 2(5): 417-420.
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